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little state placed under his control. After holding several high offices in the church, D. was sent to Paris (1804), in order to assist in adjusting several ecclesiastical affairs with Napoleon and pope Pius VII. He died at Regensburg, Feb. 10, 1817. D. was as highly respected as a ruler and a scholar as for his private character. During his whole life, he cultivated the friendship of those eminent in literature and art, such as Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, etc. His writings-marked by sound learning and eloquence of style-include a treatise on the Influence of the Arts and Sciences on Social Order (1793), and Pericles, or the Influence of the Fine Arts on the Public Welfare (1806). These were his favorite objects of study; but natural history, chemistry, botany, mineralogy, and agriculture, also engaged his attention.
DALBER’GIA, a genus of trees and climbing shrubs of the natural order leguminose, sub-order papilionacea, having a stalked membranous pod, which is flat, tapers to both ends, and contains 1 to 3 flat seeds. The leaves are pinnate, with a terminal leaflet. All the species are natives of warm climates. Some of them are valuable timber-trees, particularly the Sissoo of Bengal (D. sissoo), much prized, and more extensively used in the n. of India than any other timber-tree except the sal (q v.). D. monetaria, a native of Surinam, yields a resin very similar to dragon's blood.
DALE, a co. in s.e. Alabama, on the Choctawhatchee river; formerly (until divided) 900 sq.m.; pop. '80, 12,677—2,121 colored. It is a sandy and unproductive region. Co. seat, Newton.
DALE, DAVID, 1739–1806; a Scottish manufacturer who secured the use of Arkwright's spinning patent, and founded the New Lanark mills, and subsequently other important establishments, becoming very rich, and noted for benevolence. Robert Owen married his daughter and succeeded him in the Lanark mills. Dale was the pastor of a church in which grew up a peculiar sect of Scotch independents who called themselves “Dalites.”
DALE, RICHARD, 1756–1826; an American naval officer, who, after joining the Eng. lish service in the beginning of the revolution, went over to his own country and served under Paul Jones. He was several times taken prisoner. After independence he was appointed captain, and had command of the squadron sent against Tripoli. He resigned in 1802.
DALE, ROBERT WILLIAM, D.D. See page 900.
DALECAR'LIA, or DALARNÉ (signifying “valley-country'), an old province of Sweden, now forming the län or county of Fahlun or Falun (q.v.). The Dalecarlians are celebrated for the part they took under Gustavus Vasa in freeing their country from the yoke of Christian II. of Denmark.
DALGAR'NO, GEORGE, an almost forgotten but very able author, was b. at Aberdeea about 1626, studied at Marischal college, and afterwards kept a school in Oxford for 30 years, where he d. Aug. 28, 1687. He deserves to be remembered for two remarkable works—the Ars Signorum, Vulgo Character Universalis et Lingua Philosophica (Lond. 1661); and Didascalocophus, or the Deaf and Dumb Man's Tutor (Öxf. 1680). The former is a very ingenious attempt to represent and classify ideas by specific arbitrary characters irrespective of words. It contains the germs of bishop Wilkins' subsequent speculations on a real character and a philosophical language.” Leibnitz has repeatedly alluded to it in complimentary terins. The latter work has for its design, “to bring the way of teaching a deaf man to read and write, as near as possible to that of teaching young ones to speak and understand their mother-tongue.' D. has the great merit of having anticipated, by more than 130 years, some of the most profound conclusions of the present age respecting the education of the deaf and dumb.
