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tory ministry, in 1711, put a stop to the brilliant career of the great duke, Dalrymple retired from the army: When George I. succeeded to the throne, Dalrymple-who had become earl of Stair by the death of his father in 1707—was made a lord of the bed. chamber, a privy-councilor, and commander-in-chief of the forces of Scotland. Next year, he was sent as ambassador to France, in which capacity he exhibited the highest ability, and was of the greatest service in traversing the schemes for the reinstatement of the pretender; but as he refused to flatter his countryman, Law-notorious in connection with the fatal Mississippi scheme-who was then omnipotent in France, the government was mean enough to recall him. For 22 years he lived in retirement at Newliston, near Edinburgh, devoting himself chiefly to agriculture, which was then bgeinning to improve in Scotland. He was the first to plant turnips and cabbages in the open fields. In 1742, he was sent as ambassador to Holland, and in the following year served under George II., at the battle of Dettingen. Later, he was made commander-in-chief of the forces of Great Britain. He died in 1747. See Annals, etc., of the Viscount and Earls of Stair, by J. M. Graham (1875).
DALRYMPLE, SIR DAVID, a Scottish judge and historical antiquary, commonly known as lord Hailes, was b. at Edinburgh, 28th Oct., 1726. He was the grandson of sir David Dalrymple, youngest and reputedly the ablest son of viscount Stair. he was educated first at Eton, afterwards at Edinburgh, and finally at Leyden, whence he returned to Scotland in 1746. In 1748, he was called to the Scottish bar, where his success was highly respectable, but not astonishing. D. was a man of extensive culture and classical tastes, of sound judgment, and great industry, but a very indifferent orator; and, in consequence, men of far inferior powers often acquired a greater reputation and a more lucrative practice. In 1766, he was appointed one of the judges of the court of session, and assumed the title of lord Hailes, by which he is chiefly known to posterity. His accuracy, diligence, judicial impartiality, and dignified demeanor, secured him the highest respect in his new office. Ten years after, he was made a justiciary lord. He died 29th Nov., 1792.-Although D.'s official duties were very arduous, he found time to compose numerous works, surpassing in value those of many men whose lives have . been wholly devoted to literature. We can afford to mention only a few: A Discourse on the Gowrie Conspiracy (1757); Memorials and Letters relating to the History of Britain in the Reign of James 1. (1762), a curious and interesting volume; The Works of the erer. memorable John Hailes of Eton, etc. (1765); Memorials and Letters relating to the History of Britain in the Reign of Charles I. (1766); Annals of Scotland from the Accession of Malcolm III., surnamed Canmore, to the Accession of Robert I. (1776); and Annals of Scotland from the Accession of Robert I., surnamed the Bruce, to the Accession of the House of Stuart (1779). Besides these, D. wrote works on legal antiquities and ancient church history, edited old Scotch poems, and published sketches of the lives of various notable Scotchmen, as specimens of how a Biographia Scotia might be executed.
DALRYMPLE, ALEXANDER, F.R.S., F.S.A., younger brother of the preceding, was b. at New Hailes, the seat of his father, near Edinburgh, 24th July, 1737. In 1752, he obtained an appointment in the East India company's service; but his extreme youth, as well as the imperfect education he had received at home, rendered it necessary, on his reaching Madras, that he should be placed under the store-keeper for a time. Lord Pigot himself, at that time governor of the presidency, condescended to give him lessons in writing; but young D. having, unluckily for his own prospects, fallen upon some papers in the secretary's office relating to the commerce of the Eastern archipelago, became so engrossed with the importance of the subject, that, after some bickerings with his superiors, he relinquished his appointment, and made a voyage of observation among the eastern islands. “At Sooloo, in the course of his expedition, he concluded a commercial treaty with the sultan, which might have led to beneficial results; but on his return in 1762, he found political affairs entirely changed, small-pox raging, and most of his influential friends dead. The scheme, in consequence, proved a failure. In 1765, he returned to Britain, to urge its importance on the home-authorities, but did not succeed. In 1775, however, he was sent out to Madras as a member of council, but was recalled in two years, apparently without good reason, for in 1779 he was appointed hydrographer to the East India company, and shortly after received a pension. In 1795, when the admiralty resolved to establish a similar office, it was conferred on D., who held it till within a short period of his death, which occurred 19th June, 1808, at Marylebone, London. D. wrote a vast number of letters, pamphlets, etc., containing plans for the promotion of British commerce in various parts of the world, political dissertations, accounts of geographical expeditions, etc. His library was rich in works of navigation and geography, all of which were purchased by the admiralty. His collection of poetry, also very valuable, was deposited in the library at New Hailes, as a family heirloom.
