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tion. He is credited with placing in the ordinance for the government of the northwestern territory the clause forever prohibiting slavery.
DANE'BROG, ORDER OF, the second of the Danish orders, was instituted by king Waldemar in 1219. The word brog in old Danish signifies “cloth,” and thus D. is equivalent to the cloth or banner of the Danes. The order is a sort of glorification of the old national flag of Denmark, which long floated, like the oriflamme of France, at the head of the army. It is meant to recompense services rendered to the state, whether civil or military, and irrespective of age or rank. The decoration of the order consists in a cross of gold pattée, enameled with white, and suspended by a white ribbon, embroidered with red.
DANE'GELT, or DANEGOLD, a tribute, first of 18., and afterwards of 28., levied on every hide of land by the Anglo-Saxons, for the purpose of meeting the outlay requisite for defending the country against the Danes. The tax was continued after the con. quest, as one of the rights of the crown, till the time of Stephen.
DANE-LAGE, or DANE-LAW. After the overthrow of the Danes under Guthrun at Ethandune by king Alfred (878 A.D.), a treaty was concluded between the two, in virtue of which the entire kingdom of Wessex, from Somerset to Kent, was evacuated by the Danes, who were, however, allowed to retain the greater part of the east coast of England, including the whole of Northumbria. This district was called Danelagh or Dane-law (which name it retained down to the Norman conquest), because the inhabitants were ruled by Danish and not by English law.
DANENHOWER, JOHN WILSON. See page 900.
DANIEL, a Hebrew prophet, who flourished about 600 B.C. He was a contemporary of Ezekiel, and was carried captive to Babylon in the fourth year of Jehoiakim. He was one of the youths selected to be brought up for future service at the court of the conqueror, and received instruction in all the learning of the Chaldeans. His skill in the interpretation of dreams procured for him the royal favor. He rose to be governor of the province of Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar; and under Darius, the Mede, to be first president of the whole Medo-Persian empire, a dignity only inferior to that of Darius himself. The time and the place of his death are alike unknown. He was alive, how. ever, in the first year of the reign of Cyrus, but did not return to Judea with his countrymen on their release from captivity. Epiphanius and others affirm that he died at Babylon; but the common tradition is that he expired at Susa or Shusan in Persia, when upwards of ninety years of age; and at the present day, a tomb bearing his name is the only standing building among the ruins of that ancient city. D. was the only one of the Hebrew prophets who enjoyed a high degree of worldly prosperity. Ezekiel men. tions him as a model of wisdom and piety. The book of D. consists partly of historical notices of D., and partly of visions and prophecies, some of which are written in Chaldee. The genuineness of the book, in its present form, has been much disputed in recent times.
DANIEL, HERMANN ADALBERT, 1812–72; a German geographer and theologian, edu. cated at Halle, and subsequently became a professor at that university. He was one of the most eminent followers of the geographer Ritter.
DANIEL, JOHN WARWICK. See page 901.
DANIEL, SAMUEL, an English poet, was the son of a music-master, and was b. in 1562, near Taunton, in Somersetshire; entered Magdalen hall, Oxford, in 1579, but quitted the university without taking a degree. For some time he acted as tutor to Anne Clifford, daughter of the earl of Cumberland. In 1603, he was appointed master of the queen’s revels, and inspector of the plays to be represented by the juvenile performers. Subsequently, he held other offices about the royal household. Towards the close of his life, he retired to a farm which he possessed ‘at Beckington, in his native county, where he died, Oct. 14, 1619. D. is an elegant, if not a great poet. His writings are pervaded by a moral thoughtfulness and purity of taste which are very remarkable, but lack that vital energy of movement and memorableness of expression which result from genuine inspiration. The “well-languaged Daniel” is therefore not the most inter esting of the Elizabethans, although his style is quite modern. His works include sonnets, epistles, masks, and dramas; but his chief production is a poem in eight books, entitled a History of the Civil Wars between York and Lancaster.
