« 上一頁繼續 »
eled the worship, making Dan the religious center for the northern part of the kingdom which he had ustirped. This it continued to be until, about 250 years later, the people were carried captive into Assyria. At the present day the top of the mound is strewed with ruins, including traces of old foundations and heaps of large stones. There are ruins also on the plain below. The fertility of the plain or valley, remarkable in the times of the Sidonians, continues to the present day.
DAN, the fifth son of Jacob and the first by his wife's maid Bilbah. He was own brother to Naphtali, and there is a close affinity between his name and that of Dinah, Jacob's only daughter. The tribe of Dan was, next to Judah, the most numerous of the twelve tribes at the numbering in the wilderness; yet he was the last of all to receive his portion of the land, and that portion was the smallest of all. The Bible gives but little of the history of the tribe, which seems to have been easily and often led to copy the idolatry of the surrounding heathen.
DANA, CHARLES ANDERSON, b. N. H., 1819. He studied at Harvard for two years, but an affection of the eyes compelled his retirement. He was one of the members of the Brook Farm socialistic community, near Boston, and was one of the editors of Tho Harbinger, a journal advocating the ideas of Fourier. In 1847, he became a writer on the New York Tribune, and was correspondent of that journal in France during the rev. olution of 1848. Returning to New York, he became first assistant (or managing) editor of the Tribune, which position he filled until about the close of 1861, when the “On to Richmond” editorial, immediately followed by the disastrous defeat of the union forces at Bull Run, led to such disagreement with Horace Greeley, the editor of the paper, that Dana was compelled to resign. He was not long afterwards appointed assistant secretary of war. After the war he became the editor of a new republican paper in Chicago, but the enterprise was not successful. Returning to New York, he became one of a company to purchase The Sun, the oldest of the cheap papers of the country. He was chosen chief editor, which position he retains. Besides his work as a journalist, he has edited a Household Book of Poetry, and in connection with George Ripley has been the editor of Appleton's New American Cyclopædia.
DANA, FRANCIS, LL.D., 1743-1811; b. Mass.; graduate of Harvard; admitted to the bar in 1767. He was one of the “Sons of Liberty” in and about Boston at the com. mencement of the revolution. He was a delegate to the first provincial congress of Massachusetts, and in 1776 was chosen one of the council who at that time acted not only as a senate, but as the executive of the state. In 1781, he was appointed minister to Russia. He returned in 1783, and was at once sent to congress. In 1785, he was appointed justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts. He was a delegate to the Annapolis convention, to the convention which framed the federal constitution, and to the convention in his own state for its ratification. In 1791, he was made chief jus. tice of Massachusetts In 1797, he was appointed special envoy to the French republic, but declined on account of ill health. He was one of the founders of the American academy of arts and sciences.
DANA, JAMES DWIGHT, LL.D., b. N. Y., 1813; graduate of Yale, eminent as a naturalist and geologist. He was with the Wilkes exploring expedition to the southern oceans sent out by the federal government in 1838. In 1846, he became one of the editors of the American Journal of Science; in 1855, he was chosen professor of natural history and geology in Yale college. His works on geology and natural history are well known.
DANA, NAPOLEON JACKSON TECUMSEH, b. Me., 1822; graduated at West Point in 1842. He served in the war with Mexico, and through the war of the rebellion, and was seriously wounded at Antietam. Soon after the war he resigned with the rank of col.
DANA, RICHARD, 1699-1772; b. Mass., grandson of Richard, who was the first of tho family in America. He was a graduate of Harvard, bred to the law, and prominent in resistance to the acts of the British government which preceded the revolution. He was also a member of “The Sons of Liberty.”