DALTON, a t. in Whitfield co., Ga., on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia, the Western and Atlantic, and the Selma, Rome, and Dalton railroads, in a beautiful valley surrounded by mountains; pop. 1870, 4,285—439 colored. It was a place of strategic importance during the rebellion, Pop. '80, 4,485.
DAL'TON, a t. of Furness, Lancashire, England, on a gentle acclivity, about 31 m. from the sea, and 18 m. w.n.w. from Lancaster. It is connected by railway with the
railway-system in Lancashire on the one hand, and with that of Cumberland on the other. There are iron mines and foundries in the vicinity, and malting is carried on, but not to so great an extent as formerly. Near the town are the ruins of Furness abbey, founded in 1127 by Stephen, count of Boulogne, and afterwards king of England for monks of the Cistercian order. Pop. of township (1881), 13,350.
DALTON, EDWARD BARRY, 1834–72; b. Mass.; a physician in California; graduated at Harvard, 1855, and at the New York college of physicians and surgeons, 1858. He served as medical director in the army of Virginia during the rebellion, and afterwards in the army of the Potomac. In 1866, he became sanitary superintendent of the New York board of health. He died in California. His medical reports are valuable.
DALTON, JOHN, was b. Sept. 5, 1766, at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth, in Cumber. land. He received his early education in the school of his native place, and, after 1781, in a boarding-school kept by a relative in Kendal. Here his love of mathematical and physical studies was first developed. He wrote several mathematical essays, and in 1788, commenced a journal of meteorological observations, which he continued throughout his whole life. In 1793, he was appointed teacher of mathematics and the physical sciences in the new college at Manchester, where he chiefly resided during the remainder of his life, though frequently employed, after 1804, in giving lectures on chemistry in several large towns. In the years 1808–10, he published his New System of Chemical Philosophy, 2 parts (Lond.), to which he added a third part in 1827. In 1817, he was appointed president of the literary and philosophical society at Manchester. He was also a member of the royal society, and of the Paris academy, and, in 1833, received a pension of £150, afterwards raised to £300. In the same year, D.'s friends and fellow. townsmen collected £2,000, to raise a statue to his honor, which was executed by Chantrey, and placed at the entrance or the royal institution in Manchester. D. was also honored by the university of Oxford with the degree of D.C.L., and with that of LL.D. by the university of Edinburgh. He died, universally respected, at Manchester, July 27, 1814. His chief physical researches were those on the constitution of mixed gases, on the force of steam, on the elasticity of vapors, and on the expansion of gases by heat. In chemistry, he distinguished himself by his progressive development of the atomic theory (q.v.), as also by his researches on the absorption of gases by water, on carbonic acid, carburetted hydrogen, etc. His treatises are mostly contained in the Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, the Philosophical Transactions, Nicholson's Philosophical Journal, and Thomson's Annals of Philosophy. Besides these, we have his Meteorological Essays and Observations (Lond. 1793; 2d ed. 1834). D. was unquestionably one of the greatest chemists that any country has produced. Profound, patient, and intuitive, he had precisely the faculties requisite for a great scientific discoverer. His atomic theory elevated chemistry into a science. In his habits, D. was simple; in his manners, grave and reserved, but kindly, and distinguished by his truthfulness and integrity of character.
DALTON, JOHN C., b. Mass. 1825; graduated at Harvard, 1844 ; and at medical school, 1847. He was prof. at Buffalo, '51-'54 ; Vt. Med. Coll., '54-57 ; L. I. Hosp., '59-61; prof. of the Col. Phys. and Surg., 1855. He made many contributions to medical science. His principal book is a “ Treatise on Human Physiology." D. 1889.
