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istry. In 1773, C. was at last transferred to the chair of the practice of physic, the duties of which he had for some years performed alternately with Dr. Gregory, the latter taking part in return'alternately with C. in the lectures on the theory or institutes of medicine.
The rest of Dr. C.'s biography is simply a record of continued success as a teacher and a practitioner. His popularity with his students, and even his scientific reputation at one time threatened to be seriously diminished by the brief but noisy episode of the Brunonian system (see BROWN, JOHN, M.D.). In 1778, C. became the proprietor of Ormiston hill, a small but prettily situated property about 8 m. w. of Edinburgh, where he passed as much time as his professional duties would allow in improving his little estate, and renewing his long-dormant knowledge of, and love for, rural affairs. “I have got upon my hobby,” he writes to a friend; "my amusement is a little farm, and a little pleasure-ground. I have done a great deal, but it is all leveling work; other people cannot know what earth has been moved, but I have had some amusement in the turning of every shovelful.” It was a becoming end to a life of usefulness. He had here the leisure and the enjoyment of life which were required to wean him from the too exclusive pursuit of his profession; and while his love of science never chilled, and was even made subservient to the adornment of the retreat of his old age, he was somewhat withdrawn from the heat and the strife of the world into the purer air of domestic retirement. C. died on the 5th Feb., 1790, having nearly completed his 79th year, and having been actively engaged in teaching and consulting practice till within a few months of his death. His most important works are the First Lines of the Practice of Physic (Edin. 1777); Synopsis Nosologiæ Methodicæ, 1785; Institutions of Medicine, 1777; A Treatise of the Materia Medica, 1789. Their characteristics are great clearness of expression, with remarkable soundness of judgment and common sense, rather than striking originality, or a rapid advance into new regions of thought. But he was eminently the man for his time, which was distracted and confused by a host of baseless theories, and by many of those “ false facts” which C. himself said were more numer. ous than even false theories. Amid this farrago, he sought his way towards the truth with remarkable impartiality, and infinite candor as regards the opinions of others. His fame as one of the greatest of teachers has survived the memory of his professional success, and even the credit of his far-famed systematic nosology. His writings have been collected in 2 vols., 8vo., by Dr. John Thomson (Edin. 1827), by whom also a life was commenced, the first volume of which was published in 1832. This biography was continued by his son, and finally completed in a second volume by Dr. Craigie, in 2859.
CULLE'RA, a fortified maritime t. of Spain, on the Mediterranean, at the mouth of the Jucar, in the province, and 23 m. 8.s.e. of the town, of Valencia. C. is irregularly built, but clean; has an old castle, several churches, schools, convents, a hospital, extensive barracks, etc. From its position, it is considered a place of great military importance. It stands on the outskirts of an agricultural district, “an Eden of fer. tility,” and the inhabitants are mostly engaged in agriculture, cattle-rearing, fishing, and the production of oil and wine. A considerable coasting-trade is carried on with France and the Mediterranean. Pop. 11,500.
CULLMAN : co., Ala. See page 897.
CULLO'DEN, or DRUMMOS'SIE MOOR, a desolate level table-land, now partly cultivated, in the n.e. of Inverness-shire, 6 m. e.n.e. of Inverness, near the Moray firth. It is memorable as the scene of the total defeat, on 16th April, 1746, of the Highland army under prince Charles Stuart by the royal troops under the duke of Cumberland, and the extinction of the hopes of the house of Stuart to regain the English crown. Green mounds and a monumental cairn mark the spots where the battle was fiercest, and where many of the slain lie buried.
CULLOM, SHELBY M. See page 897.
CULLUM, GEORGE W.; b. N. Y., 1809; graduate of West Point, 1833. He retired from active service in 1874, holding the rank of maj.gen.
CULM, in botany, the peculiar cylindrical hollow and jointed stem of grasses (q.v.).
CULM, a popular name of anthracite (q.v.), in very general use in some parts of Eng. land, and occurring in many scientific works. In some districts of South Wales, the Č. obtained from the pits in a broken and crumbling condition, is used as fuel, being made up into balls, with one third of its bulk of wet viscid clay. It burns without flame, producing a strong and steady heat, well adapted for cooking.