DANIEL, BOOK OF, derives its name from the chief person whose history it narrates, and who is generally regarded as its author. The close correspondence of its predictions with historical events has, indeed, led some writers to assert that it was written by some unknown person about 175 years B.C. Porphyry, in the 3d c., held this opinion, and, in modern times, Collins, De Wette, and others. Among the answers to them are: 1. That however plausible, in Porphyry's day, the assertion may have seemed that the so-called predictions of the book were written after the events in the life of Antiochus, to which some of them refer, there is no force in it now, after the progressive accomplishment, which has since been witnessed, of many predictions then unfulfilled. 2. The first book of Maccabees refers to the book of D. in the same manner
as to other books of the Old Testament: saying that the enemies of the Jews.“ set up the abomination of desolation upon the altar:” that “ Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, by believing, were saved out of the flame," and that “ Daniel, for his innocency, was deliv. ered out of the mouth of lions.” 3. It was translated into Greek, B.C. 280–250, before the date which Porphyry assigned to it. 4. At a still earlier date it was received into the Hebrew canon. 5. diction, partly Hebrew and partly Chaldaic, proves that its author was master of both languages; its acquaintance with Chaldean manners, customs, and religion, indicates his long residence in the midst of them; and its descriptions of public affairs after the conquest by the Medes and Persians could have been given only by one who had full knowledge of the conquerors and was in favor with them. Daniel, a Jew of noble birth, familiar with the Hebrew as his native tongue, educated from his youth in all that the Chaldeans could teach, and high in office and favor with the successive kings through the whole captivity of 70 years, fulfills all these conditions, and he alone. 6. The great favors which Alexander, in the midst of his career of conquest
, conferred on the Jews at Jerusalem, are rationally accounted for by the statement in Josephus that when, at the temple, the book of Daniel was shown to him, wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks would destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed himself to be the person intended, and in his joy called on the people to ask of him any favors which they chose. 7. The testimony of Christ is emphatically given to the book of Daniel, to its prophetic character, and to the approach. ing fulfillment of things written therein. Its place in the Hebrew canon is not among " the prophets" strictly so called, but in the same division with “the Psalms.” The prophets were God's ministers among the people at large to instruct, comfort, and reprove, as well as to foretell the future. Daniel's office, as has been seen, was rather that of a statesman, clothed with vice-royal authority by the kings who held him captive and made conspicuous by the manifest wisdom and power of God. He ranks with Moses and David rather than with Isaiah. His personal prosperity, the miracles wrought around him, and the revelations given him, were designed to show, among other things, that although God had allowed the Jews to be carried captive for their sins, his power, as great as it ever had been, was concentrated on Daniel as their representative, and as a pledge that he would restore them to their own land. Their rel ise by Cyrus at the end of their 70 years is without rational explanation if Daniel's life and influence as described in the book are stricken out. The book is partly historical and partly prophetical, and portions of the history are prophecies fulfilled.
I. The historical part narrates: 1. The captivity of Daniel and his three friends, their education at the court of the king, and their superiority over the rest of the Hebrew youth. 2. The king's dream, Daniel's interpretation of it, and the consequent exaltation of him and his friends, 3. The golden image, the fiery furnace, and the deliverance. 4. The king's second dream and its interpretation, his pride, loss of reason, expulsion, and restoration. 5. Belshazzar's feast, the writing on the wall, the doom declared, the city captured, and the king slain. 6. Daniel's exaltation in the kingdom of Darius, the conspiracy against him, the den of lions and his safety there. 