DALTONISM. See COLOR-BLINDNESS.
DALY, CHARLES P., LL.D., b. New York city, 1816; for many years a leading jurist, being chief-justice of the court of common pleas. He has published History of the Courts of New York, and many legal papers of importance. He is president of the American geographical and statistical society. He retired from the bench, 1885.
DAM, TINKER's, a guard of dough or clay placed by a tinker around a cavity to confine the melted metal until it “sets." It is worthless after use.
DAM (Fr. barrage), a barrier for raising the level of water in a stream, for the purpose of forming a reservoir, or for turning the water in another direction. Several dams are sometimes placed upon a water-course for the purpose of preventing too rapid an escape of water where it is needed for irrigation or for moving machinery. There is also a variety of dam called a coffer-dam, in which an inclosure is bounded by a barrier which prevents exterior water from entering, used generally for the purpose of excavation. Dams constructed for raising the level of water have an important use in the slack-water navigation of rivers. The materials which enter into the construction of dams differ according to circumstances. If the structure be required to bar a narrow gorge and a considerable stream, it must be made very strong, not only to withstand the hydrostatic pressure, but also the force of the current, which often, during freshets, becomes very great. The materials are then generally composed of a combination of wood-work and masonry. Masonry may be principally used when the gorge is 80 narrow as to allow of the construction of a sufficiently small horizontal arc to resist the pressure. When the dam is very long (across a wide stream), unless a vast amount of stone is used, wooden braces must be employed. Where the body of water to be restrained is not more than 4 or 5 ft. deep and the bottom is firm, a clay or stiff loam embankment 9 or 10 ft. thick, well compacted, will answer the purpose if a gate be provided to keep the water from flowing over the top of the embankment, which would
cause it to wear away. It is not always economy to build the dam in the narrowest part of a stream, or where the opposite banks nearest approach each other. This wili often cause during a freshet too great a depth of running water over the dam, by which it may be endangered. A point should be selected where the dam can be made of suf. ficient width to allow the water to pour over it without piling up too much, and where the foundation is good. The line of a dam may be transverse or diagonal to the flow of water. The diagonal is sometimes of advantage in increasing the width of flow, but is liable to interfere with the bed of the stream below more than the transverse line. Where practicable, the form of an arc, the convexity fronting up stream, is the best; but a broken line may sometimes be employed to advantage, the angles pointing up stream acting as braces, while the angles pointing down stream may be held by natural rock formation or heavy masonry, strengthened by bracing. There are a great many large dams in the manufacturing districts of New England, and in freshets, the giving way of some of them through faulty construction, has caused great destruction.
An example of a well-constructed dam is at Holyoke, Mass., across the Connecticut river. It is 1017 ft. long and 30 ft. high. The braces are formed of large square tim. bers inclined 22° from the horizontal, with the lower ends bolted in the rock, and the upper ends sustaining timber frame-work. The canal for del ring the water, which is received by thirteen gates, is faced with masonry, and is 144 ft. wide at the top, and 22 ft. deep. 'It is said to be the best water motive-power utilized in the United States. A remarkable dam exists across the river Furens, in France, for protecting the town of St. Etienne from freshets, and also for supplying the town with water. It is 164 ft. high, and 328 ft. wide at the top. The excavations for the foundation were very great and expensive, and the dam was constructed entirely of masonry, the stone laid not in tiers, but so as to produce a unity of mass, and with hydraulic cement, which is the mortar always used. The pressure of the contained water, at the depth of 154 ft., as much as 67 lbs. to the square inch, has sometimes been sufficient on this dam to force water through the pores of the material. In India, dams are constructed for purposes of irrigation, and some of them are of enormous magnitude. One of the longest is on the Godavery river at Dowlaisweram. Its total length is 4,872 feet.