CULMINA'TION, an astronomical term, signifying the passage of a star across the meridian. The star is then at the highest point (culmen) of its course: hence the name. The sun culminates at midday, or 12 o'clock, apparent solar time—which seldom agrees exactly with mean time, as shown by a watch or clock. The full moon culminates at midnight. The time of C. of a fixed star is always exactly midway between the times of its rising and setting; in the case of the sun, moon, and planets, it is only nearly so.
CUL'NA, a t. of India, in the British district of Burdwan, presidency of Bengal, 47 m. n. of Calcutta, on the right bank of the Hooghly. The town contains a vast number of temples, is a station of the free church (Scotland) mission, and has a flourishing English school. It is a place of considerable trade, rice, grain, silk, and cotton being
the chief articles of commerce; and of late years, the traffic has greatly increased, in consequence of its being found a convenient station for steamers plying between Calcutta and the upper provinces. C., in 1881, had 29,336 inhabitants, the chief part of whom are from different parts of the country carrying on trade here.
CUL'PA (Lat. fault, crime, blame). By the Roman jurists, C. was recognized as existing in three degrees, C. lata, gross carelessness or omission, which was regarded as equivalent to dole; C. levis, that degree of negligence into which a person attentive to his own affairs may be supposed occasionally to fall; and C. levissima, that still more slight degree of negligence which is in some degree incident to human nature, and may be fallen into by even the most prudent and sharp-sighted. Where a contract contemplates the mutual benefit of both parties, the middle degree of diligence is all that either is bound to exercise, and the neglect of this is C. levis, or C. simply. Where one party only is benefited, he is bound to exercise the utmost diligence, the neglect of which is c. levissima, whilst the other party has done enough if he avoids C. lata, or gross and excessive negligence. These distinctions of the Roman law have been adopted by the law of Scotland.
CULPABLE HOMICIDE. See HOMICIDE and MURDER.
CULPEPER, a co. in n. Virginia, between the Rapidan and Rappahannock rivers, intorsected by the Orange, Alexandria, and Manassas railroad; 673 sq.m.; pop. '80, 13,408—6,623 colored. Agriculture is the main business. Co. seat, Fairfax.
CULPEPER, JOHN, an early English emigrant to the Carolinas who led an incipient rebellion, was tried for treason, but was acquitted because there had been really no government to rebel against. In 1680, he laid out on paper the plan of the city of Charleston.
CULPEPER, or COLEPEPPER, THOMAS, Lord. d. 1688; one of the grantees and a governor of the colony of Virginia. He administered the office chiefly for his own gain, being shrewd and unscrupulous to the last degree.
CULPRIT, in English law, is a prisoner accused, but not tried. After trial, if not acquitted, he becomes a convict.
CULROSS', a parliamentary and municipal burgh and seaport in a detached part of Perthshire, on the n. shore of the firth of Forth, 6 m. w. of Dunfermline, and 22 n.n.w. of Edinburgh. It is a place of great antiquity. As early as the 6th c., it was the seat of the monastery of St. Serf, who afterwards became the patron saint of the town, where his yearly festival was kept till about the close of the 18th century. Ængus the Keldee, an Irish martyrologist, who wrote about 800 A.D., describes it as lying in Strathearn between the Ochils and the sea of Gindan, i.e., the firth of Forth. It stands on the face of a hill rising from the shore. The parish church preserves some remains of the conventual church of a Cistercian abbey, founded in 1217, on a commanding site in the higher part of the town. Close beside it is the fine old residence of C. abbey, founded by the Bruces of Carnock and Kirloss about the end of the 16th c., remodeled about the middle of the 17th c., and towards the end of the 18th occupied by the father of the late lord Dundonald, who here made experiments in extracting tar from coal for preserving ships' bottoms, and gas for illuminating purposes. At the e. end of the town are the ruins of a chapel, built about the beginning of the 16th c., in honor of St. Kentigern or Mungo, who is said to have been born here about the year 500, and to have been here educated by St. Serf. C. has various charitable institutions, and carries on some damask weaving. In the 16th c. it was famous for the manufacture of salt and the export of coal. Its once extensive shipping traffic is now gone. Pop. '81,373. It returns one member to parliament with Sterling, Dunfermline, Inverkeithing and South Queensferry. From James VI.'s time, up till the beginning of the century, coal-mines were worked here far under, the firth of Forth.