DA'NA, RICHARD HENRY, an American poet and novelist, was born in 1787, at Cam bridge, Mass. After leaving Harvard college, at which he had remained three years, he adopted law as a profession, but eventually renounced it, and applied himself to litera. ture. In 1817, he became a contributor to the North American Revier, his connection with this periodical continuing for three years, during a portion of which time he assisted in its editorship The Idle Man, which contains many of his best prose efforts, was commenced in 1821, but proving a failure in a commercial point of view, was soon discontinued. Having at an earlier date published the Dying Raven, a poem of great merit, he came forward, in 1827, with the Buccaneer, and other poems. In 1839, D. delivered in Boston and New York a series of lectures on Shakespeare.-RICHARD H. DANA, the son of D., is well known as the author of Troo Years Before the Mast (enlarged ed. 1869). To Cuba and Back appeared in 1859. D. is also a distinguished authority on maritime law. He was nominated in 1876 to be ambassador in England, but the appointment was not sanctioned by the senate. R. H. D. senior d. 1879.
DANA, RICHARD HENRY, Jr., b. Mass., 1815, a son of Richard Henry, the poet; graduated at Harvard, and bred to the law. In consequence of ill health he made a voyage at sea, of which he published a description in Two Years Before the Mast. Ho
was admitted to the bar in 1840, and made a specialty of admiralty cases. In 1841, he published The Seaman's Friend, containing a Treatise on Practical Seamanship, and also an edition of Wheaton's International Law. He was one of the leaders of the free-soil party, and wrote and spoke much on political subjects. He d. 1882.
DANA, SAMUEL LUTHER, LL.D., 1795–1868; b. Mass.; a writer on chemistry and agriculture. While chemist of the Merrimack print-works he invented a method of bleaching cotton goods which was widely adopted.
DAN'AË, the daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos, and Ocaleia. According to the mythological narrative, an oracle had announced that she would one day give birth to & son, who should kill his grandfather. Acrisius, of course, felt extremely uncomfortable after this declaration, and took every precaution to keep D. a virgin. He shut her up in a dungeon, where, nevertheless, she was visited by Zeus in a shower of gold, and became, in consequence, the mother of Perseus. Acrisius put both the mother and child into a chest, and exposed them on the sea. The chest, however, drifted ashore on the island of Seriphos, and D. and her child were saved. D. remained in the island until Perseus had grown up and become a hero famous for his exploits. She afterwards accompanied him to Argos. On his arrival, Acrisius fled, but was subsequently slain accidentally by Perseus at Larissa.
DANAIDE, a hydraulic machine made of two cylinders one within the other, turning easily on a vertical axis, and having a small space between them. The smallest one is closed at the bottom, and the other has a hole in the middle of its base. The bottoms of the two are separated by partitions reaching from the circumference to the center, but the ring-like space between the cylinders is open. If water be turned into this space horizontally to the surface of the cylinders, they begin to revolve by friction, which motion is increased by the water in revolution acting on the radial partitions in the base. It is found that nearly three quarters of the hydraulic power can thus be utilized.
DAN AUS, a mythical personage, the son of Belus and Anchinoë, brother of Ægyptus, and originally ruler of Libya. Thinking his life in danger from the machinations of his brother, he fled to Argos, accompanied by his fifty daughters, known as the DANAIDES, where he was chosen king, after the banishment of Gelanor, the last of the Inachidæ.' The fifty sons of Ægyptus followed him, and under the pretense of friend. ship, sought the hand of his daughters in marriage. D. consented, but on the bridalnight he gave his daughters each a dagger, and urged them to murder their bridegrooms in revenge for the treatment he had received from Ægyptus. All did so, except one, Hypermnestra, who allowed her betrothed, Lynceus, to escape. D., as may naturally be supposed, found great difficulty in obtaining new husbands for his daughters; and in order to get them off his hands, instituted games, where they were given as rewards to the victors, although they could scarcely have been considered very tempting prizes. As a punishment for their crime, they were compelled, in the under-world, to pour water for ever into a vessel full of holes. So runs the myth; but Strabo mentions an old tradition, which declares D. and his fifty daughters to have provided Argos with water, which is probably the origin of the scene in Hades. Greek art, of course, represents the Danaides in conformity with the popular myth. The tomb of D., in the Agora of Argos, was shown as late as the time of Pausanias.
