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CRO'MER, a seaport and watering-place on the n. coast of Norfolk, 21 m. n. of Nor folk. It stands on the top of one of the highest cliffs of the coast. Nearly all the old town, called Shipden, with one of the churches, was swept away by the sea about the year 1500. The sea is still gaining on the land, and some houses have been destroyed by it within present memory. In 1825, some cliffs, 200 ft. high, fell into the sea. Seamen call C. bay the Devil's Throat, from its dangers to navigation. Vessels have to load and unload on the open beach. C. has fisheries for crabs, lobsters, herrings, and mackerel. Pop. of parish '71, 1423.

CROMLECH. It has been common among British archæologists, until lately, to apply this name to a rude structure of two or more unhewn stones, placed erect in the earth, and supporting a larger stone, also unhewn. According to its etymology, however, cromlech (Celt. crom, circle, and lech, a stone) is the proper term for circles of erect stones like Stonehenge (see STANDING STONES); and the name dolmen (Celt. daul, a table; maen, a stone) is now considered more appropriate for what used to be called a cromlech. Monuments of the kind above described, whether we call them dolmens or cromlechs, are known among the common people by other names, such as “the giant's grave," “ the giant's bed,” “the giant's quoit,” “the fairies' table,” “the devil's table,” “the raised stone,” “the old wives' lift," “ the hag's bed," and the like.

Cromlechs are found in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, the Channel isles, France, Spain, Germany, Denmark, and some other countries of Europe; in Hindustan and elsewhere in Asia; and in America. They are generally without any inclosure; but occasionally they are fenced round with a ring of unhewn stones. In a good many instances, cromlechs have been discovered in the heart of earthen mounds or barrows. In such cases, the rude chamber or inclosure of the C. is found to contain sepulchral remains, such as skeletons or urns, together with weapons or ornaments generally of stone or bone, fragments of pottery, and bones of animals. Similar remains have been found in the chambers of cromlechs not known to have been at any time covered by barrows. These facts have led modern archæologists to believe that the C. was a sepulchral monument. The theory of the older antiquaries, that the C. was a Druidical altar, is without any foundation in what has been recorded of the Druidical worship by trustworthy writers. In a C. found under a barrow in Derbyshire, a skeleton and fragments of urns were discovered, along with Roman coins of several emperors.

Among the more remarkable cromlechs in England are Kit's Coty house in Kent, Wayland Smith's cave in Berkshire (commemorated by sir Walter Scott in Kenilworth), and Chun Quoit in Cornwall. The weight of the flat stone in this last C. is estimated at about 20 tons. In the marquis of Anglesey's park at Plas Newydd, in Wales, there are two cromlechs close beside each other: in the larger, five erect stones support a flat stone about 12 ft, long. 10 ft. wide, and from 34 ft. to 41 ft. thick. Cromlechs are comparatively rare in Scotland. The best among the well-ascertained examples is perhaps that called “The Auld Wives' Lift," near Craigmeddan castle, in the parish of Baldernock, in Stirlingshire: the recumbent stone, a mass of basalt, is 18 ft. long, 11 ft. wide, and 6 or 7 ft. thick, and the two stones which support it are of nearly the same size. It may be doubted if the partial elevation of the “Witch's stone" at Bonnington Mains, near Ratho, in the co. of Edinburgh, has not been produced by natural causes. Among the Irish cromlechs, one of the most striking is that of Kilternan, about 6 m. from Dublin: the recumbent stone, which rests upon six blocks, is 234 ft. long, 17 ft. wide, and 64 ft. thick. A cromlech called “ The Broadstone,” in the co. of Antrim, is surrounded by a circle of standing stones, or erect unhewn pillars. A C. in the Phenix park, Dublin, was discovered in 1838 in removing a large barrow: specimens of the sepulchral remains found in it are shown in the museum of the royal Irish academy. See DOLMEN.

