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Smith at Paris in 1563, and of that of sir Edward Stafford at Madrid in 1586; in all of which arbitrary marks are introduced. The first English system of shorthand—Bright's Characterie, 1588—almost belongs in the same category of ciphers. A favorite system of Charles I., used by him during the year 1646, was made up of an alphabet of twenty, four letters, which were represented by four simple strokes varied in length, slope, and position. This alphabet is engraved in Clive's Linear System of Shorthand, 1830, having been found amongst the royal manuscripts in the British museum. An interest attached to this cipher from the fact that it was employed in the well-known letter addressed by the king to the earl of Glamorgan, in which the former made concessions to the Roman Catholics of Ireland.
Complications have been introduced into ciphers by the employment of “dummy" letters—" nulls and insignificants,” as Bacon terms them. Other devices have been introduced to perplex the decipherer, such as spelling words backwards, making false divisions between words, etc. The greatest security against the decipherer has been found in the use of elaborate tables of letters arranged in the form of the mul. tiplication-table, the message being constructed by the aid of preconcerted key-words. Details of the working of these ciphers may be found in the treatises named in this article. The deciphering of them is one of the most difficult tasks. A method of this kind is explained in the Latin and English lives of Dr. John Barwick, whose correspondence with Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, was carried on in cryptog. raphy. In a letter dated 20th Feb., 1659–60, Hyde, alluding to the skill of his political opponents in deciphering, says that " nobody needs to fear them” if they write carefully in good ciphers.” In his next he allays his correspondent's apprehen: ness as to the deciphering of their letter: “I confess to you, as I am sure no copy could be gotten of any of my cyphers from hence, so I did not think it probable that they could be got on your side of the water. But I was as confident, till you tell me you believe it, that the devil himself cannot decipher a letter that is well written, or find that 100 stands for sir H. Vane. I have heard of many of the pretenders to that skill, and have spoken with some of them, but have found them all to be mountebanks; nor did I ever hear that more of the king's letters that were found at Naseby, than those which they found deciphered, or found the ciphers in which they were writ were deciphered. And I very well remember that in the volume they published there was much left in cipher which could not be understood, and which I believe they would have explained if it had been in their power."
An excellent modification of the key-word principle was constructed by the late admiral sir Francis Beaufort; it has been recently published in view of its adaptation to telegrams and post-cards. Ciphers have been constructed on the principle of altering the places of the letters without changing their powers. The message is first written Chinese-wise upward and downward, and the letters are then combined in given rows from left to right. In the celebrated cipher used by the earl of Argyle when plotting against James II., he altered the position of the words. Sentences of an indifferent nature were constructed, but the real meaning of the message was to be gathered from words placed at certain intervals. This method, which is connected with the name of Cardan, is sometimes called the trellis or card-board cipher. The wheel-cipher, which is an Italian invention, the string-cipher, the circle-cipher, and many others, are fully explained, with the necessary diagrams, in the authorities named above-more particularly by Kluber in his Kryptographik.
CRYSTAL ISLANDS. See CORAL ISLANDS.
CRYS’TALLINE ROCKS, a name given to all rocks, having a crystalline structure. They are found belonging to every division of the crust of the earth, but are especially abundant in the most ancient azoic rocks; the greater proportion of intruded igneous rocks also possess this structure. When attempting in the laboratory to produce crystals, it is known that the building material must exist in a fluid condition, and this is obtained either by heating to fusion or by solution. It has been asserted that all C. R. have been produced under
similar circumstances; and no one can doubt that lavas and more ancient rocks having a similar origin, have assumed this structure while solidifying from a condition of igneous fusion, while rock-salt is as certainly obtained from a saturated solution of salt. There are, however, many rocks, such as some fossiliferous limestones, in which this structure occurs, where it is not possible to conceive of their being in either condition. It is known that crystallization takes place in solid material, as in the axles of railway carriages, or in the crystals of pyrites in the chalk, where the iron has been gathered from the surrounding material while in a solid state. We know not what is the force that induces such a change in solid materials; it may be called metamorphic or molecular action, but these are names that mean nothing, and simply hide our ignorance. That such a force, inducing crystalline structure in amorphous masses, has boen and is now at work on the solid strata of the earth, cannot be doubted.
