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swamp for 160 miles. The rivers number over 250, but they are generally small, the only one that is navigable being the Cauto, which empties near Manzanillo. On this river, during the present civil war, several battles have been fought. The river Ay is broken by picturesque falls, some of them nearly 200 ft. high. Mineral springs, mostly of a sulphurous character, abound. Gold, silver, iron, copper, quicksilver, lead, antimony, arsenic, magnesia, copperas, and other metals exist, but not under conditions which render mining profitable. Rock salt abounds on both the n. and s. coasts. Marble and jasper of fine quality are found in some places. The average temperature of the island is about 77'. The mercury rarely rises higher than 100° or falls below 50°. The average in the hottest month is 82°, in the coldest 72o. The seasons are but two, the rainy and the dry; the former being in May or June and ending in Nov. In the dry season, dews are abundant. Thunder storms are violent from June to Sept. Earthquakes are frequent on the eastern side. The healthfulness of the climate is affirmed by some and denied by others. Yellow fever often prevails in the towns on the coast, but is unknown in the interior. The forests abound in woods of the hardest kind, among which may be mentioned lignum-vitæ, ebony, rosewood, and mahogany. The fruits are those generally found in the tropics, the pine-apple and the banana being prominent. Of the sweet potato there are several varieties, while cassava and Indian corn are raised for home consumption. Wild beasts are few and small, the wild dog being the most prominent. The indigenous birds number 200 species, some of which display a beautiful plumage. Birds of prey are hardly known. Of fishes there are more than 600 species. Turtles abound, oysters are small and poor, alligators are common, and snakes are few and mostly harmless. Among the insects are the tarantula, the scorpion, the sand-fly, a dozen varieties of mosquito, an ant which destroys all living vegetable matter, 300 varieties of the butterfly, and as many more of flies. The inhabitants of Cuba are mostly of Spanish or African descent. At first none but Castilians were allowed to settle, but now all classes of Spaniards are found upon the island. They are, however, separated from each other in the social scale, the pure Castilian blood asserting its superiority. The offspring of foreigners, of whatever color, are called creoles, between whom and the Spaniards there is a feeling of caste that is almost insurmountable. The Spaniards hold all the offices and regard themselves as a privileged race. The trade of the island is mainly in their hands, while the creoles are generally planters or land-owners. The island embraces three military departments—the western, the central, and the eastern. Owing to the insurrection, 1868–78, no reliable census of the inhabitants was taken until 1882, when (including 46,698 Chinese) they numbered 1.521,684 ; of whom over 1,000,000 were whites, over 464,000 free colored, and more than 30.000 slaves. Of the entire population, there were nearly 1,000,000 persons of Spanish origin, and 11,260 of foreign birth. On June 23, 1870, Spain enacted a law emancipating all slaves who should be born after that date, and also all those who had attained the age of 60 years ; but a general decree of emancipation was not passed until the year 1886. The Chinese imported from 1847 to 1873, numbering over 46,000, have also been virtually reduced to slavery and treated with great cruelty. The chief industry of Cuba is the raising of sugar and tobacco. Coffee, formerly raised for exportation, is now produced for home consumption. Cotton is cultivated to a small extent. Oranges and pine-apples are the only fruit for exportation. The mulberry is raised for silkworms with success. Cattle-raising is carried on to a large extent. In the 18th c., the business of ship-building was carried on extensively, the forests furnishing an abundance of the best timber; but the mother country, desiring a monopoly of the business for herself, imposed restrictions which led to its discontinuance. Havana, the capital, is a city of over 200,000 inhabitants. There are a dozen smaller cities, as many towns, and over 300 villages and hamlets. The disturbed condition of the island during the last insurrection had a most unfavorable effect upon business, diminishing the production of the great siaples and reducing trade in the same degree. During the first four years of the civil war, from 1868 to 1871, the average annual production of sugar and molasses was over 7,122.000 tons. The total exports of the island in 1870 were valued at $82,600,666; those of 1871, at $71,251,440. The exports are generally undervalued, but it is officially known that those received in the United States in 1883 amounted to $14,567,918. The imports amounted to $65,544,534.