CULTIVATED PLANTS—those plants which, either for their usefulness or their beauty, have been to some considerable extent, and not merely as objects of curiosity, cultivated by man-belong to natural orders widely different from each other, and scat tered throughout almost all parts of the vegetable kingdom. The prevalence of particular qualities in particular natural orders, indeed, causes us to find groups of C. P. in some of them, as the cerealia or corn-plants among grasses; but with these are botanically associated other species-usually far more numerous—to which no great value has ever been attached, or which are objects of interest to the botanist alone. It may be that, in some instances, the original preference of certain species was accidental, and that their present superiority over certain others is merely owing to the improvements effected by cultivation; but we are no more entitled to assume that this has been ordinarily the case, than that man has in his selection exhausted, or nearly exhausted, the resources of nature. Some plants are known to have been cultivated from the most remote his. toric ages; some have but recently become the objects of human care, which yet are deservedly esteemed; and, in some instances-e.g., sea-kale—these have not been intro duced from regions newly explored, but are natives of the very countries which have been the seats of ancient civilization. Probably, in the earliest ages, plants useful for food alone were cultivated, and of these only a few kinds, as is still the case among savage tribes; it may perhaps be doubted whether plants yielding fiber for clothing and
cordage, or plants from which alcoholic beverages or narcotics could be procured, were most likely next to engage attention.–Of C. P., plants affording articles of human food are certainly the most important, as well as the most numerous class. See Food. Next to these may be ranked plants yielding fiber (q.v.). Other important classes of C. P. are those yelding alcoholic beverages, all of which, however, are also to be ranked among the plants yielding food (see FERMENTED LIQUORS); those yielding tea, coffee, cocoa, and other similar beverages, containing caffeine (q.v.), or some analogous principle; those yielding narcotics (q.v.), as tobacco and opium, some of which are and some are not cultivated also for other purposes; those yielding dye-stuffs (q.v.); those yielding medicines (see OFFICINAL PLANTS); those yielding fixed oils (see Oils), some of which are to be reckoned among plants valuable for food, on account of the use of their oils as articles of food, whilst they are also valuable on other accounts; those yielding fodder (q.v.) for cattle; those yielding timber (see TIMBER TREES); those employed for hedges (q.v.), etc. There are also many miscellaneous useful products of plants, and useful purposes to which they are applicable. Among the former are resins, turpentines, essential oils, gum caoutchouc, gutta-percha, bark for tanning, etc.; among the latter, the thatching of roofs, basket-making, and the supply of food necessary for useful insects, which leads to the cultivation of the white mulberry as the food of the silkworm, and of the cochineal cactus or nopal as the food of the cochineal insect. Many plants highly valued for their usefulness are still scarcely or not at all cultivated: this is the case particularly with many that yield medicines, for which the whole demand is not too great to be easily supplied by the plants growing wild, and with timber trees, the plantation of which only takes place in countries of very advanced civilization. The number of plants cultivated for their usefulness is continually increasing, as well as of those cultivated for their beauty. The cultivation of flowers and ornamental shrubs and trees, although unquestionably less ancient than that of some of the plants most necessary for the supply of urgent wants, nevertheless dates from a remote antiquity, and has always existed in every country entitled in any measure to the credit of civilization. Some Č. P. have from a very early period been very widely diffused, as das particularly been the case with some of the corn-plants; but others have been confined to particular regions through no necessity of climatic adaptation, but rather from want of intercourse among nations. Thus, some of the finest ornaments of our greenaouses and gardens, recently introduced into Europe, bave been diligently cultivated from time immemorial in China and Japan, in which countries also many useful plants are cultivated still almost unknown in other parts of the world. The cultivation of useful aquatic plants is practiced in China to a degree unapproached in any other ountry.