CROMPTON, SAMUEL, whose invention of the spinning-mule entitles him to rank as one of mankind's greatest benefactors, was b. at Firwood, Bolton, Lancashire, Dec. 3, 1753. Bolton, in those days, was nearly inaccessible, and so bleak and barren that agri. culture was not followed further than to supply the wants of the population. All the farmers had looms in their houses, and their families were occupied in spinning and weaving. C.'s father, who was a small farmer, lived at the Hall-in-th'-Wood, a picturesque old mansion near Bolton. He died at an early age, leaving a wife, and a son (the subject of our memoir), and two daughters. Like his father, C. was brought up to the loom and the farm. His mother, a woman of great energy, perseverance, and stern independence, struggled hard to give him and her daughters the best education the district afforded. When he was old enough, he assisted her in the farm, and wove; going to Bolton at night to complete his education in mathematics, etc. At the age of 21, he was so much annoyed at the difficulties in getting yarn to weave, that he set to work to invent a spinning-machine which should produce better yarn than Hargreaves', one of which his mother possessed. For five years he labored to realize his idea, sitting up late at night to overcome the successive difficulties, and resuming his labor for daily bread early in the morning. At length he succeeded in framing a machine which produced yarn of such astonishing fineness, that the house was beset by persons eager to know how such wonderful and desirable yarn could be made. He was rendered miserable. All kinds of devices were tried to gain admission; even ladders were placed

against his windows, His machine was such that if a mechanic saw it, he could carry away the leading features of it. He could not leave the house for fear of his discovery being stolen from him. He had spent every farthing he had in the world upon its completion; he had no funds wherewith to have obtained a patent, and it is doubtful whether a patent would have altered his fate. When he was thus almost driven to desperation, one of the manufacturers went to him and persuaded him to disclose the invention to the trade, under the promise of a liberal subscription. Inexperienced in the world, he agreed to this. The machine was exhibited, but all that he got was about £60. This money was not paid to him at the time, but he had to travel for many miles round the country to collect it. Some refused to pay, though he showed them their signatures. He set manfully to work with his machine, determined to make the best he could of his ill-luck. In the course of time, he saved money enough to begin manufacturing on a small scale, but not till his rivals had nearly 20 years' start of him in the business. Then his wife died, leaving him a large family. Efforts were made to obtain for him a national reward. Five thousand pounds was all he obtained, and he returned to Bolton almost broken-hearted. Misfortune upon misfortune overtook him till he died, June 26, 1827. Some idea may be formed of the vast services he has rendered to the world, and especially to his native land, by the fact that his is by far the most used of all spinning-machines. In 1811, the number of spindles on C.'s principle was 4,600,000, while there were only 310,500 of Arkwright's, and 155,880 of Hargreaves'. At the present time, it is conjectured that there are 25,000,000 of C.'s spindles at work. Yet this great genius was never noticed by his king, and the appointments under the factory acts to which his descendants might have aspired, have been filled by the relatives or nominees of her majesty's ministers. For a complete account of this great improver of the cotton manufacture, we refer to the Life of Crompton, by Mr. G. French, 1880.

CROMWELL, HENRY, 1628–73; second son of the great protector, and, at the age of 16, a soldier in the parliamentary army. In the Barebone parliament he sat as one of the six Irish members. In 1655, he was sent to Ireland as a maj.gen., and was subsequently made lord-deputy. His latter years were passed as a farmer. His greatgrandson, the last representative of the house of Cromwell, died in 1821.