The educational system of Cuba was at first conformed to that of Spain, but it has been changed for local reasons. Innocent XIII., with the approbation of Spain, estab. lished the royal and pontifical university of Havana in 1772. The Franciscans had previously instructed classes in philosophy and theology in their convent. In 1842, the university, which had been administered by the Dominican friars, became a national establishment, and the study of the natural sciences was introduced; but in 1863, under the ministry of gen. Concha, the system of instruction was assimilated to that of Spain, and philosophical studies reduced to very narrow limits. There are two colleges for the clergy-one at Havana, the other at Santiago de Cuba. The expenses of education in the higher branches are defrayed from general revenue; those of primary educa. tion by the town councils. The statistics are not recent, but, according to the latest reports, there were over 200 public schools, of which less than 100 were for girls. The number of private schools was 245. The pupils numbered 22,200 of both sexes, of whom 21,000 were white, and 1200 were colored. Less than one half of the white pop


ulation (excluding the Chinese) can read and write. In 1868, there were 39 newspapers published on the island, 21 of them in Havana, 5 in Santiago de Cuba, 3 in Matanzas, and the others in places of less importance.

Until within a comparatively recent period, land communication between the differ. ent parts of the island was difficult; but railroads have been built between the capital and several of the most important towns, with an aggregate length of about 871 miles. The whole population, with the exception of a portion of the foreign residents, is Roman Catholic. An archbishop, residing at Santiago de Cuba, rules the eastern, and a bishop at Havana, the western diocese. The revenues of the island are derived in part from duties on importations, and in part from taxation: formerly they exceeded expenditures by a considerable sum annually; but the civil war has put the balance on the other side of the ledger. While slavery existed in the United States, there was a strong desire among a large portion of the people of this country for the annexation of Cuba. To accomplish this end, the supporters of slavery plotted from time to time, proposing now to wrest the island from Spain by filibustering operations, and now to purchase it. But Spain would not sell, and filibustering did not prosper. In 1848, president Polk, through the American minister at Madrid, without any constitutional authority whatever, offered $100,000,000 for it; but the offer was promptly rejected by Spain. Indeed, Spain was always as determined not to sell as American politicians were anxious to buy. The United States more than once gave Spain to understand that she would not permit the island to be transferred to any nation but herself, one reason for this being that if it should fall into the hands of England or France, the slaves might be emancipated, and so the island become a center of antislavery influences inimical to the existence of slavery in the southern states. In 1849, after the failure of the Lopez expedition, which had been mainly if not wholly organized on American soil, president Fillmore refused to unite with England and France in guaranteeing the possession of the island to Spain. In 1854, during the presidency of Franklin Pierce, when the government was almost wholly under slaveholding influences, three American ambassadors at European courts, Buchanan, Soule, and Mason, met in conference at Ostend, and joined in a manifesto, in which it was claimed that if Spain should refuse to sell the island to the United States, and the slaves there should be set free, the latter power would have a right to seize and annex it. Fortunately the slavery question, as connected with the national government, assumed from this time forward an aspect which made the execution of this semi-official threat an impossibility. The Spanish revolution of 1868 led to a revolt in Cuba, which had in view the independence of the island and the abolition of slavery. The republican home government gave no countevance to this movement, but sent money and troops to resist it. The war was both bloody and cruel. In 1870, the United States, having no lovger any desire to con. serve the interests of slavery, tendered its good offices in behalf of peace, proposing the sale of the island to the Cubans ; but Spain declined the offer. It is believed that Spain ordered no less than 100,000 soldiers to Cuba to aid in suppressing the insurrection. This war, which cost Spain and C. $700,000,000, Wits ended in 1878. Spain granted pardon and restoration of confiscated estates to submissive rebels and promised that C. should be represented in the Cortes by her own deputies. A liberal party was formed, 1878, to secure the fulfillment of this pledge, to encourage the immigration of white families, to bring about a complete abolition of slavery, and to promote free trade.