The changes produced by cultivation present an interesting and difficult subject to the student of vegetable physiology. Increase of luxuriance and size is a result which might have been expected from abundant nutriment and favorable circumstances of growth; but the determination of the strength of the plant in its vegetation to particular parts, and their greater proportionate increase, is a more remarkable phenomenon, although of common occurrence, as is also the considerable modification of juices and qualities. To these effects of cultivation, perpetuated in the progeny of the plants, and increased from one generation to another, we owe many of the most useful varieties of cultivated plants. Our cabbages, turnips, carrots, etc., differ very much from the wild plants of the same species; there is little, for example, that is eatable or nutritious in the root of a wild turnip, and the acridity occasionally to be observed even in cultivation exists in it to a much greater degree. Wild celery is poisonous, or almost so. How far the effects of cultivation can be extended, is a question not yet decided in general, nor with reference to particular species. See De Candolle's Origin of Cultivated Plants.
CULTIVATION. The term includes all operations for preparing the soil for those crops which man specially selects for his use. The spade, the hoe, and the plow, have been the primary implements of C. among all nations as far back as their civilization can be traced. All these effect much the same end. By their means the soil is stirred and inverted, which keeps under the vegetation that is supplanted, and loosens the soil to admit of the roots of the sown plants to run through it. The harrow or rake, on the other hand, is employed to smooth the surface and cover the seed. To allow of the C. of the crops when they are growing, in many cases the seeds are planted or sown in rows. Cereals, for instance, are, with this view, often sown with a drill in rows from 6 to 9 in. apart; and the narrow rows are either cultivated by the hand or horse hoe. Again, turnips, potatoes, and other green crops, are sown at wider intervals, from 24 to 30 in., and are cultivated during their growth by horse-hoes of various descrip; tions. The implements used in C. will be best treated under their special names, and under the different crops the peculiarities of their cultivation will be considered. A few general principles, however, which ought to be kept in view in the C. of all crops, may be here stated.
The soil, in the first place, should be as completely inverted as possible, since it is an important object to smother or bury the surface-plants, and permit them to decay within the soil and yield food for the plants to be sown. In the second place, it should be rendered as loose and comminuted as possible; for earth in this state both allows an
excess of water to pass through it more easily, and it also retains a larger supply within it for the wants of vegetation when the weather is dry. Land that is tilled in autumo may be left open, rough, and cloddy, as the frost of winter will loosen and pulverize it by spring. In a dry and warm climate, the desired state of the soil is secured by abundant plowing, rolling, and other operations. In a wet and moist climate, these must be more sparingly resorted to, as a moderately rough-mold facilitates the draining away of excessive rains, and prevents the soil from becoming consolidated by such
See illus., CANNON, vol. III., p. 392, figs. 1, 16, 17. CULTIVATOR, a farm implement. See GRUBBET.
CULTRIROS TRÉS (Lat. knife-billed or plowshare-billed), a tribe of birds of the order grallatores, distinguished by a long, thick, stout, and generally pointed and trenchant bill, and containing cranes, herons, bitterns, storks, adjutants, etc.
CUL'VERIN, among the earlier forms of cannon, was a very long gun. It was generally an 18-pounder, weighing 50 cwt.; the demi-C. was a 9-pounder, weighing 30 cwt. A c. of especially large dimensions is still in existence at Dover castle, where it is known by the name of queen Elizabeth's pocket pistol.
CULVERT is the name given to an arched channel of masonry for the conveyance of water under-ground.