CRYSTALLOG'RAPHY. A crystal is a piece of matter that, by the action of molecular forces, has assumed a definite geometrical form of some kind, with plane faces. There is a great variety of crystalline forms, each form being characteristic of one or
more substances; and C. is the science which classifies the forms and shows the rela tions that subsist among them. The great majority of substances are capable of undergoing the process of crystallization, the exceptions being principally complex organic substances which tend to assume a globular or spherical form approaching that of organized structures. The most favorable condition for the crystallization of any substance is from its solution in water or other liquid. A liquid usually dissolves more of a salt when warm than when cold; and when a warm saturated solution is allowed to cool, a portion of the salt deposits itself in crystals. This process is that which is gen. erally followed in the crystallization of saline substances. A second process resorted to in the case of the metals, such as bismuth, antimony, etc., and sulphur, is to fuse the material in a vessel, and when it is cooled down, so as partially to solidify the mass, the crust is broken through, and the liquid still remaining is poured off, when a net-work of crystals is obtained. A third method is to vaporize the substance, which on condensation resolves itself into crystals. Examples of this class are the formation of snow crystals from the water vapor in the atmosphere, and the minute black crystals of iodine obtained by allowing its vapor to condense in a cold vessel or on a cold surface.
Many circumstances affect the crystallizing power of substances. Thus, water may be cooled down below its freezing or crystallizing point (32° F.), provided it be kept perfectly still, without becoming solid; but on subsequent agitation, it instantly crystallizes. Similarly, a hot saturated solution of sulphate of soda, or glauber salt, if cooled down in a still place, does not crystallize, but immediately does so when the liquid is agitated, or a fragment of any solid substance is introduced into it. The size of the crystals obtainable from any fluid depends much on the rate of cooling, and the state of commotion of the liquid. The more slowly the solution cools down, and the more quietly the process of crystallization is allowed to proceed, the larger are the crystals obtained; whilst, when the liquid is rapidly cooled, and agitation is kept up, the crystals are comparatively small, and generally not completely formed. The reason of this will be at once apparent, for a large crystal is constructed of a multitude of smaller crystals, built up regularly so as to constitute a compound crystal of the same form as the more minute crystalline atoms; and when a liquid is cooled slowly in a state of rest, only a few minute crystals are produced at first, and these are gradually built round on all sides by successive layers, till large, well-defined crystals are the result; while, when the liquid is rapidly lowered in temperature, and especially when agitation is kept up, numerous minute crystals are formed at once, and do not adhere together. In either case, the liquid from which the crystals have separated is called the mother-liquor, and is a saturated solution of the salt.
The external forms of crystals amount to several thousands, but they may all be regarded as belonging to six different systems.
The regular system (otherwise called the cubic, octohedral, tesseral, tessular, spheroidal, or equi-axed system) is characterized by having three axes or straight lines passing through the same point, of equal lengths, and placed at right angles to each other. The best illustration of this system is the cube or hexahedron, which has six square faces or planes, and the three equal axes terminate in the center of each of the square faces. The planes or squares are symmetrically arranged, so that each is perpendicular to one axis, and parallel to the other two. The crystals have each six square faces, with twelve equal edges, and eight equal angles. Examples of substances which crystallize in the form of the cube or hexahedron, are-common iron pyrites, FeS2, common salt, or the chloride of sodium, NaCl, fluor spar, CaF2, galena, or the sulphuret of lead, Pbs, and the metals gold, silver, platinum, and copper. . Another important crystalline form belonging to the regular system is the octohedron, where the terminations of the axes are in the angles of the crystals. It has eight faces, all of which are equilateral triangles, and twelve edges with six angles, each of which has four faces. The diamond, alum, zincblende, Zns, sal ammonia, CNH,Cl, magnetic iron ore, Fe30,, fluor spar, CaFs, and chrome iron ore are examples. There are various secondary forms belonging to this system, derivable from the cube and octohedron, such as the rhombic dodecahedron, which has twelve faces, and is the form in which the garnet crystallizes.