CUBA'GUA, an island in the Caribbean sea, off the n.e. coast of Venezuela, in South America, is situated in the department of Maturin, between Margarita and the main. land, about 30 m. n. of the town of Cumana.

CUBE, a solid with six square faces, each of which is parallel to the one opposite to it. It is a form of frequent occurrence in nature, especially among crystals. See CRYS.

In arithmetic, the C. of a number is the product of its multiplication three times by itself. This use of the term arises from the circumstance that the solid contents of a C. may be expressed by the third power of the number which expresses the length of one of its edges. Thus, if the edge of a C. be a line of 4 in., its solid contents are equal to 64 cubic inches. Conversely, the C. root of a number is that number which, multiplied three times by itself, produces the first number. See DOUBLING THE CUBE.

CU'BEBS, or CUBEB PEPPER, the dried berries of cubeba officinalis and other species of cubeba, a genus of climbing shrubs of the natural order piperaceæ, very closely allied to the true peppers, but distinguished at once by the contraction and elongation of the berries at the base, so that they appear to be stalked, upon which account C. are sometimes called piper caudatum, or tailed pepper. Cubeba officinalis is a native of Penang, Java, New Guinea, etc., and is said to be extensively cultivated in some parts of Java. Its spikes are solitary, opposite to the leaves, and usually produce about fifty berries, which are globular, and when dried, have much resemblance to black pepper, except in their lighter color, and the stalk with which they are furnished. Cubeba canina, a native of the Sunda and Molucca islands, is supposed also to yield part of the C. of commerce, and the berries of C. Wallichii possess similar properties. C. are less pungent, and more pleasantly aromatic than black pepper; they are used in the east as a condiment, but in Europe chiefly for medicinal purposes; they act as a stimulant, and are sometimes found


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useful in cases of indigestion, also in chronic catarrhs, and in many affections of the mucous membrane, particularly those of the urino-genital system. C. contain a principle called cubebine, analogous to that contained in pepper (piperine). C. appear to have been known in Europe from ancient times. In 1305, Edward I. granted to the corporation of London the power of levying a toll of one farthing on every pound of C. passing over London bridge.

CU'BICAL NI'TER is a commercial name applied to the nitrate of soda (NaONOs). See SODA.

CUBIC EQUATIONS. A cubic equation containing but one unknown quantity, is one in which the highest exponent of the quantity in any term is 3. Every such equation can be reduced to the general form 23 + px +q=0, in which the co-efficient of 2 is 1, and that of 2% is zero. Every cubic equation of this form has three roots, all of which may be real, or one only may be real, and the other two imaginary. The roots will all

p3 ,q be real, when p is essentially negative, and 7 numerically. One root only will


p3 QP be real when pis essentially positive, or when it is negative, and



27 4 p3

q* If p is essentially negative, and two of the roots are equal. When one of the

27 4 roots only is real, the equation may be solved by the following formula, known as Cardan's formula: ? 192 p3




27 When the roots are all real, this formula fails to give their values. Methods of solving C. E. are to be found in most books on trigonometry and algebra. They are all trouble

The reader will find the theory of their solution admirably discussed in Young's Theory of Equations. See also EQUATIONS.

CU'BIT (Lat. cubitus), a measure employed by the ancients, equal to the length of the arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. The C. of the Romans was about 17 in., and that of the Hebrews, 22 in., but its length is now generally stated at 18 English inches.


