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DANNEVIRKE, a wall of defense against the Franks, built by the Danes in 808 A.D., reaching from the North sea to the Baltic. During the troubles of 1848, the line of the old wail was strongly fortified, but the works were destroyed in 1864.
DAN RIVER, rising in the Blue Ridge in Virginia, passing through a considerable portion of that state into North Carolina, several times crossing the state boundaries, and finally uniting with the Staunton river in Virginia to form the Roanoke. It has a length of about 200 m., and is in some parts navigable.
DAN RIVER, Va. See page 901.
DANSVILLE, a village in Livingston co., N. Y., on the Erie railroad, at the terminus of the Genesee valley canal, 38 m. s. of Rochester ; pop. '80, 3,625 (village). Among the institutions are the Dansville Methodist seminary, founded 1858, and a hygienic home, established about 1860. The village is in a fertile district, and has considerable trade.
DAN'TÉ (properly, DURANTE) ALIGHIERI, one of the greatest poets of all time, and incomparably the greatest among the Italians, was b. in Florence in 1265. The outward circumstances and fortunes of his life are involved for the most part in great uncertainty. His family was, by his own account, one of the most illustrious in the city. His father dying while D. was young, his education devolved upon his mother, Bella. În this duty, in which she displayed great fidelity and judgment, she seems to have been counseled and aided by the great statesman, scholar, and poet, Brunetto Latini. The elements of knowledge D. probably acquired in Florence; in riper years, he studied philosophy at Bologna and Padua. After his banishment, he pursued theology for a time at Paris, and, if Boccaccio were to be believed, even visited England. His studies, however, did not prevent him from discharging the public duties of a citizen. He fought in the successful battle with the Aretines at Campaldino in 1289, and was present at the taking of the fortress of Caprona, 1290. What civil offices he first held, we do not know, but it is certain that he was sent on several embassies, and at last, in 1300, rose to the highest dignity of the city, being chosen one of the Priori for two months, an office which was the source of his subsequent unhappy fortunes. Florence, on the whole, belonged to the party of the Guelphs (q.v.), but was divided into the two factions of the Neri and Bianchi (the blacks and whites). The Neri were the unconditional adherents of the pope, and this of course gave to the other faction a more Ghibelline leaning. See GUELPHS and GHIBELLINES. A tumult in the city, occasioned by the heads of the ultra-Guelphic or black party, caused their temporary expulsion from Florence. They hurried to Rome, to lay their complaints before his holiness. D., who belonged to the Bianchi, was sent by his party to Rome, to counteract their machinations; but Boniface VIII., in concert with the Neri, got Charles of Valois, brother of Philip IV. of France, to come to Florence and restore peace under the title of peacemaker. This explains the deadly enmity of D. to Boniface. The peace established by Charles pf Valois consisted in recalling the banished leaders of the Neri, in giving up the houses and property of the Bianchi to be plundered, and banishing many of them, and among others Danié. D. never entered his native city again, and his whole subsequent life was unsettled, spent in various places, and under various protectors, at Arezzo, Verona, Padua, etc. In 1304, the Bianchi made a final attempt to return to Florence by force of arms, which failed; and it was probably on this occasion that D. went to Paris. The march of Henry VII. to Rome in 1310 recalled him to Italy, and he endeavored, by addressing ardent letters to the Italian princes, to promote the cause of the empire, which had now become his own. It was probably with this view and at this time, that his work De Monarchia was written. The unsuccessful siege of Florence, and the death of the emperor, which followed in 1313, annihilated the last hopes of D., and he spent the closirg years of his life at Ravenna, under the protection of Guido Novello da Polenta. He went on a mission for this prince to Venice, returned sick, and died on the 14th Sept., 1321.
As not unfrequently happens with distinguished men, an accidental circumstance in D.'s early youth had made an indelible impression on the soul of the poet, and, as he himself expresses it, awaked in him a "new life.” At a family festivity, he had seen Beatrice Portinaci, then eight years old, the daughter of a rich citizen, and the love that sprang up in the heart of the nine years' old boy became the fountain of the poetical inspiration of his life. How pure, chaste, and tender this love was, is testified by the Vita Nuova, his first work, which appeared about 1300. It is a collection of poems or canzoni, bearing upon this youthful love, and along with each piece is given a history of its origin and a minute analysis. The best edition of this collection is that prepared by the marquis Trivulzio (Mil. 1827). Beatrice married a nobleman, Simone de Bardi, and died young about 1290. D. himself afterwards married a lady named Gemma, of the powerful house of Donati.
