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ing with a wooden mallet in a mortar, churned with water into a thin paste, and poured through a coarse sieve upon a cloth stretched on a frame. The paper is subsequently polished by friction, with a shell or a piece of hard wood, and is remarkable for its toughness, smoothness, and durability. Most of the paper used in Thibet is made from the bark of different species of D, and allied genera, particularly of Edgeworthia gardneri, a beautiful shrub, with globes of waxy, cowslip-colored, deliciously fragrant flowers, growing on the Himalaya, at an elevation of 6,000 to 7,000 feet. The bark of dais Madagascariensis is also made into paper in Madagascar, and that of gnidia daphnoides into ropes.
DAPHNEPHOʻRIA, a festival held once in nine years at Thebes in honor of Apollo. There was a procession in which the chief figure was a boy chosen for his beauty and strength, and having both parents living, Behind him moved a troop of maidens carry. ing green boughs and singing hymns to the god. The boy dedicated a bronze tripod in the temple of Apollo.
DAPH'NIA. See WATER-FLEA.
DAPH'NINE is a bitter, astringent, crystalline substance present in different species of daphne. It is analogous to asparagine. See ASPARAGUS.
DAPH'NIS, in mythology, a Sicilian youth of rare beauty, the son of Mercury and a nymph He became a herdsman on Mt. Etna, where he won the love of a maid, who, for his supposed unfaithfulness, punished him with blindness. Thereupon his father carried him away to heaven. To Daphnis is ascribed the invention of bucolic poetry.
DA PONTE, LORENZO, 1749–1838; an Italian poet, for many years a resident of New York, where he died. Exiled from Venice for writing satirical poem, he went to Vienna, where he became one of the secretaries of Joseph II. There he wrote for the stage, among other works the librettos of Don Giovanni and Le Nozze di Figaro. After the emperor's death, he went to London, where he was secretary and poet of the Italian opera. In 1805, he emigrated to New York, where he taught Italian, and in 1828, was chosen professor of that language in Columbia college. He wrote memoirs of his life, a number of dramas, and translated various English works into Italian.
DARABGHERD', or DARAB', a t. of Persia, in the province of Farsistan, lat. 29° n., long. 54° 30' east. It is situated on a small river, in the midst of an extensive plain, and is surrounded by lemon and orange groves. At one time, it was a place of great extent and importance, but most of it is now in ruins, and its pop. is not more than 15,000 or 20,000.
DARAGUNJ', a t. of India, in the British district of Allahabad (9.v.), on the left bank of the Ganges, opposite to Allahabad, with which it is connected by a ferry. The bed of the Ganges is here about a mile wide, two thirds of the width being occupied in the dry season with wet sand and mud, over which the passage is difficult. Pop. 9,000.
D'ARBLAY, MADAME FRANCES, 1752-1840; daughter of Charles Burney (q.v.), an English professor of music. Frances taught herself to read and write. From her 15th year she lived in an exceptionally brilliant circle of literary men, musicians and actors. As her step-mother disapproved of her “scribbling,” she burned all her manuscripts, among them a History of Caroline Evelyn, a story of which her first published novel Evelina was the sequel. About the same time (not much beyond her 15th year), she began her famous diary, which extended over a varied and inieresting life of 72 years further. Her novel Evelinu, or a Young Lady's Entrance into the World, was planned when she was about 16, written some years later, but not published until she was 26; and then by stealth. She disposed of it through her brother to Dr. Lowndes for $100, and did not herself know of its appearance until she saw an advertisement of it in the newspapers, after it had been everywhere commented upon with unqualified praise. The proud father, who had been in the secret, told it to Mrs. Thrale, and the authoress was at once admitted to the literary coterie of which Dr. Johnson was the center. The great lexicographer entertained a friendship for her which caused Boswell a jealousy as keen as it was absurd. Her Cecilia, or the Memoirs of an Heiress, was even more successful. In 1786, she obtained the position of second keeper of robes to queen Charlotte, wife of George III., and for five years her chief business was to assist the queen to dress, and look after her lap-dog and snuff-box, perhaps now and then to read to her. After five years she resigned, and in 1793, married M. D'Arblay, a French artillery officer. The next year her only child (who became the Rev. A. D'Arblay) was born. From 1802 to 1812, she was with her husband in France, and in 1814, published The Wanderer, or Female Difficulties. Her husband died in 1818. She was not remarkable for personal beauty; was small, retiring, rather prudish, delighting to be lionized, while she dreaded nothing so much as to be thought unfeminine or eccentric. Her novels are now not much read, but her Journal and Letters, full of egotism, are known everywhere. Her mania was to succeed as a dramatic writer, and Mrs. Siddons and Kemble appeared in one of her tragedies at Drury Lane in 1795, but the piece was a complete failure.