CUCKOO, Cuculus, a genus of birds of the order of climbers (q.v.); the type of a family, cuculidæ, which contains a large number of species, mostly confined to the warmer regions of the globe, although some of them are summer visitants of cold climates. The beak is compressed and slightly arched, and the tail long and rounded, the wings rather long, the tarsi short, two toes directed forwards, and two backwards, the outer hind toe capable of being brought halí round to the front. The feet are thus adapted for grasping and moving about upon branches, rather than for climbing, and the long tail is much used by many of the species for balancing the body, as they hop from branch to branch in the thick tropical woods which they frequent. See illus., Birds, vol. II., p. 574, fig. 11: DEER, ETC., vol. IV., p. 686, fig. 2. The name C. is derived from the note of the male of the common C. (cuculus canorus), which, although monotonous, is always heard with pleasure, being associated with all that is delightful in returning spring. A similar name is given to the bird in many languages. The C. is a very widely diffused bird; it is found in India and in Africa, and migrates northwards in summer, even to Lapland and Kamtchatka. It appears in Britain in April, and all except the young birds are believed to migrate southwards again before the middle of August. It frequents both cultivated districts and moors. There is no pairing or continued attachment of the male and female, and the female, after having laid an egg on the ground, deposits it, with her beak, in the nest of some other smaller bird, leaving the egg to be hatched and the young one to be fed by the proper owners of the nest. The egg of the C. is very small for so large a bird, being not larger than the skylark's, and the number she will lay is uncertain; but the young one soon acquires size and strength enough to eject from the nest any eggs which may remain in it, or unfortunate young birds, the true offspring of its foster-parents, and it seems restless and uneasy till this is accomplished. It works itself under them, and then jerks them out by a motion of its rump. Its back at this early age exhibits a peculiar depression between the shoulders, so that an egg or a young bird can easily be got to lie upon it; but this depression soon disappears, and along with it the singular instinct with which it is supposed to be connected. The hedge-sparrow, the yellow-hammer, the pied wagtail, and the meadow pipit, are among the birds most frequently selected by the C. as its substitutes in incubation and the care of its young. A pair of meadow pipits usually accompany the C. wherever it goes. The reason of this curious fellowship has not been ascertained. -Among the cuculidæ of North America, one of the most interesting is the yellowbilled American C., sometimes called from its note the couscou or cow-bird (coccyzus Americanus). It is among the rarest of British birds. It does not lay its eggs in the nests of other birds, but builds and hatches for itself-exhibiting, however, a remarkable peculiarity in laying its eggs at such long intervals, that a very evident difference of age appears among the young in the same nest.

CUCKOO, Va. See page 897.

CU'CUMBER, Cucumis, a genus of plants of the natural order cucurbitacem. The common C. (C. sativus), distinguished by heart-shaped, acuminately pentangular leaves, which are rough with hairs approaching to bristles, and oblong fruit, is a native of the middle and s. of Asia, and has been cultivated from the earliest times. Its fruit forms an important article of food in its native regions, the s. of Europe, etc., and an esteemed delicacy in colder countries, where it is produced by the aid of artificial heat. Many varieties are in cultivation, with fruit from 4 in. to 2 ft. long, rough, smooth, etc. Young cucumbers are much used for pickling, and are called gherkins. The C. is cultivated in fields even in the s. of England, for the supply of the London market; but in the northern parts of Britain, the aid of a hot-bed is required even to produce fruit fit for pickling. The C. requires a sunny situation, and a free rich soil. - To this genus belong other species valued for their edible fruit. C. anguria is a West Indian species, with fruit about as large as a pullet's egg, much esteemed as an ingredient in soups. The SNAKE C. (C. flexuosus) grows to a great length, and is similar in quality to the com mon cucumber. C. serotinus is cultivated in Turkey, C. macrocarpus in Brazil; tho CONOMON (C. conomon) is much cultivated in Japan. The melon (C. melo), water-melon (C. citrullus), chate (C. chate), and kaukoor (C. utilissimus), are noticed in the article MELON; the species yielding colocynth, in the article COLOCYNTH.—The DUDAIM (C. dudaim) is very generally cultivated in gardens in the east for the fragrance of its fruit, which, however, is almost tasteless. It is supposed that this plant is sometimes meant in the Old Testament, where the English version has mandrake.—The SPIRTING C., SQUIRTING C., or WILD C., which yields the drug called elaterium (q.v.), belongs to an allied genus.

CUCUMBER TREE, an American forest tree of the magnolia species, growing in nearly all the states. The fruit, which looks like a cucumber, when macerated in spirits makes a bitter tonic drink. The timber is light and useful for boat-building.

