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Jucar (erected in 1523), connecting the city with the convent of San Pablo. C. was once celebrated for arts, literature, and industry, but its glory has now quite departed. It suffered much during the Peninsular campaign. Pop. 8,200.-C. gives name to a mountainous, well-watered province, yielding excellent timber, honey, wine, and grain, with good pasture, and various minerals, including iron, coal, copper, and silver. Area about 12,000 miles. Pop. '83, 241, 103.
CUENCA, a city of Ecuador, in South America, stands on a wide plain or table-land, 8.640 ft. above the level of the sea. It is 85 m. 8.8.W. of Quito, the capital of the republic; in lat. 17°8., its proximity to the equator, however, being largely neutralized, with regard to climate by its altitude. Pop. estimated at 30,000. It possesses a cathedra! and a university.
CUEVA DE VE'RA, a t. of Spain, in the province of Granada, 42 m. n.e. of Almeria. It is situated on a plain on the right bank of the Almanzor, near its entrance into the Mediterranean. It is generally well built, and its streets regular. The principal edifices are an old Moorish castle, and the parish church in the Doric style. C. has manufactures of hardware, earthenware, and of wine and oil; and a large number of persons are employed in mines in the vicinity. Pop. 20,644.
CUFFEE, PAUL, 1759–1818; a negro sea-captain, b. near New Bedford, Mass., who accumulated a fortune in seafaring life. He was a member of the society of Friends He was among the first to encourage the colonization of his people in Sierra Leone.
CUFFEE, PAUL, 1775–1812; an Indian of the Shinnecock tribe, on Long island, N. Y.; long employed as a preacher by the New York missionary society.
CUFIC WRITING. See KUFIC WRITING.
CUICHUNCHUL'LI, Ionidium parviflorum, a Peruvian plant of the natural order violaceæ, half-shrubby, with minute leaves, possessing very active emetic and purgative properties, and said to be a certain remedy for elephantiasis tuberculata, a reputation which, if even partially well founded, ought to recommend it to the particular attention of the benevolent and humane. Other species of ionidium share the same name, properties, and reputation. One of them was formerly supposed to yield ipecacuanha, and its root is still known as white ipecacuanha. See IPECACUANHA.
CUIRASS, as its name (Fr. cuir, leather) implies, was originally a jerkin, or garment of leather for soldiers, so thick and strong as to be pistol-proof, and even musket-proof. The name was afterwards applied to a portion of armor made of metal, consisting of a back-plate and breast-plate hooked or buckled together; with a piece jointed to the back called a culet or garde de reines.
CUIRASSIERS', in the time of queen Mary, were heavy horsemen wearing bodyarmor over buff-coats. They carried swords and pistols, and the reins were strength. ened with iron chains. In modern armies, the name is often given to the heaviest cavalry. Napoleon's 12 regiments of C. attracted much attention during his wars. The first rank of Russian C. are armed with lances. The only C. in the British army (wearing the cuirass) are the life guards (red) and horse guards (blue); and in these the cuirass is now regarded rather as a matter of show than of use.
CUISSARTS, among ancient armor, were worn by troopers. They consisted of small strips of iron-plate laid horizontally over each other round the thigh (Fr. cuisse), and riveted together.
CUJA'CIUS, properly JACQUES DE CUJAS, or CUJEUS, one of the most distinguished jurists of the 16th c., b. in 1522, was the son of a tanner of Toulouse. After studying law, he was appointed teacher of the same at Cahors (1554), and in the following year, by the recommendation of the chancellor L'Hopital, gained the chair of law in the uni. versity of Bourges. In 1557, he become a professor at Valence. After several changes, he returned to Bourges in 1577, where he resided till his death, Oct. 4, 1590.
His great reputation as a jurist was founded on his study of original MSS. of the Roman laws, and on his classical treatment of these authorities. He had in his library 500 MSS. on Roman law, and by his emendations contributed greatly to remove the obscurities of jurisprudence. A complete collection of his works was edited by Fabrot (10 vols., Par. 1658), and has since been republished frequently. Uhl has edited separately C.'s Animadversiones et Observationes. C.'s daughter made herself notorious by her immoralities. See Spangenberg's C. und seine Zeitgenossen. (Leip. 1822).