CROMWELL, OLIVER, was born at Huntingdon, April 25, 1599. His father was the younger son of sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchinbrook, and a substantial country gentleman, not likely to have been a brewer, as some of Oliver's earlier biographers assert. By his mother, genealogists trace Oliver's descent from the royal house of Stuart. Of the boy Cromwell's early life, little or nothing is actually known. What is clearly ascertained is that, after having been at school in Huntingdon, he went to Cambridge, and entered himself of Sidney-Sussex college, April 23, 1616. He had but short time for study here, his father dying in the June of the year following, when he returned home to take the management of his father's affairs. The stories of his wild life about this time appear to have no better foundation than the calumnies of royalists. In Aug., 1620, C. married the daughter of sir James Bourchier, a gentleman of landed property in Essex, who had also a residence in London. This fact is pretty conclusive as to C.'s social position being much above what his enemies have described it. C. now became intimately associated with the Puritan party, among whom he was soon distinguished alike for his earnestness and sagacity. In 1628, having been elected by the borough of Huntingdon, C. made his first appearance in parliament. He had but time to make a short blunt speech about the encouragement of the “preaching of flat popery at Paul's Cross" by the bishop of Winchester, when the infatuated king unceremoniously dispatched him and his fellow-commoners to their homes. C. returned to the fen-country, not much impressed in favor of kingcraft by his visit to London; and for the next eleven years devoted himself assiduously to the pursuit of farming by the Black Ouse river and the Cam, first at Huntingdon, then at St. Ives, and finally at Ely-making himself famous, not by political agitation, but by an effectual resistance to certain unjust schemes of the king in council for the drainage of the fens. In 1640, he was sent to parliament as member for the town of Cambridge. His appearance at this time was by no means prepossessing. Sir Philip Warwick describes him in “a plain cloth suit, which seemed to have been made by an ill country tailor; his linen was plain, and not very clean; and I remember a speck or two of blood upon his little band, which was not much larger than his collar. His hat was without a hat-band; his stature was of a good size; his sword stuck close to his side; his countenance swollen and reddish; his voice sharp and untunable; and his eloquence full of fervor;” and courtly sir Philip adds: “It lessened much my reverence unto that great council, for this gentleman was very much hearkened unto.” When all hope of reconciliation between king and parliament failed, through the perfidy of the former, C. was among the first to offer of his substance to aid in defense of the state. In July, 1642, he moved in parliament for permission to raise two companies of volunteers in Cambridge, having been careful to supply tho necessary arms beforehand at his own cost. In the following month, C. seized the magazine in Cambridgeshire, and prevented the royalists from carrying off the plate (valued at £20,000) in the university there. As captain of a troop of horse, C. exhibited astonishing military genius; and against the men trained by himself—“' Cromwell's Ironsides”--the battle-shock of the fiery Rupert, which at the beginning of the 'parliamentary struggle none else could withstand, spent itself in vain. Soon promoted to the rank of col., and then to that of lieut.gen., C., in the fight of Winceby, on the bloody field of Marston (July 2, 1644), and in the second battle of Newbury (Oct. 27, 1644), bore himself with distinguished bravery; but, owing to the backwardness of his superiors, the results of these victories to the parliamentary cause were not so great as they might reasonably have been. C. thus complained in parliament of the backward. ness of his superiors, Essex and Manchester: "I do conceive if the army be not put into another method, and the war more vigorously prosecuted, the people can bear the war no longer, and will enforce you to a dishonorable peace.” Hereupon, the “self. denying ordinance"-an act excluding members of the houses of parliament from hold. ing command in the army-was passed; but C.'s services were considered of such importance to the common weal, that they were exceptionally retained. Of the new model army, Fairfax was appointed gen., C. serving under him as lieut.gen. of the horse, and in this capacity he commanded the right wing of the parliamentary army at Naseby, June, 1645, and acquitted himself so