DARBOY, GEORGES, 1813–71; a French Roman Catholic ecclesiastic, ordained a priest in 1836. In 1855, he became titular vicar-general of Paris. In 1859, he was appointed bishop of Nancy, and in 1863, advanced to archbishop of Paris, where he was in high favor with the court, being appointed grand officer to the legion of honor. He was a strenuous upholder of episcopal independence. At the Vatican council he maintained the rights of the bishops, and strongly opposed the doctrine of papal infallibility; but when it had been declared, he was one of the first to submit. During the war with Germany he was indefatigable in works for sick and wounded soldiers. He refused to leave his post during the siege, or to seek safety in flight during the brief triumph of the commune. On April 14, 1871, he was arrested by the communists as a hostage, and May 27, he was murdered in prison, dying in the attitude of blessing, and uttering words of forgiveness. He was the author of a number of works, among which are a life of Thomas à Becket, and a translation of the Imitation of Christ.
DARBUNG', a mountain torrent of Bussahir, Hindustan, with a course of only 27 m., rises about 15,000 ft. above the sea, in lat. 31° 57' n., and long. 78° 25' e., and loses itself in the Sutlej, the most easterly of the five rivers of the Punjab, in lat. 31° 43' n., and long. 78° 35' east. About 7 m. above the point of confluence-having already descended 6,000 ft. in 20 m.-the D. is crossed by a wooden bridge of 33 ft. in length; and even somewhat further up, it is bordered by several villages. Its source has been described as a scene of terrific desolation, consisting of fields of snow and ice half hid under stones and rubbish.
DARBYITES. See PLYMOUTH BRETHREN.
DARCET, JEAN PIERRE JOSEPH, 1727–1801; a French chemist who wasted a fortune in the pursuit of his favorite science, sometimes suffering extreme privations. He was tutor to Montesquieu's sons, and assisted the father in his mental labors, particu larly in preparing The Spirit of the Laws, and in his last moments defended him against the attacks of the Jesuits. In chemistry, Darcet made many valuable discoveries. In 1774, he was appointed professor of chemistry in the college of France, and in 1784, he became a member of the academy of sciences, and director of the porcelain manu. factory at Sèvres. When the revolution began, he went with Robespierre and Danton.
DARDANELLES' (ancient Hellespont), a narrow channel separating Europe from Asia, and uniting the sea of Marmora with the Grecian archipelago. It extends from n.e. to 8. W., between lat. 40° to 40° 30' n., and long. 26° 10' to 26° 40' e., having a length of about 40 m., and a breadth varying from less than 1 to 4 miles. From the sea of Marmora, a strong current runs through the strait to the archipelago. To prevent an attack on Constantinople from the archipelago, the D. is strongly fortified on both sides, with many guns of immense caliber. A treaty concluded between the five great powers and Turkey in 1841, arranged that no ship of war belonging to any nation save Turkey should pass the D. without the express consent of Turkey; all merchant ships being also required to show their papers to the Ottoman authorities. These provisions were confirmed at London in 1871 and at Berlin in 1878. The D. is celebrated in ancient history on account of Xerxes and Alexander having crossed it, the former in 480 B.C., to enter Europe; and the latter in 334 B.C., to enter Asia. The point at which Xerxes crossed, by two separate bridges, was in the neighborhood of Abydos, on the Asiatic shore, opposite to Sestos. Alexander crossed at nearly the same place; and here also young Leander nightly swam across to visit Hero—a feat performed in modern times by lord Byron for “glory.”