The square prismatic system (known as the pyramidal, tetragonal, or quadratic system) has three axes placed at right angles to each other, of which two are of equal length, but the third may be longer or shorter. To this belong the right square prism, in which the lateral axes terminate in the center of each side face, and the perpendicular axis, is longer than the two lateral axes; and the right square-based octohedron, which resembles two pyramids placed base to base, and having eight faces, which form isosceles trian. gles. Examples of substances which crystallize in this system are yellow prussiate of potash, native binoxide of tin, zircon, apophylite, calomel, etc.
The right prismatic system (otherwise known as the right rhomboidal, or rectangular prismatic system) is characterized by having three axes, all of unequal or different lengths, but placed at right angles to each other. The right rhombic prism and the right rhombicbased octohedron, are forms included in this class, and examples of materials which crystallize in this form are sulphur, arsenical iron pyrites, nitrate of potash, sulphate of potash, sulphate of baryta (heavy spar), topaz, arragonite, etc.
The oblique prismatic system (oblique rhomboidal, or rectangular prismatic) has three axes, which may be all of unequal lengths, two of which are placed at right angles to
each other, whilst the third axis is so inclined as to be perpendicular to one of the two axes, and oblique to the other. To this belong the oblique rhombic prism and the oblique rhombic-based octohedron. Many salts crystallize in this form, such as green vit. riol (sulphate of iron), borax, sulphate of soda, carbonate of soda, phosphate of soda, realgar (native bisulphuret of arsenic), etc.
The doubly oblique prismatic system has three axes of unequal length, which intersect obliquely with each other. The forms are very irregular, which render them very puzzling to make out satisfactorily. Nitrate of bismuth, sulphate of copper, sulphate of manganese, quadroxalate of potash, and pyrotartaric acid, are examples.
The rhombohedral, or the regular hexagonal system, is known by the presence of four axes, three of which are in the same plane, and inclined to each other at an angle of 60°, whilst the remaining fourth axis is perpendicular to the three. To this belong the regular six-sided prism and the rhombohedron. Examples of this system are calcareous spar, ice, quartz or rock crystal, nitrate of soda, beryl, arsenic, antimony, and apatite. MICROSCOPIC PICTURES, vol. IX., p. 806, figs. 5, 6.
CRYSTALLOMANCY, a mode of divination by means of transparent bodies, at one time very popular. A precious stone, crystal globe, or other transparent object, was employed, but a beryl was deemed most effective. In using it, the operator first muttered over it certain formulas of prayer, and then gave it into the hands of a youth or virgin-none others were pure enough to discern its revelations—who beheld in it the information required. Sometimes the desiderated facts were conveyed by means of written characters on the crystal; sometimes the spirits invoked appeared in the crystal to answer the questions asked.
CRYSTAL PALACE, the edifice in London in which the world's fair was held in 1851, designed by sir Joseph Paxton, and built chiefly of glass and iron, with floors of wood. Its length was 1851 ft. ; its area 21.acres. The visitors numbered more than 6,000,000. A permanent structure of this kind was built, 1854, at Sydenham, 8 m. from London. Its cost was £1,450,000; and in its vast collections all departments of art and science were represented. A crystal palace on a smaller scale, erected in New York, 1853, was used for exhibitions and great concerts; but was destroyed by fire in 1858.
CSAB'A, a t. of Hungary, 7 m. S.S.w. of Bekes. It is well built; some of the houses are even very elegant. It has a trade in grain, wine, and cattle. The women are also noted for their skill in making sacks and mattresses. Pop. of township (1880), 32.016.