His immortal work, the Divina Commedia, depicts a vision, in which the poet is con. ducted first by Virgil, the representative of human reason, through hell and purgatory; and then by Beatrice, the representative of revelation; and finally by St. Bernard, through the several heavens, where he beholds the triune God. The name Commedia was given to the work by the poet himself—because, beginning with the horrible, it ends cheerfully; and because, in respect of style, it is lowly, being written in the vulgar tongue. The epithet Divina was added by the admiration of after-times. Hell is
represented in the poem as a funnel-shaped hollow, formed of gradually contracting circles, the lowest and narrowest of which is at the earth's center. Purgatory is a mountain rising solitary from the ocean on that side of the earth that is opposite to us; it is divided into terraces, and its top is the terrestrial paradise, the first abode of man, From this, the poet ascends through the seven planetary heavens, the heaven of the fixed stars, and the “primum mobile," to the empyrean, or fixed seat of God. In all parts of the regions thus traversed, there arise conversations with noted personages, for the most part recently deceased. At one time, the reader is filled with the deepest sorrow, at another, with horror and aversion; or the deepest questions of the then philosophy and theology are discussed and solved; and the social and moral condition of Italy, with the corruptions of church and state, are depicted with a noble indignation.
Fifty-two years after the poet's death, the republic of Florence, at the instigation of Boccaccio, set apart an annual sum for public lectures to explain the Divine Comedy to the people in one of the churches, and Boccaccio himself was appointed first lecturer. The example was imitated in several other places of Italy. The works of these men are among the earliest commentaries on D. that we possess. The number of editions of the work amounts by this time to about 300. Only a few, in addition to the commentaries above mentioned, deserve notice. They are: that printed at Fuligno in 1472—the earliest of all; the Nidobeatine edition at Milan (1478); the first Aldine edition (1502); the first Cruscan edition (1695); that of Volpi (1727); of Venturi (1732); of Lombardi (1791), and with additions and illustrations in 1815, 1821, and 1822; of Dionisi (1795); of Ugo Foscolo (Lond. 1842–43). A reprint of the Fuligno edition above mentioned, together with those printed at Jesi (1472), at Mantua (1472), and at Naples by Francisco del Tuppo (about 1478), appeared at London, in 1858, under the superintendence of sir Antonio Panizzi, and at the expense of lord Vernon.
The Divina Commedia has been translated into almost all European languages. Two translations of the whole into Latin have been printed, one by Carlo d'Aquino (1728), and lately by Piazza (1848). In French, there are a number of translations both in prose
The earliest, by Grangier, in 1596, is still the nearest to the original in form, but none is good. The German translations are numerous, and such as no other modern language can equal in faithfulness. Kannegiesser has translated the whole in the measure and rhyme of the original (4th edition. Leip. 1843); king John of Saxony's translation is said by some to be the best. The chief English translations are Boyd's (1785) and Cary's (1814), in blank verse (see " Chandos Classics,” London, Warne & Co.); Wright's (1833), in triple rhymes; Cayley's, in the original ternary rhyme (the Inferno, 1801, the Purgatory, 1853, the Paradiso in 1854, with notes in 1855); Dr. John Carlyle's, the Inferno, in prose, with commentary (1849): Fred. Pollock's, in blank verse (1854); H. W. Longfellow's (1867), in blank verse, with D.'s ternary arrangenent of lines. D. wrote other works.