CU'MÆ, an ancient city on the coast of Campania, founded conjointly by colonists from Chalcis in Eubæa, and from Cymæ in Asia Minor. According to Strabo, it was the earliest of all the Greek settlements either in Italy or Sicily, but the precise date of its foundation is a matter of dispute. It soon attained to wealth and power, built several harbors or port-towns of its own, kept a tolerably large fleet, extended its influence over the native tribes of the neighboring territories, planted a colony at Neapolis (Naples), and for 200 years (700-500 B.c.) was indisputably the most important and civilized city in southern Italy. Subsequently, it was repeatedly but unsuccessfully attacked by the Etruscans and Umbrians. In 474 B.c., its ally, Hieron, king of Syracuse, defeated the combined fleets of the Etruscans and Carthaginians, who had attacked it by sea. Yet there can be no doubt that these conflicts both lessened its resources and weakened its influence, for in 420 B.C., the Samnites conquered the city, murdered or enslaved the most of the citizens, and forcibly married their wives and daughters. A Samnite colony was now established in C., which rapidly degenerated into a second-rate Campanian town. In 338 B.C., it was admitted to the Roman franchise, and from this period steadily adhered to the fortunes of Rome. In the second Punic war, Hannibal tried to capture it, but was repulsed by Sempronius Gracchus. Towards the close of the republic, it became the municipal capital of the district in which the Roman nobles had their villas and sea-coast residences. It continued to exist as a “quiet” place down to the close of the Roman empire, but reassumed a momentary importance during the wars of Belisarius and Narses. Its strong fortress, garrisoned by the Goths, was the last place in Italy that held out against the Byzantine army. Few remains of the ancient city exist.-C. is famous as the residence of the Sibyl (q.v.), whose cave-a vast subterranean grotto hewn out of the eastern side of the rock on which stood the citadel—is described by Justin Martyr, who visited it. It was destroyed by Narses in a vain attempt to undermine the fortress.
CUMANA, the department of which the below mentioned city is the capital, forms the most easterly section of the northern coast of the republic, touching the Orinoco on the s., and meeting Caracas on the west. Besides the capital, it comprises the city of Barcelona, and the towns of Cariaco, Carapano, Aragua, and El Pao. Pop. 73, 55,476.
CUMANA', the oldest European city in the new world, having been built by Diego Castellon in 1521, and originally named New Toledo. It is in the province of the same name, in Venezuela, South America, and stands at the mouth of the Manzanares, on the gulf of Cariaco, a long and narrow arm of the Caribbean sea. Lat. 10° 30' n., and long. 64° 15' w. Though it was almost entirely destroyed by an earthquake in 1853, yet in 1873 it numbered, including several suburbs, 9,427 inhabitants. It bas a good roadstead, which is commanded by a fort on an adjacent height. It has but few edifices of any note, for the houses, in order to guard against the evil already mentioned, are generally low built. It carries on a tolerably large export trade in cattle, smoked meat, salt-fish, cocoa, and other provisions.
CUMANIA, GREAT and LITTLE, districts in Hungary. Great C. is a low plain subject to inundation, with a pop. of about 70,000. Little C. has an area of 1000 sq.m. and a pop. of about 85,000.
CUMBERLAND, a river, rises in Kentucky, United States, and after a course of 600 m., of which the lower half is navigable for vessels of 400 tons, enters the Ohio at Smithland from the left, a few miles above the point where the Tennessee also joins the Ohio from the same side.
CUMBERLAND, a co. in s. Illinois, intersected by the Embarras river and three or four railroads; 310 sq.m ; pop. '80, 13,762. Agriculture is the main business. Co. seat, Prairie City
CUMBERLAND, a co. in s. Kentucky, on the Tennessee border; 375 sq.m.; pop. 80, 8,891 -1565 colored. Productions agricultural. Co. seat, Burksville.
CUMBERLAND, a co. in s.w. Maine, on the ocean; traversed by several railroads, and bounded on the n.e. by the Androscoggin river; 990 sq.m.; pop. '80, 86,360. The soil is fertile and well cultivated. Co. seat, Portland.
CUMBERLAND, a co. in s.w. New Jersey, on Delaware bay; intersected by the West Jersey and Vineland railroads; 480 sq.m.; pop. '80, 37,694. Productions chiefly agricultural. Co. seat, Bridgeton.
CUMBERLAND, a co. in North Carolina, intersected by Cape Fear river; 1680 sq.m.; pop. '80, 29,836–11,244 colored. Lumber and turpentine are the staples.
Co. seat, Fayetteville.
CUMBERLAND, a co. in s. Pennsylvania, in the Cumberland valley; traversed by three or four railroads; 545 sq.m.; pop. '80, 45,978. Productions agricultural. Co. seat, Carlisle.
CUMBERLAND, a co. in Tennessee; 700 sq.m.; pop. '80, 4,538–42 colored. It is hilly and mountainous. Co. seat, Crossville.