A good example of the mode of constructing a coffer-dam under great difficulties, un account of quicksand bottom, was furnished in the work preliminary to the building of the dry-dock at the Brooklyn navy-yard. There was over 60 ft. of utterly unstable micaceous sand below the mud at the bottom of the river. This of course, under so great pressure, would flow almost like water itself. The area required to be excavated through this material was over two acres at the top and one acre at the bottom, which was 37 ft. below mean high water. The first attempt was a failure, and longer and stronger piles were then used, filled between with stone and coarse gravel. There were six concentric rows of piles, the walls being over 60 ft. thick.
Where the bottom does not admit of pile driving, crib-work, weighted with stone and sunk in proper position, is used, the crevices being stopped with hydraulic cement. At Blossom Rock, in San Francisco harbor, a combination of crib-work and iron cylinder was used in the construction of the coffer-dam by means of which the excavations were made, preparatory to blasting. An iron cylinder 6 ft. in diameter, armed with thick india-rubber flaps at the bottom, was sunk to the ground and then surrounded with crib-work. Excavation was then made within the cylinder, which was from time to time depressed until the depth was reached necessary to exclude the water. See illus., ENGINEERING, vol. V., p. 426, fig. 7.
DAMAGES, in law, are the pecuniary recompense claimed on account of suffering an injury through the act of another. The peculiar constitution of the English commonlaw courts, which, till lately, prevented them in most cases from giving any other remedy than by way of D., rendered the questions relating to this subject of unusual importance; but the progress of recent legislation has been in the direction of restricting actions for D. to the cases in which the restitution of property or enforcement of a right cannot be otherwise attained. The court of chancery, on the other hand, could not give D., it could only enforce performance of an obligation by personal restraint, and hence, according to the nature of the remedy desired, the suitor resorted to the one or other court. In Scotland, the supreme court has always been able to give redress in
Where a sum ascertained in amount is due, the action is one not properly for D., but of debt. But where the sum is not ascertained, as where an injury has been done to a man's character or property, the action in either country can in general only be for D., the amount of which the injured party estimates, and which is determined by the judgment of the court, or verdict of a júry, subject to certain fixed rules which the courts have laid down, as the principle according to which the estimation is to be made. These, it is obviously impossible to detail here, and reference must be made to the title of the special subjects out of which a claim may arise for such information as it is practicable to give. It may be observed, however, that it is a general rule to restrict the amount of D. to that of the actual pecuniary loss, wherever it can be ascertained; and that neither in Scotland nor England will a stipulated penalty for breach of agreement be accepted as determining the sum due for D., unless it shall appear, by the use of the
term as liquidated damages,” or some equivalent expression, that both the parties had intended to fix conclusively the sum payable in case of default. Other general rules are, that the injury for which D, are claimed must have affected the claimant individu. ally, and not merely as one of the general public, although it is not essential that the injury should have done material hurt to him, as this only affects the amount of damages. And the injury suffered must have been the direct and immediate consequence of the act done; if it has only been a secondary or remote result of the act, no D. will be given. And any act sued on must be an actual injustice; it is not enough that it produces disadvantageous results, if these arise only from doing what the party was justified in doing. D., therefore, may be sued for in respect of a criine involving liability to criminal punishment; but in England, in the case of a felony, no action for D. will lie against the offender, because it is the duty of the complainant to prosecute him criminally. It is otherwise, however, in the case of misdemeanors; an action for D. is there independent of criminal proceedings. In Scotland, this is the rule in reference to every species of crime.
DAMAGES (ante), a term which designates the rules which govern pecuniary awards in a court of justice. The principles are general, and substantially the same in all countries. The chief principle is to give compensation for some right violated. There is necessarily a wide margin for opinion and judgment in all such cases, depend. ing largely upon agreements and fortuitous conditions and circumstances. In general, damages are compensatory only, but in some cases they are punitory or exemplary.
DAMAN, an outlying portion of the Punjab, runs about 300 m. along the right or w. bank of the Indus, extending back, with an average breadth of about 60 m., as far as the Suliman mountains. It stretches in n. lat, from 28° 40' to 33° 20', and in e. long. from 69° 30' to 71° 20'. In the absence of irrigation, the district in general is little better than a plain of smooth, bare, hard clay-the result of alternate inundation and evaporation.. But when duly irrigated, this baked and burned surface becomes very productive, more especially in the strip of land-known as the Derajat—which is nearest to the bordering stream.