DALHOU'SIE, Marquis of, JAMES ANDREW BROUN-RAMSAY, Gov.gen. of India, third son of the ninth earl of D., was b. April 22, 1812, at Dalhousie castle, Midlothian. He was educated at Harrow, and graduated at Christ church, Oxford. In 1832, by the death of his only remaining brother, he succeeded to the honorary title of lord Ramsay. In 1835, he contested the representation of Edinburgh, in the conservative interest, against the Whig candidates, sir John Campbell, afterwards lord Campbell, and Mr. Abercromby. He bore his defeat with great good-humor. In 1836, he married the eldest daughter of the eighth marquis of Tweeddale; in 1837, was elected for Haddingtonshire. On the death of his father, in 1838, he succeeded to the earldom of D., and became a member of the upper house. In 1843, he was appointed, by sir Robert Peel, vice-president of the board of trade, and in 1845, succeeded Mr. Gladstone as president of the board. The “ railway mania” threw an immense amount of labor and responsibility upon his department; but the energy, industry, and administrative ability he displayed in his office, no less than his readiness and fluency in parliament, marked him out for the highest offices in the state. When sir Robert Peel resigned office in 1846, lord John Russell
, who succeeded him, paid the earl of D. the rare compliment of asking him to remain at the board of trade, in order to carry out the regulations he had framed for railway legislation and intercommunication. In 1847, he was appointed gov.gen. of India, as successor to lord Hardinge, and arrived in Calcutta, Jan. 12, 1848 ,—the youngest gov.gen. ever sent to that country. His Indian administration was not less splendid and successful, in regard to the acquisition of territory, than in the means he adopted for developing the resources of the country and improving the administra
tion of the East Indian government. Pegu and the Punjab were conquered; Nagpore, Oude, Sattara, Jhansi, and Berar were annexed-altogether, four great kingdoms, besides a number of minor principalities, were added to the dominions of the queen under his governor-generalship. Railways on a colossal scale were planned, and partly commenced; 4,000 m. of electric telegraph were spread over India; 2,000 m. of road between Calcutta and Peshawur were bridged and metaled; the Ganges canal, the largest of the kind in the world, was opened; the Punjab canal was undertaken; important works of irrigation all over India were planned and executed; and the official department of public works were reorganized. Among other incidents of his beneficent administration may be cited the permission to Hindu widows to marry again; relief to persons of all sects from the risk of forfeiting property by a change of religion; the improvement of education and of prison-discipline; the organization of the legislative council; the improved training of the civil service, covenanted and uncovenanted; and the reform in the postal service of India, whereby a letter from Peshawur to cape Comorin, or from Assam to Kurrachee, is now conveyed for three farthings, or nth of the old charge. These, and many other achievements of his Indian administration, will be found in a minute which he drew up on resigning office, in which he reviewed, with pardonable pride, the events of his eight years' governor-generalship. His constitution had never been strong, and it gave way under the incessant labor and responsibility imposed upon him by his noble ambition. Meanwhile, honors had been showered upon him by his queen and country with no sparing hand: in 1848, he was made a knight of the Scottish order of the Thistle; in 1849, he received the marquisate, the thanks of both houses of parliament and of the East India Company, for the " zeal and ability" displayed in administering the resources of British India in the contest with the Sikhs, immediately previous to the annexation the Punjab; in 1852, on the death of the duke of Wellington, he was nominated by the then prime minister, the earl of Derby, to the office of constable of her majesty's castle of Dover, and lord warden of the cinque ports. D. sailed from Calcutta in Mar., 1856. On his arrival in England, he was unable to take his seat in the house of lords; and the remainder of his days was spent in much physical suffering and prostration of strength. On the 19th Dec., 1860, be died at Dalhousie castle, in his 48th year, leaving behind him a name that ranks among the highest in the roll of Indian viceroys for statesmanship, administrative vigor, and the faculty of inspiring confidence among the millions subjected to his sway. As he died without male issue, his title of marquis became extinct on his death, the earldom of D. and other Scottish honors reverting to his cousin, baron Panmure, who died in 1875.
DALIAS, a t. of Spain, situated in the province of Almeria, 20 m. w...w. of the city of that name, and about 4 m. from the Mediterranean. It is badly and irregularly built, and is subject to earthquakes. Pop. 9,000, who are employed chiefly in mining, smelting, and fishing.
DA'LIAS, a t. of Andalusia, Spain, in the province of Almeria, and 20 m. W.8.W. from Almeria, about 9 m. from the Mediterranean, on a small river, which is navigable for boats up to the town. The immediate neighborhood is a dreary sandy plain; but not far off are mountains containing lead and antimony mines, which afford employment to many of the inhabitants of the town. Husbandry and fishing are the other principal occupations. The streets are mostly irregular, and the town is ill built. It suffered considerably from an earthquake in 1804. Near D., on the sea-side, are mineral baths, much frequented, Pop. 9,000.