DANBURY, one of the county-seats of Fairfield co., Conn., on the Still river, 68 m. n.n.e. of New York city. The railroads passing through are the New York and New England, the Housatonic, and the Danbury and Norwalk division of the same. D. was permanently settled in 1685, and was burned by the British in Apr., 1777, when gen. Wooster was mortally wounded. It has a court-house, a fine public library, 2 national and 2 savings-banks, a high school, an opera-house, 12 churches, 3 small parks, water-works, a beautiful cemetery, a soldiers' monument, and one to gen. Wooster. The manufacture of hats, begun in 1780, employs a capital of more than $2,000,000. Other articles produced are hatters' supplies, boots and shoes, paper and wooden boxes, shirts, iron, and sewingmachines. Four newspapers are published. Pop. 1756, 1527 ; 1830, 4331 ; 1888, 18,000.
DAN'BY, FRANCIS, A.R.A., a painter, b. about 6 m. from Wexford, in Ireland, 16th Nov., 1793. He was educated in the school of the society of arts, Dublin, and soon gave indications of superior artistic talent. His first attempts were sent to the Dublin exhi. bition. After 1820, he took up his residence at Bristol, whence he sent to the royal academy, London, his “Disappointed Love" (1821), “Warriors of the Olden Time! Listening to the Song of their Minstrel” (1823), and “Sunset at Sea after a Storm": (1824). In 1825, D. produced “The Delivery of Israel out of Egypt;" in 1826, “Christ Walking on the Sea;" in 1827, “ The Embarkation of Cleopatra on the Cydnus;" and in 1828–29, “An Attempt to Illustrate the Opening of the Seventh Seal," "The Passage of the Red Sea," and “The Deluge." Circumstances now induced him to visit the continent, where he resided till 1841, during which interval he executed very few paintings. On his return, he took up his abode at Exmouth, where he died in 1861. Among his later works, may be mentioned “ A Morning at Rhodes” (1841).
DANCE; GEORGE, JR., 1740–1825; an English architect. Among his designs was that for Blackfriars bridge in London. He was associated with his brother Nathaniel in the foundation of the royal academy, of whose original members he was for several years the last survivor. Newgate prison and the front of Guildhall were built from his dusigns. His father, also named George, was noted as an architect.
DANCE OF DEATH (Lat. Chorea Machabæorum, Fr. La Danse Macabre), a name given to a certain class of allegorical representations, illustrative of the universal power of death, and dating from the 14th century. When the introduction of Christianity first banished the ancient Germanic conception of a future state, a new description of deathmythology arose, partly out of biblical sources, partly out of the popular character itself, wherein the last enemy was represented under simple and majestic images, such as that of a husbandman watering the ground, with blood, plowing it with swords, rooting out weeds, plucking up flowers, or felling trees, sowing it with corpses; or of & monarch assembling his armies, making war, taking prisoners, inviting his subjects to a festival, or citing them to judgment. But with a gradual change in national manners came a change in the mode of treating the subject, and it was associated with every-day images, such as the confessional, chess-playing, and above all, with the adjuncts of a festival-viz., music and dancing. This tendency to familiarize the theme increased during the confusion and turmoil of the 14th c., when the national mind alternated between fits of devotion and license, or blent both elements in satire and humor. Such a mood as this naturally occupied itself with personifying death, and adopted by prefer. ence the most startling and grotesque images it could find-that of a musician playing to dancing-men, or a dancer leading them on; and as the dance and the drama were then intimately connected, and employed on religious occasions, this particular idea soon assumed a dramatic form.
This drama was most simply constructed, consisting of short dialogues between Death and four-and-twenty or more followers, and was undoubtedly enacted in or near churches by religious orders in Germany during the 14th c, and at å rather later period in France. It would appear that the seven brothers, whose martyrdom is recorded in the 7th chapter of the 2d book of Maccabees, either played an important part in the drama, or the first representation, which took place at Paris, in the Cloister aur Inno. cents, fell upon their festival, and hence the origin of the ancient name, Chorea Macha bæorum, or La Danse Macabre. As early as 1400, the dramatic poem was imitated in Spain, and appears there in 79 strophes of 8 lines each (La Dança General de los Muertos), but it did not spread; while the French, having a love for pictorial representation, very early affixed an illustration to each strophe, and in 1425 painted the whole series on the church-yard wall of the Cloister of the Innocents, where the Dance of Death was habitually enacted. We find the subject treated in painting, sculpture, and tapestry, in the churches of Anjou, Amiens, Angers, Rouen, to say nothing of the numerous wood. cuts and accompanying letter-press which succeeded the invention of printing. From Paris, both poem and pictures were transplanted to London (1430), Salisbury (about 1460), Wortley hall in Gloucestershire, Hexham, etc.