DAMAN, a seaport t., province of Guzerat, Hindustan, belonging to the Portuguese. It stands at the mouth of the Daman Gunga, or Daman river, which rises in the Syadree mountains, as the upper extremity of the western Ghauts is called by the natives, in lat. 20° 11' n., and long. 73° 42' east. Common spring-tides give at least three fathoms on the bar, while outside is a roadstead of more than double that depth. The harbor affords good shelter from the s.w. monsoon, and, as the neighborhood is well stocked with suitable timber, the people are largely employed in the building and repairing of ships. The peculiar drawback of the locality is the scarcity, or rather the want, of fresh water. The river, even when swollen by the rains into an inundation, is brackish, and the wells likewise are so in some degree. Endemic fevers are the natural consequence. The place is fortified with a rampart and bastions, and it is described as having been, before the arrival of the whites, a town great and strong.” Pop. 6,000.
DAMAN, Hyrax, a genus of quadrupeds, highly interesting as a connecting link between the rodentia and the pachydermata. On account of their small size, their thick fur, and their general appearance, they were always ranked among the former, till Cuvier pointed out their essential agreement, in dentition and anatomical characters, with the latter, and assigned them a place next to the elephant and the rhinoceros, remarking, that “excepting the horns, they are little else than rhinoceroses in miniature." He adds that “they have quite similar molars, but the upper jaw has 2 stout incisors curved downwards, and, during youth, 2 very small canines, the lower jaw 4 incisors without any canines.” The skull, also, and other bones of the head, resemble those of the pachyderms. The muzzle is short; the ears, short and round. The ribs are more numerous than even in the pachyderms—21 pair, a number exceeded in no quadrupeds except the sloths, whereas no rodent has more than 15 pair. The toes are united by the skin to the very nail, as in the elephant and rhinoceros, and are round and soft, merely protected in front by a broad nail, which does not reach the ground. The legs are short. The tail is a mere tubercle. There are several species of this genus, natives of Africa and of the s.w. of Asia. The SYRIAN D. (H. Syriacus) is now generally believed to be the shaphan of the Old Testament, the cony (q.v.) of the authorized English version. The D. is common in Syria and Palestine, inhabiting rocky piaces, and sheltering itself in the holes of the rocks, but not burrowing, for which its feet are not adapted. It is a timid, harmless creature, quick and lively in its movements, completely herbivorous, easily domesticated, and, in confinement, readily eating bread, roots, fruits, and herbs. It is about 11 in. long, and 10 in. high; brownish-gray above, white beneath, the thick hair interspersed with long scattered bristles. The ASHKOKO (H. Abyssinicus) of Abys. sinia, first described by Bruce, and supposed by him to be the shaphan, is now believed to be distinct from the Syrian D., although very similar. The KLIP-DASSE (H. capensis) of South Africa differs from the shaphan in its darker color and rather larger size, and also in having only 3 toes on each foot, whereas the Syrian D. has 4 toes on the fore-feet and 3 on the hind-feet. It is very common in rocky places in South Africa, both on the hills and near the sea-shore. Its favorite food consists of aromatic plants, and its flesh, although eatable, is highly flavored. In the places which it frequents, a peculiar sub
stance called hyraceum (q.v.) is found.
DAMAR', a t. of Yemen, Arabia, pleasantly situated on an elevation about 120 m. n.n.w. of Aden. It has about 5000 houses, is the residence of a governor, and has a college, attended by several hundred students.
DAMARALAND. See page 899.
DAMASCE'NUS, JOANNES, the author of the standard text-book of dogmatic theology in the Greek church, was b. at Damascus about 700 A.D. On account of his eloquence, he was surnamed chrysorrhoas (“Golden Stream"). In 730, he became a monk in the convent of St. Saba at Jerusalem, where he spent the rest of his days in the composition of theological works. He died about 756 A.D., and had the honor of being canonized by both the Latin and Greek churches. D. was a man of extensive erudition, and was considered the ablest philosopher of his time; but the word “philosopher" must have meant something very different in those days from what it does now, as D.'s writings are characterized by weakness of judgment and want of critical power. The best edition is that of Le Quien (2 vols., Paris, 1712).