CUL'DEES, or KELDEES, (Celt. Ceile-De; Lat. colidei, culdei, calledei, keldei, keleder), the name given in the British islands to an ancient order of ecclesiastics. The word seems to be of Celtic origin, and in the Irish language signifies an “attendant of God." Giraldus Cambrensis, writing towards the end of the 12th c., when the order still flour. ished, interprets the name in one place by the Latin word cælicola, i.e., “worshiper of heaven;" and in another by cælebs, i.e.,'' single,” or “unmarried.” Boece and Buchanan, in the 16th c., translate it cultores Dei, i.e., “worshipers of God.”
There is some uncertainty as to the first appearance of the order. There is no trace of it in the works of Adaman, of Bede, of Alcuin, or of any other ecclesiastical historian of the 8th or 9th century. An abbot and bishop of the n. of Ireland, who compiled a metrical calendar of Irish saints about the year 800, was known in his own time as
“ Ængus the Ceile-De." But it has been questioned whether the title was not used rather to denote his great personal piety, than to describe his ecclesiastical character. The four masters, again, in their Annals of Ireland, compiled about the year 1636, record certain great wonders wrought by a Ceile-De in the year 806. But no such event is recorded in the ancient chronicles from which the four masters compiled their work, and Irish antiquaries think that the passage must therefore be rejected as apocryphal. But in Irish annals of undoubted authority, it is chronicled that, in the year 919, “ a CeileDe came across the sea westward to establish laws in Ireland;" in other words, as Irish archæologists conjecture, to bring the Irish into conformity with the rule for canons which had been enacted in 816, at the council of Aix-la-Chapelle. The annals of Ulster record that, in 920, Armagh was plundered by Godfrey, son of Ivor, the Dane, but that he spared the oratories with the C. and the sick. The C. of Armagh, who thus appear in the beginning of the 10th c., survived till the beginning of the 17th century. Archbishop Usher, who died in 1655, writes that they continued until within his own memory: They were secular priests or canons, about 12 in number, living in community, under the rule of a prior, who-after the beginning of the 13th C., when thc metropolitan cathedral of St. Patrick was remodeled after the English fashion-officiated as precenter, his C. being the clerks or choir. The antiphonary or service-book, with the musical notation, from which they sang, is still preserved in the library of Trinity college, Dublin; and its calendar records the deaths of several of their number, one of them so lately as the year 1574. The prior seems generally to have been a pluralist, it having been formally ruled in 1448, after an appeal to Rome, “ that the priory of the college of secular priests, commonly called Culdees, being a simple office, and without cure of souls, is not incompatible with a benefice.” The C. of Armagh, dissolved at the reformation in 1541, were resuscitated for a brief space in 1627. Their old possessions-among which were 7 town-lands containing 1423 acres, 7 rectories, and 4 vicarages-were, in 1634, bestowed upon the vicars choral of the cathedral, who still enjoy them.
There were at least 7 other houses of C. in Ireland, viz., at Clonmacnois, Clondalkin, Devenish, Clones, Popull, Monanincha, and Sligo.
