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head of these is generally placed the Ayrshires. In proportion to their small size, and the limited amount of food which they consume, they yield a large quantity of rich, good milk, and have been long and justly prized by the dairymen of Glasgow and other Scottish towns, as well as latterly by those in several districts of England, and Highland portions of Scotland. With all their superb milking properties, however, they are comparatively worthless as feeders or beef-producers unless crossed with the Short-horn, Some Ayrshire cows have been known to give from 18 to 20 quarts of milk daily, and yield 14 lbs. of butter per week. The cows of the Channel islands also stand in high repute. The elegant, deer-like Alderneys are kept, more especially in England, by those who prize rich milk, and many landed proprietors and farmers have one or two amongst their herds to impart a higher color and richer flavor to the milk and butter. Alderneys frequently give 16 quarts of milk daily, and 8 or 9 lbs. of butter per week, while instances occur of their yielding as much as 12 or 14 lbs. The small Brittany breed, scarcely larger than goats, have also been brought to this country, and are profitable for gentlemen's families, and where only one or two cows are kept. These breeds are, however, in little favor with those who, besides dairying, look also to the breeding of profitable grazing-stock, Some families of the Short-horns unite, with size, substance, and aptitude for fattening, excellent milking properties. Short-horns, or animals with a large infusion of Short-horn blood, constitute the bulk of the handsome and high-priced cows seen in metropolitan markets, and long preferred to all others by the London dairymen. Throughout the n. of England, such cows were in favor, and were used by the late Mr. Horsfall, whose excellent papers on dairy management, published in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, should be read by all interested in this subject. With his liberal dietary, fifteen to twenty cows daily average, for seven or eight months, ten or eleven quarts of milk each, producing a pound of butter. The original Short-horns, in the hands of the Brothers Colling, Mr. Bates, the Earl Ducie, and other earlier breeders, were excellent milkers; and even at the present day certain families are to be found still retaining their ancient character. Of late, however, many breeders of our more fashionable and prize-taking Short-horns have devoted their undivided attention to early maturity, flesh, and quality, neglecting altogether the milking properties. This, in some respects, is to be regretted. Prize stock of this and some other breeds give no more milk nowadays than fosters their calves, and some of them, indeed, make a poor job of that. Many of the animals are thus never milked by the hand. Herefords are not particularly famed for dairy purposes. The blood-red, plump Devons are more remarkable for the richness and butter-producing character of their milk than the quantity of it. The ancient Long-horns, once common in the midland counties of England, and prized for their milk, have mostly given place to more handy, symmetrical breeds. The old black Fife, or Scotch horncd cows, included some famous milkers in their day, but scarcely any of them are to be met with now. The polled Angus, the Galloway, and the West Highland cows have a fair quantity of milk of remarkably fine quality, that of the West Highland breed in particular. The small Shetland breed produces an astounding quantity of splendid milk, and so do the Kerry and some other Irish cows.
Good milking animals of every breed possess certain qualities in common, which guide the farmer in profitably recruiting his dairy-stock. They have neat, tapering, well-placed heads; large, prominent, bright eyes; small and rather narrow necks; light fore-quarters; oblique rather than upright shoulders; large and shapely udder, well under the belly; largely developed milk-veins; a pliant mellow skin, well covered with soft silky hair; thin tail, with a good brush at the end of it; small and fine below the knec. Of great importance, also, is the fact of the animals being descended of parents possessing good milking qualities, for certainly no property is more distinctly hereditary. The milk of small and young cows is usually richer than that of larger or older animals. From four to eight is the most profitable age for the dairy-cow; after that, the milk is poorer; the animals eat more food, especially during winter; and, moreover, become less profitable when dried for feeding. The stock is usually recruited by heifers bred on the farm, which are generally preferred to those bought in. Of course in the larger dairies about Glasgow, the w. of Scotland, in the midland and southern counties of England, and in America, the cows cannot be all, or nearly all, bred and reared. Many must therefore be bought in, though they seldom turn out quite so well as the others. Heifers should not be put to the bull before they are two years old, and the milking properties of the animals will not be fully developed until they have had a second or third calf. Red and roan are the favorite colors.
In no department of the farm are carelessness and irregularity more injurious and ruinous than in the dairy portion. To produce large quantities of good milk, it is absolutely necessary that the cow be supplied with the materials which conduce to a great flow. These briefly consist of albuminous materials and phosphates for forming the caseine, and oily matters for producing the butter. In the ordinary or ancient dietary of cows, these materials, especially during winter, are seldom present in sufficient amount to produce, without waste, a copious flow of good milk. Cows fed on meadow hay, when producing from 12 to 16 quarts of miik daily, require something more than even 20 lbs. of turnips or mangold to sustain them. A still greater falling-off in flesh and fat-a constant robbing, in fact, of the materials of the body to supply the secretion of milk-is
receptacles. 3. Milking-pail. 4. Mechanical milker. 5. Wooden skimmer. 6. Earthenware milkrn. 11. Cleve's barrelsorgan churn. 12. Atmospheric churn. 13, 14. Lavoisy's butter-machine. 9. Cheese-twirler. 20. Cheese press (Lower Rhenish). 21. English Cheese-press. 22. Cheese-turner.