well there, that the king's forces were utterly ruined. The royalists in the west were now speedily reduced. Bristol was stormed; everywhere the royal cause was failing; and Charles himself, reduced to the last extremity, in May, 1646, escaped from Oxford in disguise, and threw himself into the arms of the Scotch army at Newark (May 5, 1646), by whom he was shortly given up to the parliamentary commissioners. The source of the strife now fairly within their grasp, the parliament and the army, in the former of which the Presbyterian, and in the latter the Independent, element predominated, became jealous of each other's power. With his usual sagacity, C. perceived that the advantage would lie with that party who held possession of the king's person, and with ready decision he had bim removed from the hands of the commissioners into those of the army, June, 1647. Some of the leading Presbyterians were now turned out of parliament by the army, and Independency, with C. at its head, was gradually obtaining the ascendency. The king still remained with the army, and with his usual duplicity, negotiated with both parties, not without hope that out of their mutual dissensions might arise advantage to himself. On the 11th Nov., 1647, the king made his escape from Hampton court. Two days after, he was in custody of col. Hammond in the isle of Wight. At this time the country was in a critical condition. The Welsh had risen in insurrection, a Scotch army was bearing down from the n. with hostile intent, and Rupert, to whom seventeen English ships had deserted, was threatening a descent from Holland, not to speak of the rampant royalism of Ireland. Prompt measures alone could prevent anarchy and inextricable confusion, and C. was not afraid to employ them. Pembroke had to surrender, and at Preston Moor the Scotch were utterly defeated. On the return of the army to London, the Presbyterians, who were still blindly temporizing with the king, to the number of more than 100, were driven out (Dec., 1648), by the process known in history as “Pride's purge." Then that which C. thought could alone end the strife, happened In Jan., 1649, the king was tried, condemned, and executed. The abolition of the house of lords followed speedily, and C. became a prominent member of the new council of state; and in the army, though still only lieut. gen., he had really much more influence than the commander-in-chief. The roy. alists being still strong and rebellious in Ireland, C. went thither in Aug., with the title of lord-lieutenant, and commander-in-chief of the army there; and ere nine months had passed, he had subdued the country so far, that it might be safely left to the keeping of his son-in-law, Ireton. C.'s measures for crushing the Irish rebels were indeed severe, and even sanguinary, but, nevertheless, peace and prosperity followed in a degree unknown before in the history of that unhappy country. Affairs in Scotland now claimed C.'s attention. Scotch commissioners had been negotiating with Charles II. at Breda, had urged him to come among them and take the covenant, and they would crown him king over them at least, and do what force of arms could do to make him king of England also. Charles arrived in the n. of Scotland on the 230 June, 1650; three days thereafter, Cromwell-Presbyterian Fairfax having refused to fight against the Presbyterian Scotch-was appointed commander-in-chief of all the parliament forces. On the 15th of July, Charles Stuart had signed the covenant, and was fully accepted ed as king. On the 3d Sept. following, C. routed the Scotch army at Dunbar. Charles, with what force remained, and other accessions, afterwards marched southward, and had penetrated to Worcester, when C. came up with him, and utterly overthrew the royalists on the anniversary of the battle of Dunbar. This battle placed C. avowedly at the head of public affairs in England, and to write his biography from this time until his death, would be to write the history of the commonwealth. The Long parliament had now degenerated into the Rump-had become, in truth, an oligarchy, given to long and useless discussions about mere technicalities-intolerable to the country alike for the extraordinary power it possessed, and for the weak, pusillanimous way in which it exercised it. C., therefore, dissolved the Rump, 20th April, 1653, and henceforth he alone was ruler in England. He immediately summoned a parliament of 140 persons, 138 of whom assembled on the 4th July, but he found it necessary to dissolve it on the 12th Dec. ; its one great work having been the legal investiture of C. with the supreme power and the title of lord protector, a position upon which the principal foreign powers

