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Damiani.

years have been afforded for making the pilgrimage by way of Egypt and the Red sea, have caused considerable diminution in the pilgrims, and consequently in the trade. One of the greatest blows at the prosperity of D. was struck in 1860, when the Druses (q.v.) entered the city, and destroyed about 6,000 houses in the Christian quarter, killing from 3,000 to 5,000 persons, and selling many of the women into Turkish harems. The imports of British goods, chietly plain and printed calicoes, cotton handkerchiefs, and cotton yarn have been valued at £150,000. In 1870, the value of the goods brought into D. by the great (Bagdad) caravan was £90,000. Pop., including the adjoining village of Salahîyeh, 150,000; 130,000 are Mohammedans, 15,000 Christians, and 5,000 Jews.

D. is perhaps the most ancient city in the world. Josephus attributes its foundation to Uz, the great-grandson of Noah; but whether it dates so far back or not, it is certain that it was a place of consequence in the days of Abraham. During the time of the Hebrew monarchy, it was the capital of Syria. It afterwards passed successively under the rule of the Assyrians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, and Saracens; and finally, in 1516, it was captured by the Turks under sultan Selim I.-in whose hands, with the exception of a short interval (from 1832–40), when it belonged to the pasha of Egypt, it has remained ever since. Under every change of dynasty and every form of government, D., unlike most cities, has retained its prosperity.

The vilayet of D. comprises all the territory between the Lebanon and the Euphrates —that is, all between lat. 31° to 36° n., and long. 35° to 41° east. The surface is for the most part level and very fertile, and produces grain of various kinds, hemp, flax, silk, cotton, madder, tobacco, and cochineal. The vilayet of D.-or of Syria as it is also called—is accounted the most important vilayet of Turkey. Pop. 518,750.

DAMASCUS BLADE. See DAMASKEENING.

DAMASK, the name given to all textile fabrics in which figures of flowers, fruits, or others not of geometrical regularity, are woven. The word is supposed to be derived from the city of Damascus having been an early seat of these manufactures. From the intricacy of the early process, the art of D. weaving was long a mystery confined to a few localities; but since the introduction of the Jacquard machine, it is extensively employed wherever ornament is wanted in the stuffs used for dress or house-furnishings. The rich satins and brocades of Lyons and Spitalfields, the flowered ribbons of Coventry, and the bed and window curtains of Halifax and Bradford, are all examples of Ď. manufacture; but it is in the department of table-linen that the art has had its widest scope and greatest triumphs. The principal seats of the manufacture, on the continent of Europe, are at Courtrai and Liege in Belgium, and in some parts of Saxony, Silesia, and Austria; in England, to a considerable extent at Barnsley, in Yorkshire; in Ireland, at Belfast, Lisburne, and Ardoyne; and in Scotland, at Dunfermline, which may be called the metropolis of the manufacture.

There are three descriptions of D. known in the trade-viz. 1. Full harness, which is generally employed in patterns of limited size and minute detail, the peculiarity being that the Jacquard machine only lifts one thread by each needle, and in such cases, the pattern is repeated to fill up the breadth wanted. 2. “Single” or “common D., in which any number of threads, from two to seven, can be listed by one needle, to form the pattern; while the ground is produced by a set of five shafts and heddles, giving from twice to seven times the extent of pattern obtained from the same machine by the full-harness process. In full harness and single D. goods, a square fabric is considered the proper medium, that is, the warp and weft equal; but sometimes a thread or two less or more on warp or weft is used, according to the effect wanted to be produced. 3. In double D., the pattern is produced in the same way as in single, and the ground formed by eight shafts and heddles, forming what the weavers call an eight-leaved twill, absorbing one half more weft than warp, and giving that fine satin-like ground which distinguishes double damask. Besides these descriptions of D., a mixed cotton and woolen colored fabric in table-covers has been introduced, and is now manufactured extensively, the ground of which is woven with twelve shafts.