But nowhere was the subject so variously and strikingly treated as in Germany. A picture in one of the chapels of the Marienkirche, at Lubeck, still, in spite of repeated repaintings, bearing the unmistakable impress of the 14th c., exhibits the very simplest form of the drama, and has some genuine Low Gerinan verses attached to it. Here we see 24 figures, partly clerical, partly lay, arranged in a descending scale, from the pope himself down to a little child, and between each of them a dancing-figure of Death, not in the form of a skeleton, but a shriveled corpse, the whole being linked in one chain, and dancing to the music of another Death. This representation is almost the same as a very ancient one at La Chaise-Dieu, in Auvergne, and points to the identity of the original dramatic spectacle in both countries.
The celebrated “Dance of Death” on the cloister walls of the Klingenthal, a convent in Basel, though painted probably not later than 1312, exhibited a departure from the simplest form—the number of persons exceeding the original 24, and the chain being broken up into separate couples. But both alike are only to be regarded as scenes from a drama, and cannot, therefore, be justly compared with a contemporary Italian painting, the “ Triumph of Death,” by Andrea Orcagna. And the acted drama enduring till the 15th c., we find that wbile there were varieties in the paintings, the poem, which was the most important feature, remained unchanged.
About the middle of the 15th c., however, the drama being altogether laid aside, the pictures became the main point of interest, the verses merely subsidiary. Accordingly, we find from this time the same pictures repeated in different places, with different verses, or no verses at all, till at length both verses and pictures entirely change their original character. The “Dance of Death” being transferred from the quiet convent walls into public places, cave a new impulse to popular art. Duke George of Saxony had, in 1534, the front of his Dresden castle ornamented with a life-size bas-relief of the subject. and other representations are to be found at Strasburg and Bern. There was a “Dance of Death " painted round the cloister of old St. Paul's in London, in the reign of Henry VI.; and there is a sculptured one at Rouen, in the cemetery of St. Maclou. But Holbein has the credit of availing himself most effectively of the original design, and giving it a new and more artistic character. Departing from the idea of a dance, he illustrated the subject by 53 distinct sketches for engravings, which he called “Imagines
Mortis." The originals of these are at St. Petersburg, and impressions of them have been frequently repeated under different names.
We may cite as authorities on this subject, Peignot's Recherches sur les Danses des Morts (Dijon and Paris, 1826); Massman's Baseler Todtentänze (Stuttgart, 1847); and Douce's The Dance of Death (Lond. 1833).
DANCETTE, one of the lines of partition in heraldry, which differs from indented (q.v.) only in the greater size of the notches. The indentations where the division is per fess dancette, never exceed three in number.
DANCING may be defined in a general way as the expression of inward feelings by means of rhythmical movements of the body, especially of the lower limbs, usually accompanied by music. Dancing may almost be said to be as old as the world, and prevails in rude as well as in civilized nations. Children, and also the lower animals, dance and gambol as by instinct. Our early records, sacred and profane, make mention of dancing, and in most of the ancient nations it was a constituent part of their religious rites and ceremonies. They danced before their altars and round the statues of their gods. The Greek chorus, “in the oldest times, consisted of the whole population of the city, who met in the public place (choros, the market-place), to offer up thanksgivings to their country's god, by singing hymns and performing cor. responding dances." The Jewish records make abundant mention of dancing. Moses and Miriam danced to their song of triumph, when the Israelites passed through the Red sea as on dry land; David danced before the ark. It is certain that the primitive Christians danced at their religious meetings, though we have no mention of this in the New Testament. The Greeks made the art of dancing into a system expressive of all the different passions, the dance of the Eumenides, or Furies, especially, creating such terror, that the spectators seemed to see these dreaded deities about to execute heaven's vengeance on earth. The most eminent Greek sculptors did not disdain to study the attitudes of the public dancers for their art of imitating the passions. In Homer, we read of dancing and music at entertainments. Aristotle ranks dancing with poetry, and says, in his Poetics, that there are dancers who, by rhythm applied to gesture, express manners, passions, and actions. In Pindar, Apollo is called the darcer; and Jupiter himself, in a Greek line, is represented as in the act of dancing. The Spartans had a law obliging parents to exercise their children in dancing from the age of five. This was done in the public place, to train them for the armed-dance. They were led by grown men, and all sang hymns and songs as they danced. The young men danced the Pyrrhic dance, in four parts, expressive of overtaking an enemy and of a mock-fight.