7. His prosperity continued during the reign of Cyrus. II. The prophecies in the book are: 1. Concerning the four kingdoms under the emblem of the image in Nebuchadnezzar's dream: its golden head representing the Babylonian; its silver arms and breast, the Medes and Persians, becoming one; its brazen loins and thighs, the Greeks under Alexander, divided after him into two eastern kingdoms, Egypt and Syria; its iron legs, the Romans, consisting of two parts—the senate and people, and led by two consuls; its toes of iron and clay, the kingdoms of Europe, having both the strength of Rome and the weakness of barbarous tribes; the stone cut out without hands and smiting the image, the kingdom of Christ commenced and advanced without human power and destined to subdue the world and continue forever. 2. These kingdoms were represented again in Daniel's vision by four wild beasts coming out of the sea, and explained by the angel as denoting four kingdoms rising out of tumults and wars: (1) The lion with eagle's wings was an emblem of Babylon; (2) The bear with three ribs between its teeth denoted the Medes and Persians conquering Babylon, Lydia, and Egypt; (3) The leopard with four wings and four heads represented the kingdom of Alexander, famous for the swiftness with which it was conquered, and divided after his death into four parts; (4) The fourth beast was great, terrible, and strong, and represented the fourth kingdom, diverse from all others devouring the whole earth, treading it down, and breaking it to pieces; but finally to be judged and destroyed, and to be followed by the kingdom of the Most High that shall endure forever. 3. The vision of a ram, aitacked by a goat rushing from the w. without touching the ground, represented the kingdom of the Medes and Persians overthrown by Alexander advancing from Macedonia with une. qualed swiftness. When the goat was strong its horn was broken, and in its place came up four, pointing towards the four winds. And when Alexander was at the height of his power he suddenly died, and four kingdoms were formed out of his dominions 4. The prophecy concerning the 70 weeks-interpreted as 490 years, each day signifying a year-revealed to Daniel by the angel Gabriel, measured off the time between the going forth of the commandment to rebuild Jerusalem and the coming and death of the Messiah. This period is subdivided into three-7 weeks, 62 weeks, and 1 week. During the first the city and wall would be rebuilt; at the end of the socond the Messiah would come, and in the middle of the third he would be cut off. During the third period, both before his death and after it, he would establish the covenant with many; and afterwards desolation would come on the temple and city. 5. The final revelation given to Daniel was from the lips of the Son of God appearing in the similitude of a man. Beginning at the point of time where Daniel then stood, he numbered the kings of Persia who were afterwards to arise, announced the expedition of Xerxes against Greece, and gave a condensed summary of human history onward to the resurrection of the dead to everlasting life or everlasting shame.
DANIELL, JOIN FREDERICK, D.C.L., a distinguished English savant, was b. in London, Mar. 12, 1790. He was a pupil of prof. Brande, along with whom he made several scientific tours; was elected a fellow of the royal society in 1814, and in 1816 started, in connection with prof. Brande, the Quarterly Journal of Science and Art. From this period, D. devoted almost the whole of his time to the subjects of chemistry and meteorology. In 1823, he published his Meteorological Essays, which is still the standard work on meteorology; and in 1824 the horticultural society awarded him their silver medal for his Essay on Artificial Climate. In 1831, he was appointed professor of chemistry in King's college, London; and in 1839 published his Introduction to Chemical Philosophy. In 1843, he received the degree of d.c. L. from the university of Oxford. He also enjoyed the great honor of being the only person who ever obtained all the three medals in the gift of the royal society. Besides his professorship in King's college, D. also held the post of lecturer at Addiscombe, and of examiner in chemistry to the university of London. He died Mar. 13, 1845. D.’s Meteorological Essays was the first attempt to account, in a truly philosophical manner, for the known phenomena of the atmosphere. Besides the works mentioned, D. wrote a large number of interesting and valuable papers for the royal society. For an account of his new hygrometer, see HYGROMETER.
DANIELL, THOMAS, 1749–1840; an English landscape painter. He made a journey through India, taking a great number of important sketches. He published Views of Calcutta; Oriental Scenery (144 plates ); Vicus in Egypt; Picturesque Voyage to China, etc. He was a royal academician and fellow of several other societies. His nephews, William and Daniel, were also artists of repute, the former assisting in the India sketches, and the latter spending many years in Ceylon.
DANISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. The Danish language, which, with slight modifications, is common to the three Scandinavian kingdoms, is a branch of the ancient Gothic, and has been retained almost in its original form in Iceland. The oldest memorials of the Danish are codes of laws, as the Skaanske Lov, and the old and new Sjællandske Lov, promulgated by Valdemar the great in 1162 and 1171; but these, no less than the writings of Harpestreng, canon of Roeskilde (1244) already show marked deviations from the Icelandic, in consequence of the intermixture of the Anglo-Saxon, English, and Norman elements, due to the Danish occupation of England, and the immigration of monks and artisans into Denmark from Britain. The influence of the Eng. lish dialect was again modified towards the close of the 12th c. by the influx of Germans into the country. Saxo Grammaticus, the father of Danish history, who died in 1204, wrote, like almost all his ecclesiastical brethren at that day, in Latin, as did also his contemporary, the knight Svend Aagesen. The Danish Kæmperiser are the richest poetical remains of the folk-lore of the middle ages in Europe, and consist—1. Of narratives and songs of ginnts, demigods, and other supernatural creatures of the Scandinavian mythol. ogy; 2. Of romantic songs and tales connected with these mythical beings; and 3. Of historical verses, referring to a later period. The names of the writers are unknown, and these compositions seem rather to be the expression of the entire people than the production of individual poets. Many have, from time immemorial, been associated with certain national melodies, which have secured them a permanent place in the hearts of the people, whose disposition leads them to dwell with fondness on the memory of by-gone times and events, and to seek in the glory of the past a compensation for the national humiliation and reverses of the present. The first printed collection of the Kæmpeviser is due to the royal historiographer, Vedel, and appeared at Ribe, 1592; another edition (Copenh. 1695) by Peter Syv found its way to almost every peasant's cottage; but the most complete of any is probably that by Nyerup and Rabek, in 5 vols. (Copenh. 1810–14). After the reformation, the national literature was compar. atively neglected, for the composition of poor theological treatises and bald versions of the Psalms. Among the best of the writers in this department we may instance Christian Pedersen (born 1480), who, after having made a metrical version of the ancient national chronicles, devoted himself to the diffusion of the Lutheran faith, and made Danish translations of the New Testament, and the reformer, Hans Taussen (born 1494), who composed catechisms, and translated the Pentateuch into Danish. The Danish language acquired stability and new life by the translation of the whole Bible, which, by order of king Christian III., was effected in 1550 by Palladius and other professors of the university. The close of the 16th c. was memorable for the many admirable writers on history which it produced in Denmark. Among those who edited and annotated the ancient Danish and Icelandic historical chronicles, we may mention Peder Claussen, A. S. Vedel, and Axil Hvitfeldt, whose respective works supply invaluable materials to the historical inquirer. These men were contem.
poraries of the great astronomer, Tycho Brahé, and, like him, experienced the caprices of court-favor. The 17th c. shows a large number of able writers, among whom were Longomontanus, the pupil of Tycho Brahé; the family of Bartholin, numbering seventeen in three generations, who were all known for the ability of their writings on medical, philosophical, and mathematical subjects in Latin, German, and Danish; the family of the Pontoppidans, eleven in number, all of whom have left memorials of their proficiency in philology and history, and of their acquaintance with the theology and natural history of the times; Arreboe, the father of Danish poetry, who wrote on sacred subjects, and in his principal work, Hexameron, described in epic verse the events of the first six days of creation; Steno, the anatomist, and the lyrical poet, T. Kingo. A new era began with the genial and versatile Ludvig Holberg (born 1684), who wrote in Latin, French, German, and Danish, and has left very numerous works on history, biography, and topography, but whose fame among his countrymen will ever rest on his inimitable comedies, farces, and satirical compositions. His genius and his writings gave an impetus to the cultivation of the Danish language, which not all the studied neglect of the court-party, and their persistence in the use of German, could check.
The 18th c. produced many good historical critics—as, for instance, Torfæus, Langebek, Schöning, and Suhm, Magnæus, the Icelandic scholar, Thorlacius, and Thorkelin, learned in ancient northern lore, and Rosenvinge, the jurist. Among the epic and dramatic poets of that age, Ewald stands foremost, whose national lyrics evince true poetic genius. The close of the century was, however, unfavorable to mental development and freedom of thought; and the best writers, as in the case of Malte Brunn and the poet Heiberg, were either compelled to leave the country, or to abstain from giving expression to their opinions. Among the more recent writers, we may instance the poet Oehlenschlägerwhose national tragedies and lyrical legends of Scandinavian mythology have rekindled all the long slumbering fire of Danish patriotism-Baggesen, Winther, Hauch, F. P. Müller, Heiberg, Hertz, H. C. Andersen, Rosenhoff, Holst, and Overskou. Ingemann, who stands first as a writer of historical novels, also wrote good lyrics, and his subjects were generally taken from the national history. Short tales or novelettes would seem, however, to be more congenial to the taste of the Danes, and most of their best writers of fiction have adopted this form-as, for instance, Blicher, Heiberg, Trane, Andersen, Winther, Carit Etlar, etc. The names of Oersted, Schouw, Forchhammer, Rask, Finn Magnussen, Worsaa, Grundtvig, Petersen, and Eschricht, sufficiently attest the stand that the physical sciences, philology and archæology, have attained in Denmark in the present day. Thorwaldsen, by the gift of his works to the nation, has created a taste and appreciation for sculpture and the arts generally among his countrymen, to which they were previously strangers, and has thus given a new direction to the mental culture of the Danes.