To give an idea of the capital required to work the finer branches of the trade, it may be mentioned, that it is quite usual for the mere designing and painting of a pattern to cost £50; and £70 has been paid for some extensive designs; while the famous "Crimean hero” pattern, containing portraits of the queen, prince consort, emperor Napoleon, etc., cost £600 of outlay, ere a yard of cloth could be brought to market, employing seven Jacquard machines, consuming 50,000 cards, and containing 4.800 threads in the square yard. In 1836, there were in Dunfermline 3,000 D. and 517 diaper looms, and the capital embarked in the trade was estimated at £826,261, and the total number of persons employed, 5,044. Steam-power was successfully inaugurated in 1819, when one factory employed about 100 power-looms. In 1877, there were 11 powerloom factories, with 4,000 looms, two thirds of which were employed in the weaving of damask. When it is considered that the production of one power-loom is equal to that of four hand-looms, some idea may be formed of the development of the trade since 1836.—A good description of D. and the D. loom is to be found in Chalmers’s History of Dunfermline, vols. i. and ii.

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DAMASKEEN'ING, or DAMASCEN'ING, is tie art of producing upon ordinary steel cer. tain ornamental appearances resembling those observed on the famous Damascus blades. Attention was first drawn to this branch of industry by the crusaders, who brought froin Damascus to Europe many articles made of superior steel, such as sword-blades and daggers. These were found to possess not only great elasticity, united with considerable hardness, but their surfaces were covered with beautiful designs, formed by a tissue of dark lines on a light ground, or light lines upon a dark ground, and occasion. ally by the inlaying of gold on the steel-blue ground. These Damascus blades appear to have been constructed of steel and iron welded together; and the elegant designs were brought out by immersing the blades in dilute acids, which, eating away unequally the surface, gave rise to the mottled appearance. In genuine Damascus blades, the designs run through the substance of the blade, and the watering, or regular, almost symmet. rical figuring is not worn off by friction, or even grinding. Imitations of the watering of Damascus steel are produced on common steel by etching with acids; and in this way landscapes, inscriptions, and ornaments, and decorations in general, are imprinted on the steel-blue ground. Gold and silver are also inlaid in the higher-class of sword. blades and other articles. Gun-barrels are occasionally subjected to the process of damaskeening. Attempts have been made in France to accomplish damaskeening by means of photography, but as yet with very imperfect results.

DAM'ASUS, SAINT, Bishop of Rome, was by extraction a Spaniard, and born probably early in the 4th century. In 366 A.D., he was elected bishop of Rome, but had to struggle tiercely for the possession of his office with one Ursinus, who was supported by a considerable party. His career was throughout far from peaceful. It was mainly spent in subduing the still numerous Arians in the west; in combating the heresy of Apollinaris, which he caused to be condemned by the council assembled at Constantinople in 382; and in defending the cause of Paulinus against Meletius. He died 384. It is difficult to form a just estimate of D.'s character. His enemies used to call him Auriscalpius Matronarum (The ear-tickler of the married ladies "), and hinted that he was in the habit of inducing rich female penitents to make testamentary bequests in his favor-a conspicuous vice of the clergy at that time; so much so, indeed, that Valentinian was obliged to issue an edict forbidding ecclesiastics to receive such bequests for the future. The edict was addressed to D., who was required to announce it to the church. On the other hand, he was a great friend of St. Jerome, and was primarily instrumental in inducing that learned divine to undertake a new translation of the Bible. His extant works consist of seven epistles, addressed to various bishops, and rather more than forty short poems, religious, descriptive, etc., but of little or no merit. The first edition was published at Rome by Sarrazanius in 1638. D.'s festival falls on the 11th December.

DAM'ASUS II., a native of Bavaria, a bishop in the Tyrol, chosen the 155th pope on the death of Clement II., in 1047. His reign lasted but 23 days.

DAMBOOL', a vast rock-temple of the Buddhists in Ceylon, containing, among a profusion of carvings, figures of Buddha, of extraordinary magnitude. See Ceylon, by sir J. Emerson Tennent (Lond. 1859), vol. ii. p. 577.