Dancing, as an entertainment in private society, was performed in ancient times mostly by professional dancers, and not by the company themselves. Among the sedate Romans, in fact, it was considered disgraceful for a free citizen to dance, except in connection with religion. Having professional dancers at entertainments is still the practice among eastern nations. In Egypt there are dancing and singing girls, called almé, who improvise verses as in Italy. They are highly educated, and no festival takes place without them. They are placed in a rostrum, and sing during the repast; then descend, and form dances that have no resemblance to ours. All over India there are nautch girls or bayaderes (q.v.), who dance at festivals and solemnities.
It is among savage nations that the passion for dancing is most strongly manifested. Their dances are mostly associated with religion and war; and the performers work themselves into a state of frantic excitement-a kind of mechanical intoxication. As civilization advances, dancing-amateur dancing, at least-assumes a more and more subdued character. As a social amusement and a healthful exercise, dancing has much to recommend it; the chief drawbacks are the ill-ventilated and overheated rooms in which it is generally performed. By many, it is unfavorably regarded in a moral point of view; but this seems a relic of that outburst of puritanism that characterized the 17th c., and which saw sin in every joyous excitement. Dancing is doubtless liable to abuse, but not more so than most other forms of social intercourse. Connected with the subject of dancing, see ACROBATS, BALLET, PANTOMIME, COUNTRY-DANCE, QUA: DRILLE, POLKA, etc.
DANCING MANIA, a form of epidemic disorder allied to hysteria (q.v.), and evidently the result of imitative emotions acting upon susceptible subjects, under the influ ence of a craving for sympathy or notoriety. There is little donbt that imposture entered to a considerable extent into all the epidemic forms of the dancing mania, which indeed were usually attended and followed by consequences that showed but too clearly the presence of impure motives; but there is also evidence that in many cases the convulsive movements were really beyond the control of the will, whatever may have been the original character of the motives that prompted them. Epidemics of this sort were common in Germany during the middle ages, and are formally described as early as the 14th c.; in Italy, a somewhat similar disease was ascribed to the bite of a spider called the tarantula (see TARANTISM); and similar convulsive affections have been witnessed in Abyssinia, India, and even in comparatively modern times and in the most civilized countries in Europe, under the influence of strong popular excitement, especially connected with religious demonstrations. But the true dancing mania of the middle ages had its theater chiefly in the crowded cities of Germany.
In July, 1374, there appeared at Aix-la-Chapelle assemblies of men and women, who, excited by the wild and frantic, partly heathenish, celebration of the festival of St. John, began to dance on the streets, screaming and foaming like persons possessed. The attacks of this mania were various in form, according to mental, local, or religious conditions. The dancers, losing all control over their movements, continued dancing in wild delirium till they fell in extreme exhaustion, and groaned as in the agonies of death; some dashed out their brains against walls. When dancing, they were insensible to external impressions, but haunted by visions, such as of being immersed in a sea of blood, which obliged them to leap so high, or of seeing the heavens open, and the Saviour enthroned with the Virgin Mary. The frenzy spread overy many of the towns of the Low Countries. Troops of dancers, inflamed by intoxicating music, and fol. lowed by crowds, who caught the mental infection, went from place to place, taking possession of the religious houses, and pouring forth imprecations against the priests. The mania spread to Cologne, Metz, and Strasburg, giving rise to many disorders, impostures, and profligacy. These countries were generally in a miserable condition; and arbitrary rule, corruption of morals, insecurity of property, and low priestcraft, prepared the wretched people, debilitated by disease and bad food, to seek relief in the iutoxication of an artificial delirium. Exorcism had been found an efficacious remedy at the commencement of the outbreak; and in the beginning of the 16th c., Paracelsus, that great reformer of medicine, applied immersion in cold water with great success. At the beginning of the 17th c., the St. Vitus's dance, as the affection was called (see CHOREA), was already on the decline; and we now hear of it only in single cases as a sort of nervous affection. A detailed account of the phenomenon is given in Hecker's Epidemics of the Middle Ages. See CONVULSIONARIES.