DALIN, OLOF VON, 1708–63; a Swedish poet, who, at the age of 24, began his literary career by starting the Argus, a journal in imitation of Addison's Spectator. He published a vast number of sketches, poems, etc. In 1756, he was tutor to the crown prince, and was arrested and tried on suspicion of having taken part in the attempted revolution of that year. He was acquitted, but was exiled for five years. He was afterwards ennobled and made a privy-councilor. His great work was a History of the Swedish Kingdom
DALKEITH', a burgh of barony, 6 m. s.e. of Edinburgh, stands near the junction of the North and South Esk, and is a station of the North British railway. Ii chietly consists of one main street. Pop. '81, 6,931. It has one of the largest corn-markets in Scotland; has a large and commodious market-hall, erected in 1854; manufactures of brushes, woolens, and hats, besides iron-foundries, tanneries, and coal-works. D. arose round an ancient castle, which was long a great stronghold. The regality of D. was . successively held by the Grahanıs, the Douglases, the earls of Morton, and the earls of
Buccleuch-the latter having bought it from the Mortons in 1642. During the minority of James VI., D. castle was the chief residence of the regent Morton; hence it was called the Lion's Den. Gen. Monk lived in it during his government of Scotland under Cromwell. Dalkeith palace, the chief seat of the duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, built about 1700 on the site of the old castle, is a large square structure overhanging the North Esk, amid fine grounds, in which the two Esks flow and unite. There are about a dozen places of public worship. Besides the old parish church, there is another, a fine cruciform structure in the early English style, built (1840) and endowed by the duke of Buccleuch. An Episcopal chapel stands within the palace grounds. D.
possesses several good public and private schools.
DALKISSORE', a river of Bengal proper, joins the Hoogly from the right at Diamond harbor, about 30 m. below Calcutta. It has a s.e. course of about 170 m., rising in lat. 23° 30' n., and long. 86 34' east. In its lower section, the D. assumes the name of the Roopnerain.
DALL, CAROLINE WELLS HEALEY. See page 900.
: co., Tex. See page 900. DALLAS, a co. in s.w. Alabama intersected by the Alabama river and two railroads; 890 sq.m.; pop '80, 48,437—40,012 colored. The chief productions are corn and cotton. Co. seat, Cahaw ba.
DALLAS. a co. in central Arkansas, on Saline river; 700 sq.m.; pop. '80, 6,507– 2,207 colored. The chief productions are agricultural. Co. seat, Princeton.
DALLAS, a co. in central Iowa intersected by two railroads; 576 sq.m.; pop. '80. 18.746. Agriculture is the chief business. Co. seat, Adell.
DALLAS, a co. in central Missouri; mostly wild land; 576 sq.m.; pop. '80, 9,272– 88 colored. Productions, agricultural. Co. seat, Buffalo.
DALLAS, a co. in n.e. Texas, drained by Trinity river; 900 sq.m.; pop. '80, 33,490 4,968 colored. It is fertile, well watered, and has good timber. Agriculture is the main business. Co. seat, Dallas.
DALLAS, capital of D. co., Texas ; 265 m. from Houston ; on the Trinity river and on the Texas and Pacific, Houston and Texas Central, and two other railroads. D. was settled in 1841 ; pop. '80, 10,358 ; '84, about 22,500. It contains several banks, two col. leges, a medical institute, a merchant's exchange, opera house, and U. S. court house and post office. Several newspapers and many periodicals are published.
DALLAS, ALEXANDER JAMES, 1759–1817; born in the island of Jamaica, died in Trenton, New Jersey; a lawyer of Pennsylvania and author of reports on law cases and decisions. He was the projector of the United States bank at the time when the nation was in great trouble about currency to carry on the war with England. He was also secretary of the treasury, and acting secretary of war, superintending the reduction of the army after peace.