DAME (Lat. domina, a mistress), a title of honor which long distinguished high-born ladies from the wives of citizens, and of the commonalty in general. In the age of chivalry, it was customary even for a queen to be so called by her chosen knight (the dame of his heart, of his thoughts,” etc.). In consequence of the greater courtesy shown towards women of higher rank, arose the custom of prefixing the word ma to dame, as a special proof of veneration and homage. Hence, too, the Virgin-mother was called in France Notre-Dame (Our mistress," or lady, as if no one Christian could exclusively claim the privilege of serving her with the homage of his heart). The daughters of the king of France, as soon as they came into the world, were called madame; and this was also the sole title of the wife of the king's eldest brother. In England, the word D., though not much used, is now applied to married women of all classes. Madame is shortened into madam, which is still a word of honor, applicable, in particular cases, to majesty itself. Thus, Alfred Tennyson, in dedicating his poems to queen Victoria, speaks as a chivalrous troubadour might have done,

"Take, madam,

book of song." DAME'S VIOLET, Hesperis, a genus of plants of the natural order crucifera, having four-sided or two-edged pods, and containing several species, annual and biennial herbaceous plants, natives, chiefly, of the middle and s. of Europe. One only, the COMMON D. V., or WHITE ROCKET (H. matronalis), is found in Britain, in hilly pastures, but perhaps rather escaped from cultivation than a true native. It has an erect branched stem, with ovato-lanceolate leaves, and terminated by numerous large lilac-flowers, which are scentless by day, but very fragrant at night, on which account this plant is cultivated in flower-pots by German ladies. The custom appears to have been an old English one also, and from it the plant derives its common name. The NIGHT-SCENTED ROCKET (H tristis) is also a favorite flower in Germany.

DAMIA'NI, PIETRO, 1000–72; a Roman Catholic prelate, eminent, intellectually, and morally, who supported various reforms which Hildebrand (the great pope, Gregory

this

poor

Damper.

VII.) also favored, for which he was persecuted by the corrupt priests of Milan. He was appointed cardinal bishop of Ostia, 1057. In 1069, he was sent as legate to Germany to dissuade Henry IV. from applying for a divorce, in which he was successful. He was engaged on other occasions to make peace and suppress disorder. Among his writings is a fine religious hymn in Latin.

DAMIANISTS, or ANGELists, a sect of the 6th c., followers of Damianus, & patriarch of Alexandria, who agreed substantially with the Sabellians.

DAMIENS, ROBERT FRANÇOIs, known for his attempt to assassinate Louis XV., was born in 1714, at Tieulloy, a village near Arras, in France. He was evilly-disposed froin his youth, being known even then as Robert le Diable. On account of a robbery which he had committed, he was obliged to flee into Belgium in 1756, whence he returned to Paris about the end of the year. It was during his absence in that country that he formed the intention of assassinating his sovereign. The motives which led him to this are not well understood. He himself alleged that it was the conduct of the king towards the parliament; while a more popular, but apparently groundless opinion was, that he was instigated by the Jesuits. On the 5th of Jan., 1757, having gone to Versailles on the previous day, he assiduously followed the king and his courtiers about everywhere; and about six o'clock at night, when the king was entering his carriage to leave Trianon, managed to stab him. The king, however, recognized his assassin, and D. was seized. The punishment inflicted on him was horrible. The hand by which he attempted the murder was burned at a slow fire; the fleshy parts of his body were then torn off by pincers; and, finally, he was dragged about for an hour by four strong horses, while into his numerous wounds were poured molten lead, resin, oil, and boiling wax! Towards night, the poor wretch expired, having by an effort of will almost superhuman, kept his resolution of not confessing who were his accomplices—if, indeed, he had any, His remains were immediately burned, his house was destroyed, his father, wife, and daughter were banished from France forever, and his brothers and sisters compelled to change their names.

DAMIET'TA, a t. of Lower Egypt, situated on the right bank of the chief of the Nile's eastern branches, about 8 m. from its mouth in the Mediterranean, in lat. 31° 25' n., long. 31° 49' east. It is in general ill and irregularly built, but it has some handsome mosques and marble baths, and several bazaars. Its commerce has been much injured by the prosperity of Alexandria. It still, however, carries on a considerable trade in exporting rice, which grows abundantly in the neighborhood, fish, etc.; and in importing charcoal, soap, silk, etc. The exports in 1871, were £85,200, the imports £150,600. It is connected by railway and telegraph with Cairo, etc. The cloth known as dimity received its name from D., where it was first manufactured. A bar at the mouth of the river prevents vessels of more than 50 or 60 tons burden from ascending to Damietta. Pop. 37, 036. The existing town was erected about 1251, but, prior to that, a city of the same name (more anciently Tamiáthis) stood about 4 m. to the south. It was strongly fortified by the Saracens, and formed on that side the bulwark of Egypt against the early crusaders, who, however, succeeded in capturing it more than once. It was razed, and rebuilt further inland on the site it now occupies, by the sultan Baybers.