DANDELION (leontodon taraxacum, or taraxacum officinale), a plant of the natural order compositæ, sub-order cichoracea, common throughout Britain and the whole of Europe, in pastures and by waysides, and now also so perfectly naturalized in many parts of North America, as to be there one of the most familiar spring-flowers. The names D. and leortodon (Fr. and Gr. lion's tooth) both have reference to the form of the leaves. The whole plant abounds in a milky juice, containing a peculiar crystalline principle, called taraxacin; has a bitter taste; and is tonic, deobstruent, and diuretic. D. root is employed in medicine, in the form of infusion, decoction, and extract, chiefly in diseases of the liver and chronic affections of the digestive organs. It contains resin, inulin, sugar, etc. When roasted and ground, it is also sometimes used as a substitute for coffee. D. coffee, however, is usually a mixture of ordinary coffee and the powder or extract of D. root; and D. chocolate is composed of one part of common chocolate and four parts of the powder of D. root. The young leaves make a good salad.
DAN'DOLO, a famous Venetian family, which has given four doges to the republic. The most illustrious of its members was Enrico D., b. about 1110 or 1115 A.D. Eminent in learning, eloquence, and knowledge of affairs, he ascended from one step to another, until, in 1173, he was sent as ambassador to Constantinople, and in 1192 was elected doge. In this latter capacity, he extended the bounds of the republic in Istria and Dalmatia, defeated the Pisans, and (in 1201) marched at the head of the crusaders. He subdued Trieste and Zara, the coasts of Albania, the Ionian islands, and Constantinople (17th July, 1203). When the emperor Alexius, who had been raised to the throne by the exertions of D., was murdered by his own subjects, D. laid siege to Constantinople, and took it by storm, 13th April, 1204. He then established there the empire of the Latins, and caused count Baldwin of Flanders to be chosen emperor. By the treaty of partition which he concluded with the other leaders of the crusade, Venice obtained possession of some of the islands of the Ionian sea, and of the archipelago, several har. bors and tracts of land on the Hellespont, in Phrygia, the Morea, and Epirus, an entire quarter of Constantinople, and also, by purchase, the island of Candia. Soon after this, D. died (June 1, 1205), in Constantinople, and was buried in the church of St. Sophia. His monument was destroyed by the Turks at the taking of Constantinople in 1453.
DAN'DOLO, ANDREA, Doge of Venice, 1342, a member of one of the most illustri. ous families of that famous city. He was a student and a man of letters, and an intimate friend of Petrarch. He wrote two chronicles of Venice.
DAN'DOLO, VINCENZO, Count, 1758–1819; an Italian scientist, native of Venice, where he began life as a physician. When Venice came under Austria, he went to Milan, where he became a member of the grand council. He went to Paris in 1799, but soon afterwards returned to the vicinity of Milan and engaged in scientific agriculture, In 1805, Napoleon made him governor of Dalmatia, where he proved himself an excel. lent officer. He published several works on agriculture. In 1809, he retired to private life in Venice.
DANE, a co. in s. Wisconsin, intersected by five or six railroads, the co, seat (Madi. son) being the capital and the great railroad center of the state; 1235 sq.m.; pop. '80, 53,234. It is mostly prairie, and the soil is fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats, barley, hay, butter, wool, tobacco, hops, etc.
DANE, NATHAN, LL.D., 1752–1835; b. Mass.; graduated at Harvard, 1778; studied law in Salem, and began to practice in 1782 at Beverly. He was successively a member of the Massachusetts house of representatives, the continental congress, and the Massachusetts senate; then held various commissions to codify or revise laws; and was judge of commom pleas. He was also a member of the much abused Hartford conven.