CSANÁD', a co. of Hungary; 640 sq.m.; pop. '69, 95, 847. It is very level and fertile, but unhealthful. Productions, wheat, wine, tobacco, and fruit. Chief town, Mako.
CSANAD', the name of two towns in Hungary, both situated on the Marös, the one with a pop. of (1869) 4,013, and the other with a pop. of (1869) 5,386, who are engaged in agricultural pursuits.
CSAT, or Csath (Mezo), a market-t. of Hungary, near the Theiss, in the district Borsod, and about 15 m. s.e. of Miskolcz. Pop. '69, 4,979.
CSERVEN'KA, a t. of Hungary, in the co. of Upper Bacs, on the Franzens canal, about 130 m, s. of Pesth. Pop., which is German (1881), 7,025.
CSO'KONAI, MIHALY VITEZ, 1773–1805; a Hungarian poet, educated in Debrecsin, and while very young appointed to the professorship of poetry. He was soon deprived of the place because of his immoral habits. He died after a dozen years of wretched existence. His works have been published.
CSOMA DE KÖRÖS, ALEXANDER, a Hungarian scholar and traveler, whose name in his own language is written Köröse Csoma Sandor, was b. about 1790 at Körös in Tran. sylvania, and educated first at the college of Nagy-Enyed, and subsequently at Göttingen, where he devoted himself with great zeal to the study of the oriental tongues. The dream and inspiration of his boyhood was the hope of one day discovering the original home of his Magyar ancestors; and as he grew up, it became the single thought and passion of his life. In 1820, he set out on his visionary pilgrimage. After a year's interval, his friends got a letter from him, dated Teheran, in which he expressed his conviction that the object of his search would speedily be obtained. Leaving Teheran, he wandered n.e. through Little Bokhara, and at length reached Thibet, where he spent about four years (1827–30) in the Buddhist monastery of Kanam, studying Thibetan. He soon discovered that there was little connection between that language and his native one, but still he hoped to make use of his researches, and set out for Calcutta. Here he learned, to his dismay, that the literature of Thibet was simply a translation from the Sanscrit—a language he might easily have acquired a knowledge of at home. His whole labor seemed to have been in vain. Fortunately for C. de K., the library of the Asiatic society of Bengal contained upwards of 1000 volumes in Thibetan which no one could catalogue. C. de K. undertook and successfully executed the task. By the great AngloIndian scholars, Prinsep, Wilson, and others, he was very generously treated. He next prepared, at the expense of the government, a Thibetan grammar and dictionary (Calcutta, 1834), which was the first really accurate and valuable European work on the subject. It is still a standard treatise, and has been the guide of all good scholars since. C. de K. wrote many articles on Thibetan literature in the Asiatic Researches, but still
haunted, as of old, by the hope of discovering the early home of the Magyars, he once more set out on an expedition to the western confines of China, but died on the 11tk April, 1842, at Darjeeling, a sanitary station for the British troops in Sikkim, 318 m. n. of Calcutta.
CSONGRAD, a co. in Hungary, intersected by the Theiss; 1280 sq.m.; pop. '72, 07,585. It is level, with a fertile soil, producing wheat, corn, hemp, tobacco, and fruits. Chief town, Szegedin.
CSON'GRAD, a market-t. of Hungary, situated on a neck of land at the confluence of the Theiss and the Körös, 70 m. s.e. of Pesth. The inhabitants (1880), 17,837 in number, are chiefly engaged in the rearing of cattle, and the cultivation of the vine.