DANTON, GEORGES-JACQUES, was b. at Arcis-sur-Aube, 28th Oct., 1759. At the outbreak of the French revolution, he was practicing as an advocate in Paris, but did not enjoy much reputation, on account of his dissolute habits. The fierce half-savage nature of the man, however, immediately found a fitting sphere for its action in the chaos into which France then fell. Mirabeau quickly detected his genius, and hastened to attach D. to himself. President of the district of the Cordeliers, D. ruled it at his will. Along with Marat and Camille Desmoulins, he instituted the Cordeliers' club, an exaggerated copy of that of the Jacobins. It soon became the rallying-point of all the hotter revolutionists. There the tall brawny man, with harsh and daring countenance, terrible black brows, and a voice of enormous power, thundered against the aristocrats, till the passions of the populace rose into ungovernable fury. It was not, however, till after the flight of Louis that the political rôle of D. commenced. On the 17th July, 1791, he and others assembled the people of Paris in the Champ-de-Mars, and goaded them on by furious declamation to sign a petition for the deposition of the king. Some time after, he became procureur-substitut for the city of Paris. The court, which found that it could not frighten D., now attempted to bribe him. It not certain that he proved venal, but the evidence undoubtedly leaves a strong suspicion of his venality on the mind. Be that as it may, he soon broke off his secret intercourse with the royalist agents
, and became more the implacable enemy of the monarchy than before. It was D. who excited to action the wild sanguinary rabble that, on the 10th of Aug., 1792, stormed the Tuileries, and butchered the faithful Swiss. The reward of his fatal eloquence was the office of minister of justice, and here the gigantic personality of the man seemed to overshadow all the surrounding figures. He stood forth as the incarnate spirit of the revolution, manifesting alike its heroic audacity in the presence of danger from without, and its maniacal terror in the presence of danger from within. The advance of the Prussians seemed for a moment to inspire France with a panic. On the 2d of Sept., D. mounted the tribune, and addressed the legislative assembly in a speech of tremendous power, probably the most effective delivered during the whole of the revolution. It closed with these words regarding the enemies of France: “Pour les vaincre, pour les atterrer, vue faut-il? De l'audace, encore de l'audace et toujours de l'audace.” France quivered to its core with enthusiasm. “In a few weeks, 14 republican armies stood upon the field of battle, and repelled with unexampled bravery the
aggressions of the allied forces.” But unhappily that “audacity” by which alone D. thought it possible for France to save herself, required for its perfection the immolation of the imprisoned royalists. On the very evening when D. spoke, the frightful Sept. massacres began. D. publicly thanked the assassins, “not as the minister of justice, but as the minister of the revolution." Elected by the city of Paris one of its deputies to the national convention, he resigned his judicial function, and zealously hurried on the trial of the king. As a proof of his ferocious decision of character when pressed by difficulties, it is recorded that one of his friends having pointed out that the convention could not legally try the king, “ You are right,” instantly replied Danton. “So, we will not try him; we will kill him!” In the mean time, D. was sent on a mission to the army of the north, commanded by Dumourier, with whom he was soon on very close terms of intimacy-too much so, indeed, for the suspicious soul of his old friend Marat. The defection of Dumourier was the signal for Marat to give vent to his suspicions. It therefore became necessary for D. to throw himself again into the van of the revolutionary movement. On the 10th Mar., 1793, he established the “extraordinary criminal tribunal,” which was at liberty to make what arrests it pleased, and from whose deadly decisions there was no appeal. He also became president of the “committee of public safety." D. now set himself to crush the Girondists, or moderate party, alleging, with singular candor, that “in a revolution the authority ought to belong to the greatest scoundrels.” In this he was supported by Robespierre, now gliding into power swiftly and silently like a serpent. After he had effected his purpose, however, a species of remorse seems to have seized him. He objected to the institution of the guillotine. This trait of moderation lost him the favor of the Jacobins or mountain party, whose murderous instincts led them to select Robespierre as a chief, on the permanence of whose cruelty more reliance might be placed. Several other indications of returning humanity lessened his influence still more, and at the close of 1793, D. felt that a crisis was approaching. A fruitless attempt was made to reconcile Robespierre and him. They had an interview, but parted on worse terms than ever. It was now a struggle for life between them; but D., sick of the revolution, and conscious that it was rapidly becoming a sham (a thing which D., with all his faults, could not abide), gave himself up to a sort of reckless apathy, which enabled the sleepless Robespierre to ruin him. His friends endeavored to rouse him. “I would rather be guillotined than guillotine,' he answered. Blinded by the consciousness of his own inherent power, he also declared that his enemies would not dare” to lift their finger against him. But men of the stamp of Robespierre-though essentially cowards, and incapable of facing danger with honest straightforwardness-have a certain furtive audacity that emboldens them to attack a greater than themselves, if circumstances are favorable. So Robespierre sprang at D., and so the great anarch perished. On the night of the 30th Mar., 1794, he was arrested, and brought before that revolutionary tribunal which he himself had established, summarily condemned, and, along with Camille Desmoulins and others, was guillotined on the 5th of April. He predicted the fate of Robespierre, calling him "an infamous poltroon,” and immediately added, “I was the only man who could have saved him.” D. was an atheist - not a calm, thoughtful dispassionate disbeliever in the existence of God, but one who, by his own vices, and the general godlessness of the times in which he lived, had been robbed of the spirit and power of faith in the Unseen. When formally interrogated regarding his name and dwelling, he replied: “My dwelling-place will soon be annihilated, and my name will live in the pantheon of history.