DAMASCE'NUS, NICOLAUS, a Greek historian of the time of Augustus and Herod the great, with whom he was on terms of intimacy. His principal work was a universal history in 144 books, of which only a few fragments remain. He also wrote an autobiography, in which much may be learned of the lives of Augustus and of Herod.
DAMAS'CIUS, a philosopher b. at Damascus about the middle of the 5th century. He taught philosophy in Athens in the time of Justinian. There remains of his works only Difficulties and Solutions of First Principles.
DAMASCUS (Arabic, Dimishkesh-Shâm), a city of Syria, the largest in Asiatic Turkey, occupies a situation of unrivaled beauty on a luxuriant plain at the eastern base of the Anti-Libanus, and 53 m. e.s.e. of Beyrout, which forms its port, lat. 33° 27' n., long. 36° 23' east. The appearance of the city from a distance is beautiful in the highest degree. The bright buildings, sparkling beneath a Syrian sun, rise out of a sea of various tinted foliage, while all around-save on the n.w., where stretches the long bare snow-white ridge of the Anti-Lebanon-extend charming gardens, rich cornfields, and blooming orchards, with the river Barrada (the Abana of Scripture) and its branches winding through until they lose themselves far to the e. in the lake Bahr-el-Merj, into which the Phege (the Pharpar of Scripture), a smaller stream, also flows. As in the case of all eastern cities, the expectations excited by a distant view of D. are by no means realized on a close inspection. The city proper is about 6 m. in circumference, and is partly surrounded by old tumble-down walls, portions of which date from early Roman times, while other parts are of Saracenic architecture, and some mere mud- patches of the present day. The streets generally are dirty and decayed, and so very narrow that a loaded donkey almost entirely blocks up the passage.
The best street is “Straight street," mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles in connection with St. Paul. The houses for the most part are very mean-looking structures, often presenting to the street nothing but a dead-wall with a doorway in it, while the best have rough mud-walls, with a projecting upper story extending so far over the narrow street that hands may be shaken from opposite windows. But as the interior of the city presents a sad contrast to its charming surroundings, so do the rich interiors of the houses contrast with their miserable externals. Fine marble-paved courts ornamented with trees, shrubs, and fountains, rooms with arabesqued roofs and walls, most luxuriously furnished, are the common features of all the dwellings of the wealthier classes. The principal buildings of D. are places of Worship, chief of which is the Great Mosque-formerly a heathen temple, then a Christian church-composed of different kinds of architecture, and occupying a quadrangle 163 yards by 108 yards, the interior dimensions being 431 ft. by 125. The floor is of marble tesselated, and covered with Persian carpets, and the walls and piers of the transept are enriched with beautiful devices formed of various colored marbles, while rows of noble Corinthian pillars divide the interior into nave and aisles Altogether, this is one of the handsomest ecclesiastical buildings of which Mohammedans can boast. The citadel is large and imposing, but not strong; and the Great Khan is a splendid building, erected of black and white marble. There are many interesting remains of antiquity in D., but they are lost amid the mean modern structures and the bazaars. The latter are numerous, and finer than those of Cairo or Constantinople, and very well supplied with goods of oriental manufacture; each class of goods having a bazaar for itself. The manufactures of D. used to be important, consisting of silks, cottons, coarse woolen cloth, jewelry, saddlery, and arms; but her productions are now little more than sufficient for local consumption. Before 1860, her looms were reckoned at 3,000, while now they are said to barely reach_1300. The manufactures of the famous Damascene blades have long ceased to exist. This decline is chiefly caused by the taxation upon raw products. The trade with Bagdad was large; but in 1857 the caravan was plundered on its way across the desert, the loss to the merchants of D. being estimated at £40,000. This paralyzed the commerce. The annual caravan to Mecca from D. at one time consisted of some 50,000 or 60,000 persons, most of whom engaged to some extent in trade; but the facilities which in recent