hastened to congratulate him. C. now acted in a very arbitrary manner, so far as his parliaments were concerned, calling them and dismissing them at pleasure; but his home policy, notwithstanding, was just and liberal towards the mass of the people, and conducive to the prosperity of the country; while his foreign policy was such as to secure England a position among nations more commanding than any she had ever occupied before. Under C.'s rule, swift retribution followed any indignity or injury to Englishmen, no matter by whom or where perpetrated; and religious persecutors on the continent, in terror, stayed their bloody swords on the stern summons of the lord protector. He died Sept. 3, 1658, the anniversary of some of his most important victories. C. was buried in Westminster abbey; but on the 30th Jan., 1661 (the anniversary of the death of Charles I.), his grave, along with those of Ireton and Bradshaw, were broken open, the coffins dragged to Tyburn, where the moldering bodies were hanged, and then thrown into a deep hole under the gallows, while their heads were set upon poles on the top of Westminster hall. Such was the sacrilegious brutality of the king and clergy (for the deed was done by their authority) towards England's greatest ruler. It was long a fashion with historians, content to rely upon the calumnies and falsehoods of royalist writers, to represent C. as a monster of cruelty and hypocrisy-a man with a natural taste for blood, who made use of religious phraseology merely to subserve his own ambitious ends; but after the researches of Carlyle and Guizot, the eloquence of Macaulay, and the clear statement and sound sense of Forster, such a view can no longer be upheld. C.'s religion was no mere profession, it was the very essence of the man; by nature, he was not a blood-shedder, and when necessity demanded the grim exercise of the sword, he unsheathed it with reluctance. Never was a religious man less of a bigot; he would not, in so far as his iron will could effect his purpose, permit any one to be persecuted for religious opinions. He delivered Biddle, the founder of English Unitarianism, out of the hands of the Westminster divines. He would have even given the despised and persecuted Jews the right hand of citizenship. He grasped power, and dispensed with the formality of parliaments, only because he sought to promote, in the speediest possible manner, the prosperity, happiness, and glory of his native land.