DANTZIG. See DANZIG.
DAN'UBE (Ger. Donau), the second of European rivers, inferior only to the Volga, has its origin in the Brege and Brigach, two mountain-streams rising in the eastern part of the Black Forest, in Baden, at an elevation of 2,850 ft. above sea-level in lat. 48° 6' n., and in long. 8° 9' east. The total length of the D. is about 1750 m.; the area which it drains is estimated at 250,000 sq.m., comprising countries widely varying in climate and productions. The average fall of the D. is 18 in. per mile. At Uim, it attains a breadth of 108 ft., and before its junction with the Sereth the mean breadth is 6,000 ft., and the depth, which at Ulm is 6 ft., and at Passau 16, is here on an average 20 feet. The D. is joined in its course by sixty navigable rivers, and falls into the Black sea, pouring into it a volume of water nearly equal to that of all the other rivers that empty themselves there. From its source it flows in a north-easterly direction through Würtemberg and Bavaria. Passing Ulm, at which point the river becomes navigable for vessels of 100 tons, it receives from the s. the Lech and the Iser, with some unimportant streams from the n.; flows rapidly past Ingolstadt, and onwards to Regensburg (Ratisbon); then suddenly altering its course, it proceeds in a south-easterly direction, passing Straubing and Passau, where it enters the Austrian dominions. With little variation of course, the D. flows eastward from Passau to Presburg, receiving from the s. the Inn and the Ens, and from the n. the March or Morava, through a tract of country rich in minerals, well peopled, and highly cultivated. Near Linz, and also in the picturesque neighborhood of Vienna, the waters of the D. frequently divide, and inclose large tracts of soil, forming islands, among which are the Great and Little Schütt, called also the "Golden Gardens.” Hurrying past Presburg, the D. alters its course to s.e., and such is its velocity here, that barges can only navigate it downwards. Passing Pesth, and flowing directly s., it enters upon the Hungarian plain, a vast sandy and alluvial lat, in which it is continually forcing new channels and silting up old ones, sometimes sweeping away towns, or capriciously removing its waters to a distance of several miles from such as were formerly built upon its banks. Here it receives from the n. the Waag and the Gran, while the Drave from the w. adds considerably to its volume. After this accession the river turns towards the c., and joined by the waters of the Theiss and Temes from the n., sweeps past Belgrade, forming the boundary between Servia and Hungary. Still flowing eastward, the D., leaving Orsova, passes the famous “Iron Gate," a broad plateau of rock 1400 yards wide, over which the water formerly rushed with an overpowering noise. This rapid, which was followed by a series of whirlpools, eddies, and shallow falls, formed an effectual bar to the upward progress of vessels, no craft drawing more than 24 ft. of water being able to pass it. In 1847–49, however, the obstruction formed by the “ Iron Gate” was to some extent removed by blasting, so that now vessels of 8, and even 9 ft. draught, can pass at certain seasons of the year, although the majority of vessels engaged on this part of the river draw no more than 4 ft. of water. A few miles further on, it enters a plain, and proceeding uninterruptedly, forms the boundary between Wallachia and Bulgaria. From the Carpathians it receives the Schyl and the Aluta, and from Mt. Balkan the Morava. Increased by these rivers and by numberless streams, it progresses through a district fertile indeed, but badly cultivated and thinly peopled, occasionally broadening like a sea, as at Hirsora, and encircling many islands. After being joined by the Serith and the Pruth from the n., and after dividing into several branches forming deltoid islands, it flows eastward into the Black sea. The principal mouth is the Sulina, by which the greater number of ships enter. The D., which is the chief natural highway for European commerce, is throughout the greater part of its course surrounded by picturesque and impressive scenery-at one time flanked with lofty mountains, again having on each side dense and far-extending forests. At the peace of Paris, in 1856, the navigation of the Danube was declared free to all nations, and its management was intrusted to two commissions, one representing the European powers, another named by the states on the banks of the river. At the Berlin congress of 1878, it was stipulated that no ships of war should navigate the D. below the Iron Gate. The Danube steam navigation company, which has done much to increase the commerce, possesses upwards of 150 steamers and 600 tow-boats.