The Danish language is peculiarly soft, from the great number (ten) of distinct vowel-sounds which it contains, the absence of gutturals, and the softening of all the consonants. It may be said to bear the same relation to the ancient tongue, the Norræna or Dönsk Tunga, that Italian does to Latin, force and precise inflections having been sacrificed for melody and simplicity.
DANISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (ante). The original language was the pure Scandinavian or Icelandic, but it has been transformed by foreign admix. ture, chiefly German, until the original features are nearly lost. The changes, begin. ning in the 12th c., culminated at the period of the reformation, and the language is now regarded as one of the richest of the European tongues. The literature of the country das had a remarkable development, and is of great interest not only to readers in general, but to scholars in all parts of the world. Excepting a medical treatise pub. lished in the 13th c., the oldest literary production of the country is a collection of 500 ballads, by unknown authors, celebrating the achievements and adventures of the chivalric age, and written in the 13th and 14th centuries. They are of great merit, historical as well as poetical, and, being handed down at first by tradition, have lately been edited and published in an exhaustive edition by Svend Gruntvig. The first printing press was set up in Copenhagen in 1490 by Gottfried of Gheman, and in 1495 was printed the first book, a history of Denmark in verse. Next, in 1506, appeared a collection of proverbs by Peder Lolle, and eight years later, three sacred poems by Mikkel, priest of St. Alban’s in Odense. These and many other works were published in Latin. It was not until the period of the reformation that the literary spirit of Denmark began to utter itself in the native tongue. Christian Pedersen translated the Psalms of David and the New Testament, printed 1529; and, in co-operation with bishop Paladus, the Bible, which appeared in 1550. The first authorized Psalter was published in 1559. Among the other authors of this early period may be mentioned Arild Hvitfield, historian; Hyeronymous Rauch, dramatist; Anders Arrebo, bishop of Trondhjem, father of Danish poetry; bishop Erik Pontoppidan, author of the first systematic analysis of the Danish language; Brigitta Thott, a lady who introduced to the Danes the writings of Seneca and Epictetus; Thomas Kingo, of Scotch descent, and Hans Adol Brorson, eminent hymn-writers. Ludvig Holberg. born 1684, was a historical and dramatic writer of great eminence, whose productions retain their interest and charm at the present day. He is sometimes called the founder of Danish literature. His comedies, for the age in which they were written, are remarkably pure in tone and sentiment. Joannes Ewald was the most eminent Danish poet of the 18th century. One of his productions, The Fishers, contains the Danish national song. Werner Abrahamson, critic; Johan Clemens Tode, scientist; Ove Malling, Peter Frederik Suhm, and Ove Guldberg, historians; Bastholm and Balle, theologians; and Niels Treschow, in the department of philosophy, were also among the writers of the 18th century. After the time of Wessell and Ewald, poetry languished, but prose received a new impulse. The most eminent prose writers of the period were Peter Andreas Heiberg, political and ästhetic critic; 0. C. Olufsen, scientist; Rasmus Nyrup, statistician and critic; Englestoft, historian; bishop Mynster, theologian; and Hans Christian Oersted, scientist. With the beginning of the present c., a new school of poets and novelists arose who won a high reputation in all parts of Europe. The herald of this school was Adolph Schack Staffeldt, a man who united with great seriousness and depth an exquisite taste in language. He was followed by Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger, the greatest poet of Denmark, in whose verse the old Scandinavian mythology was imbued with fresh life; Steen Steensen Blitcher; Nikolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig; Bernhard Severin Ingemann, the first to introduce the historical novel in Denmark; Johan Ludvig