CTENOID FISHES, an order of tishes, according to a classification proposed by Agas. siz (see FISHES), characterized by ctenoid scales, i.e., imbricated scales, generally rounded or ovoid, with teeth or sharp projections on their hinder margin. The name is from the Greek kteis (gen. Ktenos), a comb. The scales of C. F. are horny or bony and unenameled. There are sometimes numerous rows of teeth or little spines, sometimes only one row, the rows successively wearing off as new ones are formed in the enlargement of the scale. Living C. F. are numerous, fossil ones comparatively few. Perches, flounders, and turbot may be mentioned as examples. CTENOPH'ORÆ, jelly fishes, of which about 70 species are enumerated by Agassiz.
* When active it hangs out a pair of most remarkable appendages, ihe structure and length and contractility of which are equally surprising, and exceed in wonderful adaptation all I have ever known among animal structures. Two apparently simple and irregular threads hang out from the opposite side of the sphere. Presently these appendages may elongate, and equal in length the diameter of the sphere, or surpass it, and increase to 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 25 times the diameter of the body, and more and more; so much so, that it would seem as if these threads had the power of endless extension and development. But as they lengthen they appear more complicated; from one of their sides, other delicate threads shoot out like fringes, forming a row of beards like that of the most elegant ostrich feather, and each one of these threads itself elongates until it equals in length the diameter of the whole body, and bends in the most graceful curves. A common species on the Atlantic coast is of a beautiful rose color, reaching a length of 3 or 4 in., and often so plentiful as to tinge large spaces in the sea with a rosy hue.
CTE'SIAS, a Greek physician and historian of the 5th c. B.C., author of a number of books, among which were histories of which abridgments are extant. The most important of his books was a history of Persia, but it is now generally discredited.
CTESIB'IUS, a Greek who lived about 250 years B.C., was b. at Alexandria, and was famous for his inventions in mechanics. We owe to him and his pupil Hero Alexandrinus, the pump, the bent siphon, and also the discovery of the elastic force of air, and its application as a motive power.
CTES'IPHON, now Al-Madain, was a city of Assyria, on the eastern bank of the Tigris, the common wint residence of the Parthian kings, and finally the capital of the Parthian kingdom. Its ruins still attest its former magnificence.
CTES'IPHON, an Athenian orator in the 4th C. B.C. He proposed the presentation of a golden crown to Demosthenes for his sacrifices in his country's cause.
CUBA, the largest of the Antilles, and most important transmarine possession of Spain, stretches in n. lat. from 19° 50' to 23° 9', and in w. long. from 74° 8' to 84° 58'. It has a length of rather more than 750 m., and an average width of 50 m., its area being about 43,220 sq. miles. It is larger than Ireland, and less than England. The surface is mountainous at the s.e. coast, where the Sierra Maestra, rising in some places to an elevation of 8,000 ft., runs from cape de Cruz to cape de Mayzi. In the central part of the islands there are rugged hilly districts between Santa Clara and Puerto Principe, and also n. w. of Trinidad. What remains of the country, although undulating, consists chiefly of well-watered plains, which everywhere support a luxuriant vegetation. Rocky reefs and muddy shallows beset about two thirds of the coast. In some localities, how. ever, the sea is deep to the very shore, offering many excellent havens, and those, too, situated on the busiest thoroughfares of the western hemisphere; the chief of these being Havana, the admirable situation of which makes it the emporium of Central America. A somewhat elevated water-shed crosses the island in the direction of its length, and as the streams run at right angles to it, they are necessarily short. There is in c. no distinction of dry and rainy seasons, and there are showers every month. Hurricanes are less frequent than in the other West India islands, but they sometimes do occur, and cause wide-spread desolation. One which swept over C. in the middle of Oct., 1870, caused the loss of 2,000 lives. Another occurred in the end of Sept., 1873. Earthquakes are frequent. The cultivated portions of C. produce in abundance sugar, tobacco, maize, rice, yams, bananas, coffee, and all the products of the tropics; while in the districts left in a state of nature are reared countless herds of cattle. Sugar is, however, the chief product of the island; and all over the western districts the traveler sees vast level or undulating tracts covered with cane-fields, and factories employed in crushing, boiling, and refining the sugar.