DANUBIAN PRINCIPALITIES. See MOLDAVIA AND WALLACHIA.
DANVERS, a t, in Essex co., Mass., 15 m. n.n.e, of Boston, with which it is connected by rail; pop. '80, 6,638. In 1852, George Peabody, who was a native of this town, gave a sum finally amounting to $200,000 for the promotion of knowledge and morality among the inhabitants. This was the foundation of the Peabody institute and its fine library.
DANVILLE, a city and the seat of justice of Vermilion co., Ill., on Vermilion river, 16 m. above its junction with the Wabash; connected by railroads with all parts of the country; 125 m. s. of Chicago; pop. '80, 7,735. Coal-mining is the chief source of the city's importance.
DANVILLE, the co. seat of Boyle co., Ky., on a branch of Dick's river; connected by rail with Louisville and Nashville; 42 m. s. of Frankfort; pop. 70, 2,542—1210 colored. It is the seat of Centre (Presbyterian) college, founded 1819, and Danville theological seminary (Presbyterian), founded 1853. Pop. '80, 3,074.
DANVILLE, the seat of justice of Montour co., Penn., on a branch of the Susque. hanna, 50 m. n.e. of Harrisburg; pop. '80, 8,346. There are rich deposits of anthracite, great quantities of which find the way to market through the Pennsylvania canal and various railroads. Iron manufacturing, however, is the principal business; of railway bars alone, 75,000 are made annually.
*DANVILLE, a t. in Pittsylvania co., Va., on the river Dan, 120 m. w.s.w. of Richmond, reached by the Richmond, Danville, and Piedmont railroad; pop. 1880, 7,526. After the abandonment of Richmond, April, 1865, Danville becam for a few days the capital of what remained of the Southern confederacy. See Supp., page 901,
DANZIG (Polish Gdansk), an important seaport of Prussia, and fortress of the first rank, in the province of Prussia, is situated on the left bank of the western branch of the Vistula, about 31 m. from its mouth in the Baltic. D. is an ancient place, Laving been in existence at least as early as the 10th c., and its possession was long an object of ambition to the Danes, Swedes, Pomeranians, and Teutonic knights, the last of whom obtained and held it for a considerable period. In 1454, it became a free city under Poland, and remained so until 1793, when it fell under the dominion of Prussia, in whose hands, except during the years 1807-14, when it existed as a separate dukedom under Napoleonic rule, it has since continued. D. is surrounded by ramparts and wet ditches, and is otherwise strongly fortified, and the garrison possesses the means of laying the surrounding country under water on three sides. The city is traversed by the Motlau and Radaune, tributaries of the Vistula, the former of which is deep enough to admit vessels of 8 or 9 ft. draught up to the town. The principal port, however, is at Neufahrwasser, at the mouth of the Vistula, which river cannot be entered by large vessels on account of the sand-bars across it. Many of the streets of D. are
Darrow and crooked, but the principal street, intersecting it from e. to w., abounds in fine specimens of antique architecture, and has altogether a most picturesque appear. ance. Among the most noteworthy buildings are the cathedral, a fine structure, com menced in 1343, but not finished until 1503, and possessed of a noble and widely cele. brated picture of the “Last Judgment” (the painter of which is unknown), the church of St. Catharine, Trinity church, the fine old town-hall (which has lately been restored at a cost of 60,000 thalers), the exchange, etc. D. was at one time a prominent member of the Hanseatic league, and is still one of the chief commercial cities of northern Europe. To provide for its immense trade in grain, it has enormous granaries, capable of containing 500,000 quarters of corn, and built on an island forming one of the parts of the town where, in order to prevent fire, no person is permitted to live, nor lights allowed. In 1880, 105,034 tons (of 1000 kilos.) of wheat and other grain were exported, of which 39,939 tons went to Great Britain. The value of timber exported in 1879 was £573,755; and in 1880, £808,800; the largest quantity going to Great Britain. Besides grain and timber, there are some minor articles of export, as black beer, amber, spirits, etc. The annual value of the exports is about 60,000,000 marks (£3,000,000); of the imports, about 120,000,000 marks. In 1880, 1894 vessels entered, and 1876 cleared the harbor. The inhabitants of D., of whom the majority are Protestants, numbered in 1880, 108,551.