If tradition could be trusted, the first appearance of C. in Scotland should be placed about the middle of the 9th century. A leaf of the register of St. Andrews, written about 1130, relates that Brude, the son of Dergard, the last king of the Picts (who ceased to reign about 843), gave the island, since called St. Serf's Inch, in Lochleven, to God, St. Servan and the Culdee hermits serving God there. They were governed by an abbot; and about the year 1093, during the rule of abbot Ronan, they gave up their island to the bishop of St. Andrews, on condition that he should find them in food and raiment. They had grants of lands or immunities from all the kings of the Scots who reigned between 1039 and 1153, the roll of these royal benefactors being headed by the renowned Macbeth (1039–56) and his wife Gruoch, the daughter of Bodhe. They had a grant of a church from each of the three bishops who ruled the see of St. Andrews between 1040 and 1093; and about 1120, they had a grant of lands from one of the sons of king Malcolm Canmore and St. Margaret-Ethelred, earl of Fife, and hereditary lay-abbot of the Culdee monastery of Dunkeld. A few years afterwards, the bishop of St. Andrews gives their island, and all their possessions, including their church vestments and their books, to the newly founded canons regular of St. Andrews, in order that a priory of that rule might supplant the old abbey of C. in St. Serf's Inch. About 1140, the bishop's grant was enforced by a charter from king David, in which it was ordered that such of the C. as chose to live canonically and peacefully under the new canons should remain in the island. “If any one of them refuse so to do,” says the king, “my will is, and I command, that he be expelled from the island.” We hear no more of the Culdee hermits of Lochleven. The canons regular who came in their place continued till the reformation, and we are indebted to one of their priors, Andrew Wyntoun, who died about 1429, for a valuable metrical chronicle of Scotland. A catalogue of the books of the Culdee abbey, when it was bestowed upon the canons regular of St. Andrews, about 1140, has been preserved. The number of volumes was not quite twenty. They were--a pastoral. gradual, a missal, some of the works of Origen, the sentences of St. Bernard (who was still living), a treatise on the sacraments, in three parts, a part of the Bible, a lectionary, the Acts of the Apostles, the gospels, the works of Prosper, the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles, a gloss on the Canticles, a work called Interpretationes Dictionum, a collection of sentences, a commentary on Genesis, and a treatise on the exceptions from ecclesiastical rules.
The C. of St. Andrews were of more importance, and not perhaps of less antiquity, than those of Lochleven. The death of an abbot of St. Andrews is chronicled by the Irish annals in 747. It is not said that he was a Culdee; but in 944, when Constantine, the king of Scots, exchanged his crown for a monk's cowl, it is recorded that he became “abbot of the Culdees of St. Andrews." No more is heard of them till about the middle of the 12th century. A priory of canons regular had now been planted beside them, and from its records we learn that in the church of St. Andrew, such as it then was, there were thirteen C., holding their office by hereditary tenure, and “living rather according to their own pleasure and the traditions of men, than after the rules of the holy fathers;" that some few things of little importance they possessed in coinmon; that the rest, including what was of most value, they held as their private property, each enjoying what he got from relatives and kinsmen, or from the benevolence granted on the tenure of pure friendship, or otherwise; that after they became C., they were for bidden to have their wives in their houses, or any other women of whom evil suspicion could arise; that the altar of St. Andrew was left without a minister, nor was mass celebrated there except on the rare occasion of a visit from the king or the bishop, for the C. said their own office after their own way in a corner of the church. The attempt to supplant the C. by canons regular, which had succeeded at Lochleven, was repeated at St. Andrews, but failed. The C. kept their own church-St. Mary's, or the Kirk of the Heugh-and had a voice along with the canons regular in the election of the bishop Their abbot disappears about the middle of the 11th c.; and soon afterwards their “prior” exchanges that title for the name of “provost." Their distinctive character was gradually passing away; before the end of the 14th c., they lose their share in the election of the bishop; their name of Culdee is heard no more; their church, about the same time, takes the name of the King's chapel-royal; and henceforth there remains nothing to distinguish them from the secular priests of other collegiate churches.
The C. of the church of St. Mary at Monymusk, in Aberdeenshire, appear to have been founded by the bishop of St. Andrews towards the end of the ilth century. In the beginning of the 13th c. they are found making claim to be regarded as canons regular. The claim was resisted by the bishop of St. Andrews, and in 1211, after an appeal to Rome, the dispute was settled by a compromise, which provided that there should be thirteen C. at Monymusk, of whom one-to be chosen by the bishop from a list of three presented by the other C.-should be the master or prior; that they should have a refectory, a common dormitory, and an oratory, but no cemetery; that they should not adopt the monastic or canonical life or rule without leave of the bishop; and that when he came to Monymusk, he should be received by the C. in solemn procession. Before this agreement is 50 years old, the name of C. disappears from Monymusk, and their house is recognized as a priory of canons regular.