DAÎMÎR (Kemâl ud-den Abu'l Bagâ Muhammed Ben Musa Ben Isa ad-Damiri AshSkafei), 1341-1405; b. Cairo, Egypt; an Arabian writer on canon law, but better known to Europe by his work on natural history, The Life of Animals, in which he catalogues 931 beasts, birds, fishes, and insects, with the habits of which he appears to have been acquainted. The work is full of episodes treating of history and religion, in consequence of which its literary value is much increased.

DAMIRON, JEAN PHILIBERT, 1794–1862; a French philosophical writer who studied under Burnouf, Villemain, and Cousin. He lectured on philosophy in various Parisian institutions, became professor in the normal school, and titular professor at the Sorbonne. He was one of the founders of the Globe newspaper, a member of the legion of honor, and of the academy of sciences. He published a number of philosophical works, particularly on the history of philosophy in France.

DAM'MAR, or DAMMAR PINE, Dammara, a genus of trees of the natural order conif. eræ, distinguished from all the rest of that order by their broad lanceolate leathery leaves, which have numerous nearly parallel veins, and by their seeds being winged, not at the end, but on one side. The tree from which the name, originally applied to its resinous product, has been extended to the whole genus, is the MOLUCCAN D. (D. orientalis), which grows on the high mountain-ridges of the Molucca islands. It grows to a great height, attains a diameter of 9 ft., and generally has the lower part of the trunk beset with knots as large as a man's head. The timber is light and of inferior quality; and the tree is chiefly valuable for its resin, which is soft, transparent, hardens in a few days, and is then white, with a crystalline appearance. The resin often flows spontaneously from the tree in such quantity, that it hangs in masses like icicles of a handbreadth and a foot long. At another period of the year, it is yellow, and less valued. By incision, especially in the protuberances of the stem, it is obtained in large pieces. So long as dammar resin is soft, it has a strong smell; but loses it when it dries. It contains only a trace of volatile oil, but consists

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of two distinct resins, one of which is soluble in alcohol, the other not. It is light, brittle, and easily friable, readily soluble in oil of turpentine; quickly becomes viscid when heated; when sprinkled on burning coal, diffuses an odor like that of rosin or mastich; readily takes fire, and burns with much smoke and a somewhat acid smell. It is used in Asia for domestic purposes, and in the arts like other resins; it is an article of commerce, and in Europe is employed in various ways to form varnishes, which dry quickly, have a very bright luster, and being colorless, allow the beauty of the colors over which they are spread to be perfectly seen; but readily becomes viscid again, and are not permanent, so that this resin cannot be made a substitute for copal and amber. It is almost completely soluble in benzole, and in this solvent, makes an excellent colorless varnish for positive photographs on glass—it is, how. ever, scarcely hard enough for negatives. - To this genus belongs also the Kauri Pine (q.y.) of New Zealand (D. Australis), which produces the resin known as kauri resin, or kauri gum. - The word dammar, dammer, or damar, signifies resin in some of the languages of India.