DAR'DANUS, in Greek mythology, the ancestor of the Trojans. It is said that he crossed over from Samothrace to the Troad by swimming on an inflated skin, and founded the kingdom of Dardania before the existence of Troy. He is called a son of Zeus and the pleaid Electra; and the Iliad represents that Zeus loved him more than his other sons.
DARDEN, MILES, 1798-1857; b. N. C., and supposed to be one of the largest of men. He was 74 ft. high, and at the time of his death weighed over 1000 lbs. His coffin was 8 ft. long, within an in. of 3 ft. deep, and 2 ft. 8 in. wide.
DARDENNE, Mo. See page 901.
DARE, a co. in n.e. North Carolina, on Albemarle sound, including a number of islands along the coast; 350 sq.m.; pop. '80, 3,245—367 colored. It is covered to a large extent with red cedar and cypress swamps. Co. seat, Manteo.
DARE, VIRGINIA, the first child b. in America of English parents, at Roanoke, Va. (now N.C.), Aug., 1587. She was the grand-daughter of John White, who was sent out by sir Walter Raleigh as governor of the colony, which had an unknown fate.
DA'RES, a Trojan priest of Hephæstus (Vulcan) in the time of the Trojan war, to whom an account of the war has been attributed, though there is no doubt that the work was written at a much later period.
DARFUR', a country of Africa, e. of Sudan, is generally said to be situated in lat. 10° to 16° n., and in long. 22° to 28° e.; but its limits are not very clearly defined. D. towards the s. is hilly, the principal elevation being a mountainous ridge called Marrah, which traverses the country longitudinally, and is the source of numerous streams. Towards the n. D. is level," sandy, and almost destitute of water. During the rainy
season, which commences in June, and continues till Sept., it exhibits a rich vegeta tion. The principal products are wheat, millet, rice, maize, and sesame. Tobacco, which is used by the natives in every form, abounds. Water-melons, also, are abundant during the rainy season. Among the fruits are tamarinds and dates. The minerals are chiefly copper and iron. The wealth of the inhabitants of D. consists chiefly in cattle. Horses, sheep, camels, and game abound. D. carries on a considerable trade with Egypt, Mecca, and the inland countries of Africa; it was once a notorious center of the slave-trade. The Furani are an intelligent, well-built race, and have long been Mohammedans. Their numbers are variously estimated at from 3 to 4 millions, the former estimate being that of the Egyptian governor-general. D. was annexed to Egypt in 1874-75, and the organization of the country into 4 provinces (Umshanga, Fasher, Dara, and Kakkabia) is now complete. The residence of the governor is Fasher, whence a reg. ular postal service conveys letters to Khartum in 10 days. Kobe is the chief trading town.
DAR'GAN, WILLIAM, was b. about the beginning of the present century in county Carlow, Ireland, where his father was a large farmer. D. received, when young, a good education, and after spending some time in the office of a surveyor, where he acquired a high reputation for integrity and assiduous industry, he went to England, and was employed under Telford, who was then constructing the Holyhead road. Inspired per. haps by the example of that great engineer, D. now resolved to carve out a similar path for himself in his own country, and having returned to Ireland, obtained some small “jobs,” the beginnings of a career crowned with the most splendid success-for he became one of the first capitalists in Ireland. It was D. who contracted for the first railway ever executed in Ireland (the Dublin and Kingstown), and he was afterwards connected with most of the great undertakings in that country, such as the making of railways, canals, tunnels, and embankments. He was also an extensive bolder of railway stock, a steamboat proprietor, flax.grower, and farmer. He planned the indus, trial exhibition of Dublin (1853), with the view of developing more vigorously the material resources of his native country; and as a help towards its realization, placed £20,000 in the hands of a working-committee. This sum was gradually increased to about £100,000. The exhibition was opened on the 12th of May, 1853, by the lord-lieutenant; and was visited by the queen and prince Albert, when the honor of knighthood was offered to D., but was declined. In so far as the industrial exhibition was a personal speculation on the part of D., it was a failure, for he lost, it is said, £20,000 by it; but in every other respect it was highly gratifying to him, and to every genuine lover of his country. William D. was not one of those sham patriots with whom Ireland has been too often afflicted. He died Feb. 7, 1867.