C. are found at Abernethy, in Strathearn, about 1120. In the end of that century, their possessions appear to have been divided between their hereditary lay-abbot (the founder of the noble family of Abernethy) and the prior and C. by whom the burden of the ecclesiastical offices was borne. In 1273, they were transformed into canons regular. The same partition of the Culdee revenues which appears at Abernethy, is found ..so at Brechin. A layman, who is abbot only in name, inherits a large share of the Culdee patrimony, and transmits it to his descendants, who soon lose even the name of abbot. The prior and his C., meanwhile, are absorbed into the chapter of the new sishopric, founded at Brechin by king David I., about 1145; in less than a hundred years, the name of C. disappears, and the chapter is one wholly of secular canons. The sume silent change of C. into secular canons, which took place at Brechin during the 13th c., took place also at Dunblane, at Dunkeld, at Lismore, at Rossmarky, and at Dornoch. C. are found in the bishop's chapter at each of these places in the 12th c.; they disappear before the end of the 13th c., leaving the chapter one of secular canons. At Dunkeld, as at Brechin and at Abernethy, great part of the Culdee revenues was held by a lay-abbot, whose office was of such mark as to be hereditary in the royal family. The father of “the gracious Duncan," and the son of St. Margaret, were Cuidee abbots. If a tradition of the 16th c. can be received as authority for what passed in the 12th c., the C. of Dunkeld were married, like the priests of the Greek church, but lived apart from their wives during their period of service at the altar.
C. are found holding land at Monifeith, near Dundee, about 1200; and there was a lay-abbot of Monifieth ; but there is nothing to show whether he was or was not a Culdee. The C. of Muthill, in Strathearn, appear with their prior in charters of the beginning of the 13th century. Nothing more is known of them. Jocelin of Furnes, in his Life of St. Kentigern, or Mungo, written about the year 1180, relates that the disciples of that saint at Glasgow, in the 6th c., had all things in common, but lived each in his own hut, whence they were called “solitary clerks," and more commonly “Culdees.” C. appear as one of the ecclesiastical fraternities of Iona in the year 1164; and the faint vestiges of a circular building (about 15 ft. in diameter) called Cothan Cuildich,” or the Culdee's cell, are still shown in the island.
Only one or two traces of C. have been observed in England. The canons of St. Peter's, at York, were called C. in the reign of Æthelstan (924–31); and a charter of Æthelred, in the year 1005, speaks of the canons of the English cathedrals generally, as cultores clerici. The term is of doubtful import, and the charter itself is not beyond suspicion.
Of the C. in Wales, we have only one notice. Giraldus Cambrensis, writing about 1190, describes the island of Bardsey, on the coast of Caerparvon, as inhabited by “most devout monks, called celibates or Culdees.
Such is a concise recapitulation of all that is certainly known of the Culdees. Before their history was ascertained, opinions were held regarding them which now find few if any supporters among archæologists. It was believed that they were our first teachers of Christianity; that they came from the east before corruption had yet overspread the church; that they took the Scripture for their sole rule of faith; that they lived under a form of church-government approaching to presbyterian parity; that they rejected prel
acy, transubstantiation, the invocation of saints, the veneration of relics, image.worship, and the celibacy of the clergy; and that they kept their simple worship and pure doc. trines undefiled to the last, and were suppressed only by force and fraud, when the Roman Catholic church triumphed over their older and better creed. For all this. it is now clearly seen that there is no foundation. There is no reason to suppose that the O. differed in any material point of faith, discipline, or ritual from the other clergy of the British islands and western Christendom. Their name was their only peculiarity.
The best account of the Irish C. is given in a dissertation by the Rev. Dr. Reeves, in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy for 1860. The best account of the Scottish C. is given in Mr. Grub's Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, vol. i. pp. 226–43 (Aberd. 1861). The opinions formerly held regarding the Scottish C. will be found in Selden's preface to the Decem Historice Anglicanæ Scriptores, reprinted in his Opera, vol. ii. pp. 1129_46; sir J. Dalrymple's Collections concerning the Scottish History (Edin. 1705); and the late Rev. Dr. Jamieson's Historical Account of the Ancient Culdees (Edin. 1811). The opinions of these writers are controverted in bishop Lloyd's Historical Account of Church Government, chap. vii.; Goodall's Preliminary Dissertation and bishop Russell's Supplement, prefixed to Keith's Catalogue of Scottish Bishops (Edin. 1824); Pinkerton's Inquiry into the Early History of Scotland, vol. ii. pp. 270-73 (edit. 1814); and Chalmers's Caledonia, vol. i. pp. 434–39 (Lond. 1807). On the subject of the C. generally, reference may be made to Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, vol. iv.; to the dissertation by J. van Hecke in the Acta Sanctorum Octobris, vol. viii.; and to Skene's Celtic Scotland, vol. ii.