CUMBERLAND, a co. in central Virginia on the Appomattox and James rivers; 310 sq.m.; pop. '80, 10,430—7,419 colored. Productions mainly agricultural. Co. seat, Cumberland Court-house.
CUM'BERLAND, the north-westmost co. of England, bounded n. by Scotland and the Solway firth, w. by the Irish sea, s. by Lancashire, e. by Westmoreland, Durham, and Northumberland. "It is eleventh in size of the English counties; greatest length, 74 m.; greatest average breadth, 22; 75 m. of coast: area, 1523 sq.m.; f being cultivated, and ; in mountain and lake. The surface is mountainous in the s.w. and e.; the middle consists of hills, valleys, and elevated ridges; and the n. and n.w. districts, including the vale of Carlisle, are low, flat, or gently undulated. The mountains in the s.w. are high, rugged, and sterile, with deep and narrow valleys, lakes, rivers, water-falls, and woodlands. The chief mountains are Sca Fell Pike, 3,210 ft. ; Sca Fell, 3,162; Helvellyn, 3,118 ; Skiddaw, 3,054. From the latter are seen the German ocean and the Irish
The Pennine chain, the great backbone of the n. of England, skirts the n.e. border of C., and rises in Cross Fell, 2,929 feet. C. has 15 lakes, the largest one, Ulleswater, being 9 m. by 1. Six of the chief water-falls are 60 to 156 ft. high. The chief rivers are the Eden, running 35 m. n.w. into the Solway firth; the Esk, running s. into the same; and the Derwent, which collects the water of six lakes and several tarns, and runs 33 m. n.w. and n. into the Irish sea. The great west or Carlisle and Lancaster railway route from Edinburgh to London, crosses the n.e. part of Cumberland.
The lake district, or nearly the s.w. half of C., consists of Silurian slates, with protrusions of granite and trap rocks, and with new red sandstone along the coast s. of St. Bees Head. In the n. is a semicircular strip of carboniferous limestone; then follow strips of coal strata and permian rocks; then the new red sandstone plain of Carlisle, with carboniferous limestone on the n.e., including a trap-dike 30 m. long, parallel to and on the e. side of the Eden, and crossing to the w. near Ainstable. C. abounds in mineral wealth-silver, copper, lead, iron, plumbago, gypsum, limestone, coal, slates, marbles, marl, and several of the more rare minerals.
In the mountainous parts, the climate is cold, wet, and variable, especially from July to Oct.; on the coast, it is mild. There is a fall of 50 in. of rain annually at Whitehaven, and of 68 at Keswick; while at some places among the mountains the fall sometimes reaches 100 inches. Half of the cultivated soil consists of dry loam. Much of the subsoil is wet clay. The chief crops are wheat, barley, oats, turnips, and potatoes. There are many small dairies. Many sheep and cattle are reared in the mountains. The estates are generally small, and farmed by the owners, or held under the lords of the manors by customary tenure. Many of the small or peasant proprietors have had their lands in their families for centuries, and have a high spirit of independence. There are manufactures of woolens-much being domestic-cotions, linen, earthenware, and glass. C. is divided into five wards or hundreds, 104 parishes, and nine poor-law unions. The chief towns are Carlisle, Cockermouth, Whitehaven, Workington, Maryport, Wigton, Penrith, Keswick, Egremont. Pop. '81, 250,630. In the year 1880 the number of electors was 24,560. Îts rental, in gross, was £1,900,700. C. returns eight members to parliament-four for the county, two for Carlisle, one for Cockermouth, and one for Whitehaven. C. formed part of Cumbria (q.v.). Many Roman relics have been found, such as altars, inscriptions, coins, instruments, utensils. During Saxon times, it was under Danish law. Henry III. united it to England. For three centuries before the union of England and Scotland, C. was the instant scene of war and devastation, from incursions of the English and Scotch into this, a debatable tract between the two kingdoms. It was again devastated in the civil wars of the 17th c., and in 1715 and 1745. C. had formerly several monasteries and hospitals; and on the borders, many towers or peel-honses; and it has still some old Norman and Gothic churches.