DAL'LAS, GEORGE MIFFLIN, an American statesman and diplomatist, was b. at Philadelphia, July 10, 1792. He was educated at Princeton college, where he graduated with high honors in 1810. Soon after he was called to the American bar, he accompanied Mr. Gallatin in his special embassy to St. Petersburg as private secretary. On his return, he resumed the practice of the law, and successively filled the offices of deputy of the attorney-general of Philadelphia, mayor of Philadelphia, and district-attorney of Philadelphia, an office which his father had held. In 1831, he represented Pennsylvavia in the senate of the United States, but after two years retired, and resumed his profession. In 1837, he was appointed American minister at St. Petersburg, but was recalled in 1839. In 1844, he was elected vice-president of the United States, and held this office until 1849. In 1856, he succeeded Mr. Buchanan as American minister at the court of St. James. He was empowered to settle the Central American question; but shortly after his arrival, a dispute between the two governments, arising out of the dismissal of Mr. Crampton, the British minister at Washington, by the president of the United States, threatened to bring the diplomatic mission of D. to a premature termination. Through the forbearance of lord Palmerston, he was, however, permitted to remain, and discharged the duties of American minister until 1861, when he was succeeded by Mr. C. F. Adams. In person, he was tall, and of venerable aspect. He diligently studied the politics and institutions of the mother-country, and during his embassy assiduously attended the debates in both houses of parliament. He died in 1864
DALLES, romantic and perilous rapids on the Columbia or Oregon, form, along with the chutes above them and the cascades below them, an almost continuous interruption between the tide-water of the river and its long reach—about 400 m.-of compara. tively practicable navigation towards the interior. They are subdivided, reckoning downwards, into the Little D. and the D. proper. On the latter, the basaltic rocks, which, from a considerable distance above, bound the channel, suddenly confine the stream to one third of its width, with a perpendicular wall on either side; while the damming up of the plunging surges fearfully aggravates the difficulties and dangers of the descent.
DALLES CITY, or THE DALLES, the co. seat of Wasco co., Oregon, on the Columbia river, 120 m. e. of Portland. Pop. '80, 2232.
DALLING AND BULWER, Baron. See BULWER, SIR HENRY LYTTON.
DALL' ONGARO, FRANCESCO, 1808–73; an Italian poet and dramatic author. He aided in organizing the Garibaldi legion in Rome, and on the capture of the city by the French he went to Ancona, and afterwards to Switzerland. From the latter refuge he was expelled, and spent four years in Belgium. Some years afterwards he returned to Italy and became professor of literature in Milan and Naples. He became noted as a writer of works of fiction.
DALMATIA, a narrow strip of territory, extending along the Adriatic sea, and bounded on the n. by Croatia, on the e. by Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Montenegro. Lat. 42° 15' to 44° 54' n., long. 14° 30' to 19o e. It forms, with its adjacent islands, the most southern crownland of the Austrian empire. Area, 4,881 sq.m.; pop. '80, 476, 107. The coast of D. is everywhere steep and rocky, and the adjacent series of islands, divided by picturesque straits and channels, are of a like character. Numerous bays intersecting the coast form excellent havens and landing-places. Offsets from the Dinaric Alps traverse the interior, and attain in Mt. Orien, the highest culminating point, an elevation of 6,332 ft.; the Velebich mountains, separating B. from Croatia, and which belong to the Julian Alps, have a height of more than 5,000 ft. The mountains of D., for the most part composed of limestone, present a bleak and barren aspect, with many romantic chasms and fissures, through which dash impetuous mountain-streams. The chief rivers -none of which, however, are of any importance-are the Zermagna, Kerka, Cettina, and Narenta, the second and third of which are broken in several places by beautiful cascades and falls. The lakes are numerous, but, with the exception of Lake Vrana —which is separated from the Adriatic by only a narrow tongue of land, and the waters of which are brackish—they are periodical, drying up in summer, and filling their beds in late autumn. A large part of the whole area of D. consists of moor and morass, yet in summer there is often a great scarcity of water. The climate is in general warmer than that of any other part of Austria, the African sirocco being occasionally felt on its shores. The minerals are limestone, coal, gypsum, etc. Agriculture is in a backward tate. About one ninth of the land is arable, and produces wheat, barley, oats, maize, rye, and potatoes. Wine and olives are also produced. More than half of the land is in pasture, and wood occupies about a fifth. The islands are not very fertile, but supply good timber for ship-building. Cattle-rearing, sea-faring, and the fisheries on the coast, are the chief kinds of industry. The live-stock in 1872 consisted of 673,600 sheep, 280,650 goats, 6,000 mules, 16,000 asses, 17,000_horses, and 26,300 pigs. The annual value of the exports and imports is £1,500,000. The exports consist principally of wine, oil, brandy, hides, wool, wax, honey, and fruits. Of the whole population it is computed that about 55,000 are Italians, 1000 Albanians, 1000 Germans, 500 Jews, and the remainder consists of southern Slavonians-chiefly Dalmatians and Morlaks. The Dalmatians are a fine race of men-bold and brave as seamen and soldiers--and formerly were the main support of the military power of Venice. But it must be added that they are deceitful and rapacious, while the love of independence is extreme. They speak the IllyrianServian or Herzegovinian dialect; but the language used in the government offices, especially in Spalatro, is the Italian. The Morlaks--who inhabit the interior, the mountainous district, and the Turkish sanjak of Hersek-are also good soldiers, hospitable and faithful to their engagements, lovers of independence, but it is said they are addicted to robbery and drunkenness. D. is divided into four circles–Zara, Spalatro (or Spalato), Ragusa, and Cattaro. These are also the names of the chief towns.