CUL-DE-SAC, a street or alley with an opening at only one end, easy therefore of entrance, but not for exit; thence any close, confined, uncomfortable place.
CUL'ENBORG, CUL'EMBORG, or KUIL'ENBURG, a t. of the Netherlands, situated on the left bank of the river Leck, 12 m. n.w. of Tiel. C. has three divisions, of which the inner town is the oldest and most important. It has a Reformed, a Lutheran, a Roman Catholic church, a synagogue, and a fine orphan-house. It has steamboat communication, and is a station of the railway from Utrecht to 's Hertogenbosch. C. has several factories. In olden times, the “ Dominion of Culenborg” formed a county; and its independence, both of the Roman empire and the states of Holland, secured it the singular privilege of offering an asylum to fugitives from Holland for debt. Pop. '80, 6,725.
CULIACAN', a t. of the Mexican confederation, stands on a river of its own name, which. flowing towards the s.W., enters the gulf of California near its mouth. It occupies a fertile tract in the department of Sinaloa, being about 90 m. to the s.e. of the city so called. It is estimated to contain 7,000 inhabitants.
CULILAWAN BARK, also called CLOVE BARK, a valuable aromatic bark, the product of the cinnamomum culilawan, a tree of the same genus with the cinnamon (q.v.tree, growing in the Molucca islands. It comes to market in pieces of various length, almost dat, thick, fibrous, covered with a white epidermis, reddish-yellow inside, and has an odor resembling that of nutmeg and cloves, and a pungent taste. It is useful in cases of indigestion, diarrhea, etc.—Another variety of C. B. is believed to be the produce of cinnamomum canthoneurum; and a very similar bark, called Sintoc BARK, is obtained from C. sintoc.
CUL'LEN, a royal, parliamentary, and municipal burgh and seaport in the n. of Banffshire, 12 m. w.n.w. of Banff. It is built on the w. slope of an eminence overlooking the sca, and at the mouth of the Cullen Burn. Pop. 'o1, 2,033. A third of the inhabitants of the town are engaged in the cod, ling, haddock, skate, herring, and salmon fisheries. C. contributes with Elgin, Banff, Peterhead, Inverury, and Kintore in returning one member to parliament. The chief exports are cured fishi, oats, potatoes. Some linen is made. The marquis of Montrose burned C. in 1645.
CULLEN, PAUL, D.D., Cardinal, b. in Ireland, 1803; educated in Rome; made cardinal, 1866. He is the first man of Irish birth who has been made a cardinal since the reformation. He d. 1878.
CULLEN, WILLIAM, a well-known physician of the last century, and one of the most celebrated professors of medicine in the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, was born at Hamilton, in Lanarkshire, on the 15th day of April, 1710. His father was factor to the duke of Hamilton, and was possessed of a little landed property in the parish of Bothweli; he appears to have brought up two of his sons to the learned professions, and to have himself received a legal education. William C. received the first part of his education at the grammar-school of Hamilton, and afterwards began his medical studies in Glasgow by an apprenticeship, and by attending literary classes in the university. At this time (about 1727), it does not appear that there was any systematic medical teaching in Glasgow university, though the medical school of Edinburgh was just rising to the height of its fame, under the auspices of the first Monro. c.'s master in the art. however, Mr. John Paisley, was a liberal and enlightened man, having a valu. able library, of which the pupil may be presumed to have made good use. In 1729, having completed for the time his medical education, he was appointed surgeon to a merchant-ship, trading to the West Indies; and from this time till 1734, he was actively engaged in learning his profession practically in various situations, but without accept
ing any permanent responsibility. He next spent two additional winter-sessions in Edinburgh in the regular study of medicine, and was one of the founders of that important students' association-since called the royal medical society-the object of which was, and is, the advancement of the medical knowledge of the members by periodical discussions on subjects of interest connected with medical study. In 1736, he commenced practice at Hamilton, and very soon was largely employed, having secured from the first the influence and friendship of the duke of Hamilton and of other persons of distinction. Soon after, he became acquainted with William Hunter, afterwards the celebrated anatomist and obstetric professor, and brother of the still more celebrated John Hunter. See HUNTER, John and WILLIAM. The three years passed by Hunter under Cullen's roof formed the beginning of a life-long friendship, although after Hunter went to London, it is probable that they never again met. In 1740, C. took the degree of doctor of medicine in the