CUCURBITA CEÆ, a natural order of exogenous plants, consisting chiefly of herbaceous plants, natives of the warmer regions of the globe, having succulent stems which climb by means of lateral tendrils. There are some shrubby species. The fruit (pep) is peculiar; it is more or less succulent, has a thick fleshy rind, and the seed bearing parietal placentæ either surrounding a central cavity, or sending prolongations inwards. The seeds are flat and ovate, embedded in a sort of pulp, which is either dry or juicy:This order contains about 300 species, very many which yield fruits much used for food in warm climates, and some of them are cultivated in colder regions as articles of luxury. The fruit of some attains a very large size. To this order belong the cucum. ber, melon, gourd (of many kinds), pumpkin, squash, vegetable marrow, bottle gourd, etc. The young shoots and leaves of many species are also used as pot-herbs; and the roots of some abound in a bland fecula, and are edible, as those of momordica dioica and bryonia umbellata, East Indian plants. Yet acridity is a prevailing characteristic, of which the spirting cucumber (see ELATERIUM) of the s. of Europe, and the common bry. ony (q.v.) are examples. These are not without their use in medicine, but still more important is the colocynth (q.v.). -Among the more interesting species of this order is hodgsonia heteroclita, a gigantic species, which is found in the Himalaya mountains, ascending to an elevation of 5,000 feet. The seeds of some C. are used as almonds, and yield oil by expression, as those of telfairia pedata, an African plant. Bryonia dioica is the only British species, and does not extend to Scotland or Ireland.

CUD'BEAR, a dyestuff similar to archil (q.v.) and litmus (q.v.), and obtained in the same manner from lichens by the action of ammoniacal liquids. It is chiefly employed as a purple-dye for woolen yarn, but the color is rather fugitive. The name C., or C. LICHEN, is often appropriated to one particular species of lichen, lecanora tartarea, which is abundant on rocks in the highlands of Scotland and in the Alpine and northern districts of Europe, and from which the dyestuff C. is usually obtained by maceration for ten or twelve days in urine, with water and chalk. The name is a corruption of Cuthbert, and is derived from that of Dr. Cuthbert Gordon, under whose management the manufacture of this dyestuff was begun in Leith about the year 1777, by Mr. Macintosh of Glasgow. The species of the genus lecanora are crustaceous lichens, with a flat uniform thallus, and unstalked shields. L. tartarea forms a thick, granulated, and tartareous grayish-white crust, with scattered yellowish-brown shields. It is sometimes called white Swedish moss, being largely imported from Sweden.

CUDDALORE', the chief t. in the southern division of Arcot (q.v.), is one of the few seaports on the Coromandel, or e. coast of Hindustan. It is situated on the estuary of the southern Pennaur, a considerable tributary of the bay of Bengal, being in lat. 11° 43' n., and long. 79° 50' east. It is 15 m. to the s. of Pondicherry, and 100 to the s. of Madras. Though the river itself is beset by a bar, which admits only vessels of moderate size, yet there is good anchorage off shore at the distance of a mile and a half. The site is not more than 5 ft. above high-water mark; but notwithstanding this apparently insalubrious position, the climate is said to be peculiarly healthy. C. was at one time a place of great strength; and in that respect it was frequently an object of

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contention in the wars which, during the latter half of the 18th c., so long desolated this neighborhood. In 1758, it was taken by the French from the English, who had held it for 77 years; and, after various intermediate vicissitudes, it was finally ceded to its original possessors in 1783. Pop. '77, 237,497.

CUD'DAPAH, the district mentioned in the following article, extends in lat. from 13° 12 to 16° 19' n., and in long. from 77° 52' to 79° 48' e., containing 8,367 sq.m., and '71, 1,351,194 inhabitants. Sioping towards the bay of Bengal, the country ranges, in its general elevation above the sea, between 1182 and 450 feet. C. is traversed in its length from n. to s. by numerous parallel ridges, which constitute a part of the eastern Ghautssome of the peaks rising 3,500 ft. above the sea level. The maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures are said to be respectively 98°, 81°, and 65° F. In the hot season, the climate is understood to be peculiarly prejudicial to European constitutions. The most striking feature in the physical character of the district is the remains of diamond mines, now abandoned, and probably exhausted, situated about 7 m. from the capital. C. was ceded to Britain in 1800; and in 1846 it was the scene of serious disturbances, occasioned by an unwise interference on the part of government with the prescriptive titles to landed property.