DAR'IC, a gold coin of ancient Persia, used in Greece as well as Asia. It was much like the Greek stater. On the obverse is the figure of an archer kneeling, and on the reverse a royal palla. It was named from Darius Hytaspis. Its value for its times cannot now be definitely fixed; but in American gold it is not far from 7 dollars.
DARIEN, the name of a gulf on the northern coast of South America, and of the isthmus connecting the grand northern and southern divisions of the new world.—1. Gulf of D., the most southerly portion of the Caribbean sea, about 70 m. in length from n. to 8. ,and 25 from e. to west. The shores are in most places steep, and are in many places fringed with shoals. The southernmost part of the gulf is called the bay of Choco, into which the considerable river Atrato debouches.—2. The isthmus of D. is a term commonly used as interchangeable with that of isthmus of Panama (q.v.), now the more usual name. D. was also the name given to a province in the republic of New Granada, corresponding to what is now the state of Panama in Colombia. One of the earliest Spanish settlements on the mainland was in D., the region being then called also by the Spaniards Castilla de Oro (“the Golden Castile") and forming the best known part of their Tierra Firma. In 1513, the conquistador Balboa, governor of the Darien settlement, crossed the isthmus with 290 men, and on 26th Sept. first caught sight of the Pacific
As early as 1528, the idea of a ship canal across the isthmus was entertained; in 1826, a line for such a canal was traced between Panama and Portobello; and between 1843 and 1874, repeated surveys were undertaken by French, English, and American engineers with the same view. One of the most recent schemes proposed to take advantage of the lower course of the river Atrato, and so lay outside the isthmus, properly so called. But in all the surveys the height to be surmounted between ocean and ocean, and other great though not insuperable difficulties, have prevented the realization of any of the projects. (See INTEROCEANIC SHIP CANAL, also see under PANAMA.) The prin. cipal ports on the northern shore of the isthmus are Chiriqui, Colon or Aspinwall on Limon bay, Portobello, San Blas, and Puerto Escoces on Caledonia bay.
DARIEN SCHEME, THE, one of the most disastrous speculations on record, and one which caused an unprecedented excitement in Scotland from 1695—in which year the Darien company was estahlished by act of the Scottish parliament, sanctioned by royal authority-till 1701, when the last of the disappointed adventurers returned home. The D. Š. was projected by William Paterson, the founder of the bank of England. Its object was to plant a colony on the Atlantic side of the isthmus of Panama, and so form a commercial entrepôt between the eastern and western hem
ispheres. An entire monopoly of the trade of Asia, Africa, and America, for a term of thirty-one years, was granted to the company. At that time, the foreign trade of Scotland had been ruined by the English navigation act of 1660, which provided that all trade with the English colonies should be conducted in English ships alone, so that when Paterson opened his subscription-list, the nobility, the gentry, the mer chants, and people, royal burghs, and public bodies in Scotland all hastened to subscribe. £400,000 were immediately put down on paper, of which £220,000 were actu. ally paid up. Deputies in England received subscriptions to the amount of £300,000; and the Dutch and Hamburgers subscribed £200,000. The English parliament, however, actuated by a feeling of national antipathy, and the jealous clamors of trading corporations, gave its unequivocal condemnation to the scheme. The British resident at Hamburg, probably with the concurrence of the king (William III.), also made various insinuations against it. The result of this interference was the almost total withdrawal of the Dutch and English subscriptions. It must now be admitted, even by a Scotsman, that there was one fatal objection to the scheme-viz., the danger of settling on ground claimed by Spain, without coming to a proper understanding with that country beforehand. Unable, however, to see any sort of obstacles, incited by the vehement eloquence of Paterson, and dazzled by the magnificent proportions of the scheme, the Scotch hurried forward their arrangements. Five ships, with 1200 men on board, set sail from Leith for Panama on the 25th July, 1698. They reached their destination in four months, and having bargained with the natives for a country which they called New Caledonia, the colonists fixed the site of what was to be their capital city, New Edin. burgh, and built a fort in its vicinity, which they named New St. Andrews. Having thus constituted their colony, they issued a proclamation of perfect freedom of trade, and universal toleration in religious matters to all who should join them. According to the act which established their company, all goods imported by them, with the exception of foreign sugar and tobacco, were free from all duties and impositions for 21 years; and thus, on the whole, they seemed for the first few months to be on the highway to success. But the climate, which was tolerable in winter, became unbearable in summer, and many sickened under it; their supplies also failed before they could derive a return from the soil; and on sending to the British colonies in America for provisions, they learned with the deepest indignation and despair that the British American colonies, having been informed that king William had not given his sanction to the expedition, had resolved to hold no intercourse with the new colory at Panama.