Heiberg, poet and dramatist: the countess Gyllembourg, novelist—a woman of remarkable power; Christian Winther, pastoral lyrist; Hans Christian Andersen, whose works are popular in England and America; Frederik Paludan Müller, a poet of great reputation. In philology, the names of Rasmus Christian Rask and Christian Molbeck are eminent, as is that of Niels Matthias Petersen in history. Joachim Frederik Schouw was an eminent botanist; Sören Naby Kierkegaard was a philosophical writer of much originality: Peter Thun Foersom made an excellent translation of Shakespeare. The great est living geologist in Denmark is Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup. Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae is an eminent antiquarian; and Nikolai Madvig is celebrated as a philologist. Vilhelm Thomsen has acquired distinction by his researches into the Sla. vonic tongue. In the fine arts there are some eminent Danish names. In painting, there may be mentioned Abilgaard, Juel, Eckersberg, Marstrand, Vermehren, Exner, Dalsgaard, and Skovgaard. In sculpture, it is necessary only to mention the name of Thorwaldsen, whose works adorn the museum at Copenhagen. The Danes are a musical people, and their first great composer was Christoph Weyse, whose comic operas are greatly admired. Hartmann and Gade are living composers of great merit.
DAN'ITES, a secret order among the Mormons suspected of having committed many murders, of which unfortunately there can be little doubt.
DANKALI', an independent state of Abyssinia, extending along the s.w. border of the Red sea, between lat. 13°and 15° 30' n., a range of mountains running almost parallel to the coast, and about 50 m. distant from it, forming its boundary inland. D. is a sterile territory, being almost quite destitute of water. The heat is excessive, often reaching 110° F. The inhabitants are composed of various Arab tribes, and are indolent, treacherous, and cruel. They number about 70,000.
DAN'NEBROG, an ancient battle standard of the Danes, alleged to have fallen from heaven at the battle of Volmar, 1219 A.D. Like the palladium, it was supposed to insure victory, but it was twice captured and twice retaken. The order of the Dannen. brog ranks second in the Danish orders of knighthood.
DAN'NECKER, Joh. HEINR. Von, a German sculptor, was b. at Waldenbuch, in the district of Stuttgart, 15th Oct., 1758. His parents were in the humblest circumstances; but through the favor of the duke of Würtemberg, bo received a good education at the military academy at Ludwigsburg. His artistic talents were rapidly developed. In 1780, he obtained the prize for the best model of “ Milo of Croton destroyed by the Lion;" and in 1783, went to Paris, where he studied for two years under Pajou; after which, he proceeded to Rome, where he met with Goethe, Herder, and Canova, to the last of whom he was indebted for much valuable instruction in his profession. At Rome, D. remained till 1790. Here he executed in marble bis statues of “Ceres" and
Bacchus." On his return to Germany, the duke of Würtemberg appointed him professor of sculpture in the academy of Stuttgart, in which city he resided till his death, Sth Dec., 1841. D. was undoubtedly one of the best of modern sculptors. His forte lay in expressing individual characteristics, in which respect he has not been surpassed. This gives a great value to his busts of distinguished persons, such as Schiller, Lavater, Gluck, and the kings Frederick and William of Würtemberg. His perceptions of the beautiful and the delicate, especially in the female form, are also considered by his countrymen to be more exquisite and true than those of Canova himself. His earlier works are chiefly pagan in their subjects, while his later ones are Christian, and are pervaded by a pensive idealism. Of the former, besides those already mentioned, the principal are Sappho,” “Love,”
," " Psyche,” and “ Ariadne as the Bride of Bacchus riding on a Leopard (at Frankfort);" of the latter, “ Christ,” “ John the Baptist," and “ Faith."
DANNEMO'RA, a parish and iron-mining region of Sweden, 23 m. n. of Upsal; pop. 1000. The iron is of excellent quality, and is largely used in making steel.