DAOUDNUG'UR, a t. in the province of Behar in India, stands on the right bank of the Sone. D. is about 90 m. to the e. of Benares, being in lat. 25° 3' n., and long. 84 27' east. It is a wretched-looking place, most of its thoroughfares being mere passages, It possesses, however, a considerable trade, manufacturing coarse fabrics both of wool and of cotton. Pop. '80, 11,058.
DAOU'RIA, a country of Asia, partly in the Russian government of Irkutsk, and partly belonging to the Chinese territory of Mantchooria. Its limits are not exactly defined. The Daourian mountains, offsets of the Yablonoi mountains, traverse it from n.e. to s. w., and separate it from the region of lake Paikal. The mountains are fertile in minerals.
DAPH'NÉ, a magnificent grove and sanctuary in ancient times, near Antioch (q.v.). The grove was finely laid out in walks of cypress and bay trees, and as the chief resort of all the dissolute persons in the city, became the scene of the greatest debauchery. In the center, surrounded by the luxuries of nature and art, glorious gardens, fountains, baths, colonnades, stood the temple of Apollo and Diana, which was invested with the privileges of an asylum, and became for centuries a place of heathen pilgrimage. The progress of Christianity gradually revived in the Antiochenes the purer instincts of virtue and decorum, and the grove was finally abandoned. Julian the apostate, in his vain endeavor to resuscitate the lifeless corpse of paganism, visited D., and made the altars of the temple smoke once more with incense; but on his departure, they were again neglected, until one night the altars and the statues were discovered to be in tames. They were consumed to ashes; and so perished forever the gods of Daphne.
Ď. owed its origin to Seleucus Nicator. He planted the grove, built the temple, and gave the place a mythological history in connection with the river Peneus and the nymph Daphne, who was here turned into a laurel or bay tree, whence the grove of D. received its name. Modern travelers are not agreed as to its site. Pococke and Richter decide in favor of Beit-el-Maa, about 5 m. from Antioch; while Forbiger and Kinneir consider Babylas the true position.
DAPH'NE, a nymph in Grecian mythology, of the woods some say, and some say of the water. She was pursued by Apollo, and prayed for help from her mother (the earth), whereupon the ground opened and she disappeared. From the place there grew a laurel, a tree sacred to Apollo, and to all poets and heroes.
DAPHNE, a genus of plants of the natural order thymeleaceæ, having a 4-cleft, funnelshaped perianth, the throat of which is destitute of scales, eight stamens, and a oneseeded succulent fruit. All the species are shrubs or small trees, some having deciduous, and some having evergreen leaves, all of them possessing in all their parts a more or less considerable acridity, which in some is so great, that they are even caustic; and the berries are poisonous, whilst, however, the flowers of some are deliciously fragrant. To this genus belongs the DAPHNE MEZEREON, well known both for the fragrance of its flowers and for its medicinal uses, naturalized in some places of England. The GAROU bush (D. gnidium), a native of the s. of Europe, less hardy than the mezereon, has the same medicinal properties and uses, which is also in some measure the case with many other species. The only species certainly a native of Britain is the SPURGE LAUREL (D. laureola), an evergreen shrub, 3 to 4 ft. high, with obovate-lanceolate leaves, which grow in tufts at the end of the branches, and give it a remarkable appearance. It grows well under the shade of trees. It is naturalized, rather than a native of Scotland.-D. Japonica, a species recently introduced from Japan, has exquisitely lemon-scented leaves. From the bark of some species of D., and of the most nearly allied genera, paper is made in different parts of the east, particularly Nepaul paper from that of D. cannabina. Slips of the inner bark are boiled in a lye of woodashes for half an hour till quite soft, are then reduced to a homogeneous pulp by beat