Sickly and desponding, they waited long for supplies from the mother country; but the company at home were not aware of their wretched condition, and none came. At length, having waited eight months for assistance, the colony broke up. In the mean time, 1300 colonists, including 300 Highlanders from the estate of capt. Campbell of Finab, who had charge of the expedition, bad set sail from Scotland, but ere they arrived, the pioneers had fled. A Spanish force of 1500 men, and a squadron of 11 ships, immediately threatened the new-comers. Capt. Campbell marched by night with a body of 200 men upon the Spanish camp, which he broke, and completely dispersed. On returning to the fort, however, he found it invested by the Spanish squadron. The ammunition of the colonists had now become exhausted, and they were obliged to capitulate, the Spaniards granting honorable terms to all except capt. Campbell, who, however, escaped, and reaching New York, obtained a passage to Scotland. The remainder of the colonists, too weak to weigh the anchor of the vessel which was to carry them home, had to be assisted in their departure by the Spaniards. Not more than 30, among whom was Paterson, who was rendered for a time lunatic by his dreadful misfortunes, ever reached Scotland. Of Paterson, who has been regarded by some writers as a swindler, lord Macaulay, in his fifth volume of the History of England, says: “There is not the least reason to believe that he was dishonest. Indeed, he would have found more difficulty in deceiving others, had he not begun by deceiving himself. His faith in his own schemes was strong even to martyrdom; and the eloquence with which he illustrated and defended them had all the charm of sincerity and enthusiasm.
In Edinburgh, as the headquarters of the D. S., a building was erected to accommo. date the officials, and carry on the business of the company. Known as the Scottish India house, this building, now removed, recently existed in connection with the estab. lishment for the poor of the city-a melancholy memorial of a disconcerted national enterprise. The books and other documents which had belonged to the company are contained in the advocates' library, where they are shown as a curiosity. The most complete account of the D. S. is that by Mr. J. H. Burton, printed by the Bannatyne club.
DA RIMINI, FRANCESCA. See page 901.
DARI'US, or DAREIUS, is the uams of several Persian kings, and, like the Egyptian word Pharaoh, is titular and not personal.—DARIUS I., the son of Hystaspes, a Persian noble, leagued himself with six other nobles to murder Smerdis, the Magian, who had usurped the throne on the death of Cambyses. The conspirators were successful in their plot, and having, after some discussion, fixed on the monarchical as the proper form of government, D. contrived to be elected king, 521 B.C. His position at first was very insecure, but his caution, skill, and energy enabled him to govery his vast dominions for 36 years. To strengthen himself, he married the daughter of Otanes, who had been the head of the conspiracy, and likewise took three wives from the royal houseviz., two daughters of Cyrus, and one of Cyrus's son, Smerdis. He then divided his empire into 20 satrapies, and determined the exact amount of taxation to be borne by each. In some of the remoter provinces, great confusion seems to have prevailed after the death of Smerdis, the Magian; and a proof of how little D. could effect at first is afforded by the conduct of Orætas, the governor of Sardis, who for some time was quite defiant of his authority. Babylon next revolted, and D. besieged the city unsuccessfully for two years. At last, however, it was taken by an extraordinary stratagem of his gen. Zopyrus, 516. In 513, D., with an army of 700,000, crossed the Bosporus by a bridge of boats, marched through what is now known as European Turkey to the mouths of the Danube, crossed, and advanced against the Scythians. The expedition proved a failure. D. retreated, but detached from his main force an army of 80,000 men under Megabyzus, to conquer Thrace, while he himself returned to Persia, where he extended his authority in the east as far as the Indus. The assistance given by the Athenians and Eretrians to the lonic states, when they ventured to throw off the Persian yoke, and the part which they took in the burning of Sardis, determined D., who was also influenced thereto by the banished Hippias, to attempt the subjugation of the whole of Greece. In 495, he sent Mardonius with an army into Thrace and Macedonia, and at the same time dispatched a fleet against the islands. The former was routed by the Brygi in Thrace, the latter was shattered and dispersed by a storm when rounding the promontory of Mt. Athos. In 490, he renewed his attempt. His fleet committed great ravages in the Cyclades, but his army was entirely defeated at Marathon by the Athenians, under Miltiades, the “tyrant” of the Chersonese. In the midst of his preparations for a third expedition, D. died, 485 B.C.