The resin known as BLACK DAMMAR is obtained in the Molucca islands from the trunk of marignia acutifolia, a tree of the natural order amyridacea. It is a semi-fluid soft resin, with a strong smell, becoming black when it dries; it is used as pitch, also to yield a kind of turpentine, which is obtained by distillation.Canarium microcarpum, a tree of the same order, also a native of the furthest east, yields, by incision of the trunk, a viscid, odorous, yellowish substance, very similar to balsam of copaiva, which is called damar or dammar, and is used in naval yards as oakum, being mixed with a little chalk and the bark of reeds, and becomes as hard as a stone.—Quite distinct from all these is the resin also called dammar or piney dammar in India, often also called copal (q.v.) in India, and anime (q.v.) in Britain, the produce of vateria Indica, a large tree of the natural order dipteraceæ. It is obtained by wounding the tree, and when fresh, is clear, fragrant, and acridly bitter; when dried, it becomes yellow, brittle, and glass-like. It is used in India as a varnish (viney varnish), which is hard, tenacious, and much esteemed. It is also made into candles in Malabar, which, in burning, diffuse an agreeable fragrance, and give a clear light with little smoke. Some of these candles were sent to Britain, and were highly prized, but the excessive duty stopped the importation. Shorea robusta, the sal (q.v.), so much valued in India as å tim ber-tree, also of the natural order dipteraceo, and some other species of shorea, yield a resin, also known as dammar, and as ral and dhoona, which is much used in dock-yards in India as pitch.

DAMMU'DAH, or DUMMO'DAH, a river of India, rises in Ramgurh, a district in the presidency of Bengal, about lat. 23° 55' n. and long. 84° 53' e.; and after a generally s.e. course of 350 m., it enters the Hoogly from the right, in lat. 22° 13' n., and long. 88° 7' east. The valley of the D.-traversed by the main railway between Calcutta and the n.w. (the East Indian railway)-abounds in coal and iron; and competent judges have calculated that bar-iron may here be manufactured 20 per cent cheaper than it can be imported from Great Britain.

DAM'OCLES, one of the courtiers and sycophants of the elder Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse. It is recorded by Cicero that D., having lauded in the highest terms the grandeur and happiness of royalty, was reproved by Dionysius in a singular manner. The sycophant was seated at å table, richly spread and surrounded by all the furniture of royalty, but in the midst of his luxurious banquet, on looking upwards, he saw a keen-edged sword suspended over his head by a single horse-hair. A spectacle so alarming instantly altered his views of the felicity of kings.

DAMON AND PYTH'IAS, or Puin'tias, two noble Pythagoreans of Syracuse, who have been remembered as models of faithful friendship. Pythias having been condemned to death by Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse, begged to be allowed to go home, for the purpose of arranging his affairs, Damon pledging his own life for the reappearance of his friend. Dionysius consented, and Pythias returned just in time to save Damon from death. Struck by so noble an example of mutual affection, the tyrant pardoned Pythias, and desired to be admitted into their sacred fellowship.

DAMPER, a door or valve which, by sliding, rising and falling, turning on a hinge, or otherwise, diminishes the aperture of a chimney or air-flue; this lessens the quantity of air that can pass through a furnace or other fire, and thus “ damps” or checks the combustion.— The D. of a pianoforte is that part of the mechanism which, after a key is struck, and the finger_is lifted up from the key, immediately checks or stops the vibration of the string. It consists of a second hammer, which, on the rising of the key, strikes the string and remains upon it, instead of bounding off as the soundinghammer does. Perfect damping is always desirable, but seldom obtained, especially in upright pianofortes. In respect of damping, the pianofortes of the German makers are superior to the English. The more perfect the damping is, the more distinctly and clearly the passages and harmony are heard, while the instrument gains in purity of tone, when there is none of that confusion of sounds which arises from imperfect damping

Damper is also the name given in Australia to a simple kind of unleavened bread formed of wheat flour. It is made while traveling in the bush, and baked among the ashes of a fire often kindled for the purpose.

DAM'PIER, WILLIAM, a celebrated English navigator, was b. of a Somersetshire family in 1652. He early went to sea, where he was soon distinguished alike by his intelligence and enterprise. Along with a party of buccaneers, D. crossed the isthmus of Darien in 1679, and embarking on the Pacific in canoes and similar small craft, cap tured several Spanish vessels, in which they cruised along the coast of Spanish America, waging war with the Spanish subjects. In 1684, D. engaged in another buccaneering expedition, in which he coasted along the shores of Chili, Peru, and Mexico, sailing thence to the East Indies, touching at Australia, and after some time returning to Eng. land, where in 1691 he published an interesting account of the expedition, entitled A Voyage Round the World. He was afterwards deputed by government to conduct & voyage of discovery to the South seas, in which he explored the w. and n.w. coasts of Australia, also the coasts of New Guinea, New Britain, and New Ireland, giving his name to the Dampier archipelago and strait (q.v.). The events of the latter part of D.'s life are not well known. Besides the one already mentioned, the following are his principal works: Voyages to the Bay of Campeachy (Lond. 1729); A Treatise on Winds and Tides; and a Vindication of his Voyage to the South Sea in the Ship St. George (1707).