CUDDAPAH, a native t. with a military cantonment in the presidency of Madras, from which it lies about 140 m. to the n.w. It stands, at the height of 507 ft. above the sea, near the right or s. bank of the northern Pennaur, which flows into the bay of Bengal. Lat. 14° 32' n., and long. 78° 52' east. The native town itself claims notice merely as the capital of the district of its own name; and the military cantonment, pleasantly overhanging the Bogawanka, an auxiliary of the Pennaur, contains barracks for Europeans, and spacious lines for sepoys. Pop. '71, 16,275.

CUDDY was a name first applied in East India trading ships to a cabin under the poop, where the men messed and slept. The same name afterwards given to the only cabin in very small vessels, and sometimes to the cooking-room.

CUDWEED, the popular name of many species of plants of the genera gnaphalium, filago, and antennaria, belonging to the natural order compositæ, sub-order corymbiferæ, the stems and leaves of which are more or less covered with a whitish cottony down; and the heads of flowers consist, in great part, of dry involucral scales, and may be kept for a long time without undergoing much apparent change, so that they may be reckoned among everlasting flowers (q.v.). The cudweeds are small plants of very unpretending appearance, some of them common in Britain. Antennaria dioica is very frequent in dry mountain pastures. It is sometimes called cat's-foot. its heads of flowers, from the appearance of which it derives this name, were formerly officinal, and were employed as an astringent in pectoral diseases.

CUD'WORTH, RALPH, D.D., an illustrious English divine, was b. in 1617 at Aller, in Somersetshire, and admitted pensioner of Emmanuel college, Cambridge, in 1630, where he took his degree of M.A., and became an eminent tutor. About 1641, he was presented to the rectory of North Cadbury, in Somersetshire; and in 1644, upon taking his degree of B.D., maintained two theses, in which can be discerned the germs of his Intellectual System. In the same year he was appointed master of Clare ball, Cambridge, and in 1645, regius professor of Hebrew; after which he began to apply himself assiduously to the study of Jewish antiquities. In 1651, he took his degree of D.D.; in 1654, he was chosen master of Christ's college; in 1662, appointed to the vicarage of Ashwell; and in 1678, installed prebendary of Gloucester. He died at Christ's college, July 26, 1688.

C.'s magnum opus, entitled The True Intellectual System of the Universe, was published in 1678. It is a work of great learning, acuteness, and loftiness of thought; but some, at the time, fancied that C. exhibited too much impartiality in stating the atheistic arguments. Dryden said " that he raised such strong objections against the being of a God and Providence, that many thought he had not answered them.” Lord Shaftesbury and Bayle were of this opinion also. The accusation of impartiality-a rare offense in those contentious days—is not likely to lessen our admiration of Cudworth. The philosophy to which he was attached was that of Plato, and, in consequence, he estimated highly the writings of the Alexandrian school, to which his own bear some resemblance. The obloquy to which his adventurous studies exposed him, does not seem to have greatly affected him. Besides The Intellectual System, C. left in MS. A Treatise concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality, which was published by Dr. Chandler, bishop of Durham, in 1731, and forms, or was intended to form, the second part of The Intellectual System; also a discourse On Liberty and Necessity; On Moral Good and Evil; a discourse On the Creation of the World and the Immortality of the Soul; etc. These MSS. are now in the British museum,

CUENCA, a city of Spain, at the confluence of the Jucar and Huecar, about midway between Valencia and Madrid. It is romantically situated on a rocky eminence, 3,400 ft. above the level of the sea, and is surrounded by hills. It appears to have derived its name (Lat. concha, a shell) from its position and appearance. Ford says it is indeed a hill-girt shell." The town is of Moorish origin. The streets are narrow and crooked. The chief buildings are the cathedral, the bishop's Palace, and a fine bridge over the

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