Darius II., called, before his accession to the throne, Ochos, and after his succession, Nothos (“the Bastard"), was one of the seventeen bastard sons of Artaxerxes I. Longimanus. When Sogdianus, another of the bastards, had murdered the rightful king, Xerxes II., and assumed for himself the royal power, Ochos declared war against him, slew him, and secured the diadem for himself, 424–23 B.C. He now called himself Darius. His reign was ignoble. He showed himself to be completely under the control of his eunuchs and his cruel step-sister and spouse Parysatis. Rebellions were constantly breaking out among his satraps, all of which, however, were crushed except that of Amyrtæus, satrap of Egypt, who made himself independent in 414. It was during the life of D., and chictly through the craft of Tissaphernes, satrap of Asia Minor, and of his successor Cyrus the younger, son of the king, that the Persians exercised so great an influence over the affairs of Greece in the last years of the Peloponnesian war.
D. died 405-4 B.C. Darius III., great grandson of D. II., called, before his accession, Codomannus, was a monarch noted for his mild disposition, handsome person, and courageous spirit. He was raised to the throne through the help of Bagoas, after the murder of Arses, 336 B.C. But in spite of his superior qualities, he could offer no solid opposition to the advance of the Macedonians. At the battle of the Issus, in 333, his mother, wife, and three children fell into the hands of Alexander; the victory of Gaugamela, in 331, opened to the latter the way to Susa and Persia proper. D. now fled to Ecbatana, in Media; and, on the approach of his opponent, to the northern provinces, where he was seized by Bessus, satrap of Bactria. Alexander, in a fit of generosity, hurried to deliver Darius. Bessus then prepared for flight, but D., refusing to follow, was stabbed by the barbarian, and left. The scouts of Alexander's cavalry found D. dying, and administered to his last necessities. Thanking the Grecian king for his magnanimity, and commending his family to his care, he expired (330). Alexander sent the dead body to Sisygambis, mother of D., to be interred in the tomb of the Persian kings. With him, the Persian empire, that had so long overshadowed Asia, came to a close.
DARJEEL'ING, a sanitary station of British India, in a district of the same name, in the Sikkim Himalayas. It is situated at an elevation of 7,400 ft. above the sea, on the side of a great hollow or basin, in which flows the Runjeet, a branch of the Teesta. Forest-covered mountains rise above it, where the rhododendrons of the Himalayas grow in great luxuriance. It commands a magnificent view of the snowy ranges of the Himalayas to the n. and west. Notwithstanding frequent heavy rains, and a very great annual rainfall, the climate is very salubrious. D. is only about 36 m. from the plain of Bengal, and 308 m. n. from Calcutta. It was obtained by the British government from the rajah of Sikkim in 1835, in order to be made a sanitary station. A further portion of the territory of Sikkim was annexed to the district in 1850, in consequence of outrages committed by the rajah on British subjects. Tea culture has recently been introduced, and in 1862, there were 8,762 acres under tea; in 1872, there were 55 tea plantations, extending over 52,000 acres, and employing 7,300 laborers.
DARK AGES, the period, not well defined, which elapsed between the fall of the Roman empire and the revival of letters in the 13th century. See MIDDLE AGES.
DARK DAY, in New England, May 19, 1780. The darkness commenced between 10 and 11 A.M., and continued until the middle of the next night. The wind was from the s.w. and the darkness appeared to come with the clouds drifting from that point. It covered the country from New Jersey to Maine, and appears to have been greatest