DAMPIER ARCHIPELAGO AND STRAIT take their names from the famous navigator and buccaneer. The strait, which is 35 m. wide, separates the island of Waygiou from the n.w. extremity of Papua or New Guinea, lying almost immediately under the equator, and about long. 131° e., so as to be, as nearly as possible, the antipodes of the mouth of the Amazon. The archipelago, again, is off the n.w. coast of Australia, about lat. 21° s., and long. 117° east. The principal islands of the cluster are Enderby, Lewis, Rosemary, Legendre, and Depuch.

DAMPING OFF, in horticulture, the death of plants from excess of moisture in the soil and atmosphere. Young seedlings in stoves and hot-beds are particularly liable to it. Although the cause is sufficiently obvious, prevention is not always easy; not only because some plants are very sensitive as to moisture, but also because the necessity of keeping sashes closed on account of temperature often stands in the way of the ventilation which would otherwise be desirable, and it is when a moist atmosphere stagnates around them, and the temperature is not very low, that plants are most liable to damp off.

DAMROSCH, LEOPOLD, M. D. See page 900.

DAM'SON, a rather small oval-fruited variety of the common plum, much esteemed for preserving, and not wholly unfit for dessert. The tree grows to a considerable height, but has a bushy, sloe-like appearance. It is extremely fruitful. There are many sub-varieties, with fruit of different colors, dark purple, bluish, black, yellow, etc. Damsons are produced in great quantities in some parts of England. D. pies, and D. cheese-made somewhat in the manner of tig-cake-are well-known English luxuries. The name is a corruption of Damascene, from Damascus.—The MOUNTAIN D. or BITTER D. of the West Indies is the simaruba (q.v.).

DAMUGGO', a large and populous t. of Upper Guinea, Africa, situated on the left bank of the Niger, in lat. 7° n., long. n° 50' east. The houses, built of mud, and supported by wooden props, are circular in shape. The town is dirty, and has a miserable appearance. The population, the number of which has not been ascertained with any degree of accuracy, support themselves by trade and the cultivation of the soil.

DAN, a city, the position of which, at the northern extremity of Palestine, is determined: 1. By its being the northern point on the road to Damascus, at which Abraham overtook the allied forces that had plundered Sodom. 2. By its frequent designation as the northern limit of the land, as in the familiar expression-“from Dan to Beer sheba.” 3. By the statement of Josephus, that it stood at the lesser fountain of the Jordan; and that of Jerome, that at it the Jordan took its rise, and, as he thought from his view of the etymology, obtained its name Jor-Dan, as “the river of Dan." 4. By Dr. Robinson's discovery, in the same locality, of “a mound from the foot of which gushes out one of the largest fountains of the world—the main source of the Jordan," the gnification of whose Arabic name, Tell el Kadi, the judge's mound," agrees with that of the Hebrew Dan, "a judge."' The manner in which the tribe of Dan acquired possession of this region is narrated in the book of Judges. Their inheritance by lot was well situated near the powerful tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and Ephraim; but the most fertile part of it was too small for them, and was often overrun by the Amorites and Philistines. In order to enlarge their territory they sent out spies to search for a fertile region which they might obtain by force or craft. These having gone to the north, reported that they had found there a large and good land abounding in supplies for every want, and inhabited by a people careless and secure. So the tribe, having arrayed itself for war, fell suddenly on the coveted region, putting the inhabitants to death and burning the city. When they rebuilt it they changed its name from Laish to Dan after their father. The subsequent history of the city is peculiar. The Danites stole not only the good land and the city, but also the religion which they established there. On their way north they found in Mt. Ephraim a house in which was a priest of the tribe of Levi, with an ephod and teraphim, a molten and a graven image. All these they carried away with them and set up the idolatrous worship under a permanent priesthood in their conquered home. Four hundred years afterwards Jeroboam remod

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