In ancient times, D. was a considerable kingdom, and, after many unsuccessful attempts, was first subjugated by the Romans in the time of Augustus. After the fall of the western empire, D., which had formed the most southern part of the province Illyricum, was captured by the Goths, from whom it was taken by the Avari (490), who in their turn yielded it to the Slavonians about 620. The state founded by the Slavonians continued until the beginning of the 11th c., when king Ladislaus of Hungary incorporated a part of D. with Croatia, while the other part, with title of duchy, placed itself under the protection of the Venetian republic. The Turks afterwards made themselves masters of a small portion; and by the peace of CampoFormio (1797), the Venetian part of D., with Venice itself, became subject to Austrian rule; and when Austria, in 1805, had ceded this part of D. to Napoleon, it was annexed to the kingdom of Italy; afterwards (1810) to Illyria. Since 1814, D. forms part of Austria; the commune of Spizza being added by the congress of Berlin in 1878.
DALMAT'IC (dalmatica), the deacon's robe, in the Roman Catholic church. It was originally of linen, but it is now generally made of the same heavy silk as the planeta (q.v.), worn by the priest.
DAL'RIADA, the ancient name of a territory in Ireland, comprehending what is now called “the Route," or the northern half of the county of Antrim. It signifies primarily, "the race of Riada;” and secondarily, “the country of the race of Riada," i.e., Cairbre Righfada, or “Cairbre of the Long Arm,” the son of a chief or prince of the Scots in Ireland, and himself a warrior of note. He lived in the 3d c., and not only obtained an ascendency in the district of Ireland which came to be called after him, but, according to some writers, planted a colony of his Scottish countrymen on the shores of Argyleshire in Alba, or Albany, as Scotland was then called. It is certain that about 506 A.D. some of his descendants, led by Loarn, Fergus, and other sons of Eirc, son of Muinreamhar, passed over to Argyleshire, where they settled themselves permanently, and founded the kingdom of “Dalriada in Albany,” or “the Scots in Britain.” More than twenty kings of this state are enumerated before Kenneth MacAlpin, who, about 843, united under one scepter the Dairiads, or Scots, and the Picts, and thus became the first king of Albany, which about two centuries afterwards began to be known as Scotia or Scotland.
DAL'RIADS, or DALREUDI'NI, the inhabitants of Dalriada (q.v.).
DALRY', a t. of Ayrshire. Scotland, on the Garnock, near the mouth of the Rye, 20 m. s.w. of Glasgow; it is a station on the Glasgow and South-western railway. The vale of the Garnock is naturally beautiful and fertile; but its mineral wealth in coal, lime, and iron has recently caused a great change in its aspect, and it is much disfigured by blast-furnaces, etc., and by vast heaps of refuse from mines. D. was recently s sinall village, but has of late rapidly increased in population and importance in consequence of the establishment of iron-works at and near it. D. possesses also a large woolen mill, which gives employment to upwards of 400 hands. Pop. '51, 2,706 ; '61, 4,232; '81, 5,010. It is feared that the increase in population and prosperity will not long continue, as the ironstone is being rapidly exhausted.