university of Glasgow; in 1741, he entered into partnership with a surgeon, with the view of confining himself to a physician's practice; in 1744, he responded to the invitation of a number of families in Glasgow, and took a house in that city, an object which it is probable he had in view some years before, but which he was prevented from carrying out by the friendship and liberal patronage of the duke of Hamilton, who died in 1743. Various circumstances indicate that during the seven years passed in practice in Hamilton, C. was diligently preparing, not only for the practice, but also for the teaching, of his profession; and accordingly, he had no sooner settled in Glasgow, than we find him engaged in giving a course of lectures, in regard to which his correspondence with William Hunter sufficiently shows that it was successful, and deserved success. Up to this period, though professorships of medicine, and of anatomy with botany, existed in the university, no lectures were delivered in either medicine or botany; and it seems certain that to C. that university owes the real commencement of its medical school; for in one or two years succeeding 1746, he made arrangements with the several professors to lecture on the theory and practice of physic, on botany and the materia medica, and finally on chemistry, being assisted in these last departments by Mr. John Carrick, who also acted as assistant to the professor of anatomy, In botany, C. seems to have lectured in Latin, but in the other departments be adopted the English language as the vehicle of expression, an innovation of great importance, which permitted him to adopt a more familiar style of lecturing than had hitherto been
One of his original hearers records that “in the physic class, Dr. Cullen never read lectures, but only used notes; in the chemistry, he sometimes read, but very seldom.'
He was supported by the university by votes amounting to £136 for the chemical laboratory, and £20 annually for keeping it in repair. As a chemist, he does not appear to have made any notable discovery; but he imbued the minds of his pupils with large and liberal views of a science then very imperfectly studied, and was beyond all doubt the means of raising up the great reputation of Dr. Black, by turning his thoughts to the subject of latent heat, which he prosecuted so successfully by a series of conclusive and most original experiments. In 1751, after somewhat prolonged negotiations, C. was placed, through the influence of the duke of Argyle, for the first time in his rightful position as a professor in the university of Glasgow, in room of Dr. Johnstone, the professor of medicine. But by this time it had begun to be apparent that an opening both for teaching and practice existed in Edinburgh, and lord Kames, whose knowledge both of general science and of Edinburgh society placed him in a favorable position for judg. ing of the chances of success, made several attempts to attract the rising and ambitious Glasgow professor to the metropolis; in which design, however, he was not successful till four years afterwards, when C. was elected by the town-council joint professor of chemistry with Dr. Plummer, who had fallen into bad health, and who died about a year afterwards. In 1757, his ever-active mind found a new direction in adding to his duties as professor of chemistry the teaching of clinical medicine in the royal infirmary, a duty up to this period performed by Dr. Rutherford only, the professor of medicine and botany. The clear-sightedness and practical sagacity which he brought to this work at once fixed his position as a teacher and as a physician. Probably, also, fact of his baving to give bedside instruction at this period opposed itself to the natural tendency of his mind to give everything a systematic form, and weeded his method of practice of an immense quantity of the scholastic rubbish which appears prominently in all the medical learning of that age. He became a decided favorite with the students, and not less so with his patients; and in 1760, was applied to by the former to undertake the lectures on materia medica, in consequence of the death of Dr. Alston during the session. This duty he performed so well, that his lectures were surreptitiously printed from the notes of a pupil, and had a considerable circulation. On the resignation of Dr. Rutherford, it was reasonably expected that C. would have been transferred from the chemical chair to that of the practice of physic, for which he had shown so decided an aptitude; but personal views interfered, and Dr. John Gregory was appointed to the practical chair. In 1766, C. was, however, placed in the chair of institutes of medicine, vacant by the death of Dr. Whytt; and Black, now the greatest chemical discoverer of the age, was brought to Edinburgh from Glasgow to fill Č.'s place as professor of chem
* Thomson's Life of Cullen, vol. i. p. 25.