DALRYM'PLE FAMILY, a very old and illustrious Scottish family, deriving its name from the lands of Dalrymple in Ayrshire. The principal members are:
DALRYMPLE, JAMES, VISCOUNT Stair, a lawyer and statesman, son of a small proprietor in Ayrshire, was b. at Drummurchie, in the same county, May, 1619, educated at Glasgow university, and at an early age, entered the army raised in Scotland to repel the religious innovations of Charles I. But the bent of his mind lay towards civil and literary pursuits; and in 1641, he was appointed professor of philosophy at Glasgow. The use which he made of philosophy, however, was rather to aid him in basing lawhis favorite study—on profound and comprehensive principles, than to add another metaphysical system to those already in existence. In short, his wish was to be a philosophic lawyer, rather than a philosopher. In 1648, he entered as an advocate at the Scotch bar, where he rapidly acquired great distinction; in 1649, and again in 1650, he was appointed secretary to the commissioners sent to Holland by the Scottish parliament to treat with Charles II. ; and in 1657, was induced—but with difficulty—to become one of the “commissioners for the administration of justice” in Scotland under Cromwell's government. Dalrymple was a conscientious, but at the same time an exceedingly moderate and enlightened royalist; and although appointed one of the new Scotch judges after the restoration, he resigned his seat in 1663, because he could not take the declaration” oath, which denied the right of the nation to take up arms against the king. His great talents, however, induced the monarch to accept his serv. ices on his own terms. Dalrymple was now created a baronet. In 1671, he became lord president of the court of session. As a member of the privy council he was invariably the advocate, though not always successfully, of moderate measures. In 1681, when the infamous "test" oath was under consideration, Dalrymple, with the dexterity of a lawyer, caused John Knox's confession of faith to be introduced as a part of the test; but as this confession inculcated resistance to tyranny as a duty, the one half of the test contradicted the other. Dalrymple's private conscience, however, was more fastidious than his public one, for he himself refused to take the very oath which, by his ingenuity, he had virtually deprived of its despotic character, and in consequence had to resign all his appointments. Before this, he had published the Institutions of the Lau of Scotland, which is still the grand text-book of the Scotch lawyer. The disquisitions are both profound and luminous, characterized alike by their philosophic insight and their sound common sense. After some time spent on his estate in Wigtonshire, Dalrymple went to Holland in 1682, to escape the persecution to which he was subjected at home. During 1684–87, he published at Edinburgh—though he himself was then residing at Leyden-his Decisions, and in 1686, at Leyden, a philosophic work in Latin, entitled Physiologia Nova Experimentalis. He accompanied the prince of Orange on his expedition to England. When matters were prosperously settled, William re-appointed him lord president of the court of session, and elevated him to the peerage under the title of viscount Stair. He died 25th Nov., 1695.
DALRYMPLE, JOHN, eldest son of the preceding, held office under James II., and also under William III. While secretary of state for Scotland, he incurred great odium on account of his share in the barbarous transaction known as the "massacre of Glencoe." In 1703, he was elevated to the earldom of Stair. He died in 1707.—Sir JAMES DALRYMPLE, second son of viscount Stair, was the author of Collections concerning Scottish History preceding the Death of David I. (1705), and the grandfather of sir John Dalrymple of Cranstoun, author of Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland, from the Dissolution of the last Parliament of Charles II. until the Sea-battle off' La Hogue.-The other sons- Viscount Stair had altogether nine children, five sons and four daughters—were more or less distinguished.
DALRYMPLE, JOHN, second son of the first earl of Stair, and grandson of viscount Stair, was born at Edinburgh, July 20, 1673. He had the misfortune, while young, to kill his elder brother, by the accidental discharge of a pistol. This unhappy circumstance induced the parents, both for their own comfort and that of the boy himself, to educate him away from home. He was placed under the care of a clergyman in Ayrshire, who, by his prudence and kindness, soon developed the excellent qualities of the youth. Dal. rymple afterwards went to Leyden, where he had the reputation of being one of the best scholars in the university. He completed his curriculum at Edinburgh. In 1701, he accepted a commission as lieut.col. of the Scottish regiment of foot-guards, and gained the highest distinction in Marlborough's campaigns. When the accession of the