CROMWELL, RICHARD, son of Oliver Cromwell, lord protector of England, was b. at Huntingdon, Oct. 4, 1626. In early life, he was noted chiefly for his indolence and love of pleasure, qualities that united him more closely to the cavaliers than to the party of earnest men of which his father was the chief. When Oliver attained the dignity of lord protector. he called his son from the obscurity of a country-house, and his fieldsports, to have him elected for the counties of Monmouth and Southampton, appointed him first lord of trade and navigation, and made him chancellor of Oxford. In none of these capacities did Richard Č. exhibit any aptitude; and his failure as protector, to which high office (being the eldest surviving son) he succeeded, on the death of his father, Sept., 1658, was still more conspicuous. With a mediocre intellect, and no energy, hardly a friend in the army, and the first parliament he called against him, the result could not be otherwise than it was—his demission (April, 1659)-little more than seven months after he had assumed the sceptre of the commonwealth. He retired to Hampton court, from whence parliamentary stinginess and pressing creditors soon drove him to the continent, where he resided for a considerable period. At length, returning to England, he had a house provided for him at Cheshunt, near London, where he resided in strict privacy until his death, in 1712.

CROMWELL, THOMAS, an eminent English statesman and ecclesiastical reformer, of the reign of Henry VIII., was b. near London in very humble circumstances, his father being a blacksmith, about 1490. After receiving but a very meagre education, he went to the continent, and became clerk in a factory at Antwerp, where he devoted his spare time to the acquisition of languages, in which he became very proficient. In 1510, he went to Italy, where he appears to have resided until about i5i7, when he returned to England; and, after some time, was received into the household of Wolsey. That prelate, speedily recognizing his abilities, made him his solicitor and chief agent in all important business. As a member of the house of commons, C. warmly and successfully defended the fallen minister, his master, against the bill of impeachment-proof enough that he was not the heartlessly ambitious man that his enemies have represented him. Henry, admiring his chivalry, and appreciating his talent, made him his own secretary; knighted him in 1531, and made him a privy-councillor. Honors rapidly flowed in upon him; partly in consequence, it is said, of his having suggested to Henry the desirableness of throwing off the papal yoke altogether-an idea which suited well with the king's impetuous nature-but' chiefly, no doubt, on account of his great abilities. In 1534, he had become chief secretary of state, and master of the rolls; in the following year, he was made visitor-general of English monasteries—which he afterwards suppressed in such fashion as to obtain for himself the designation of malleus monachorum --and keeper of the privy seal in 1536. In 1539—to pass over a variety of minor tokens of royal approbation-he had risen to be earl of Essex-having had some thirty monastic manors and estates given to him to keep up the dignity of his title—and lord chamberlain of England. C. took the leading part in establishing the doctrines of the reformation, though he seems to have done so less on religious than on political grounds. The destruction of the pope's authority, and the establishment of the supremacy of the king in England, were what he labored to effect; and with this view he promulgated the articles of the new faith, had English bibles placed in the churches, and the youth of the nation taught the creed, the ten commandments, and the Lord's prayer; and ordered the removal of all images from the altar. In this matter of ecclesiastical polity, he has, says Mr. Froude, in the third volume of his History of England, “left the print of his individual genius stamped indelibly, while the metal was at white heat, into the constitution of the country. Wave after wave has rolled over his work. Romanism flowed back over it under Mary; Puritanism, under another even grander, Cromwell, overwhelmed it. But Romanism ebbed again, and Puritanism is dead, and the polity of the church of England remains as it was left by its creator.” In all that concerned the state, in its vastest and most complicated foreign relations, as well as in the smallest matters of sanitary reform at home, Č. took an active personal interest. But the stern, almost savage manner in which, in the carrying out of his policy, he disposed of all who opposed him, led to many and loud complaints, which damaged somewhat his popularity with the king. In order to retrieve his lost ground, he was zealous in promoting the marriage of Henry with Anne of Cleves, from whom, on account of her known Lutheran tendencies, he expected strong support. The success of his efforts in this matter proved the utter ruin of C., for the king, early conceiving a strong aversion to his unlovely queen, extended that dislike to the minister who had so strenuously promoted the marriage. Complaints against C. poured in thicker and faster, and the royal ear was not unwilling to listen now. Charges of malversation and treason were made, and he was arrested and thrown into prison (10th June, 1540); a bill of attainder was quickly drawn up, and passed the two houses of parliament with little difficulty; and on the 28th July following, C. laid his head on the block on Tower hill. A statesman of undoubted genius, he saw what was best for his country, and did it-not certainly in a way commending itself to the judgment of the present time-but, perhaps, among the best and only sure modes that could be devised in his age. He was undoubtedly unscrupulous, and very haughty towards the high; but the poor and weak found him easily accessible, and, when wronged, a warm defender; and though he was rapacious, the hungry had, nevertheless, to thank his generosity for many a meal.

CRONOS, in Greek mythology, a son of Uranus and father of Jupiter, Neptune, Ceres, and Juno. He is usually identified with the Roman Saturn.

CRONSTADT (Hungarian, Brasso), a t. of Transylvania, romantically situated amid the East Carpathians, at an elevation of 2,000 ft. above the sea. Lat. 45° 36' n., long., 25° 33' east. It consists of an inner town, surrounded by walls, and of three pretty extensive suburbs, the population being (1880) 29,584. The center town, which dates from the 13th c., is well and regularly built, and contains some handsome buildings, the chief of which is a Gothic Protestant church, built in the 14th century. This part is almost exclusively inhabited by Saxons. The suburbs, surrounded with gardens and orchards, with here and there the hoary ruins of some old castle, or the sloping roofs of some modern villa, rising above the trees, have a pleasant and picturesque appearance. The suburbs are chiefly occupied by Wallachs and Magyars. Linens, cottons, coarse woolens, hosiery, paper, etc., are manufactured here in considerable quantities. C. was the first town in Transylvania where a printing-press was established, and the first issues from it were the Augsburg Confession, and the works of Luther.

CRONSTADT, a strongly fortified seaport, about 20 m. w. of St. Petersburg, on e narrow calcareous island of about 5 m. in length, at the narrowest part of the Gulf of Finland, and over against the mouth of the Neva. Lat. (of cathedral) 59° 59' 46' n., long. 29° 46' 38' east. C. is at once the greatest naval station and the most flourishing commercial port of Russia. It was founded by Peter the great in 1710, the island having been taken from the Swedes by him in 1703. Its fortifications, which protect the approach to St. Petersburg, have been an object of great attention to the Russian gov. ernment. The batteries are very numerous, defending every part of the channel by which vessels can enter. They are built of granite, and armed with the heaviest ordnance. The place, indeed, was considered by the British admiral who reconnoitered it during the Russian war of 1854–55, so impregnable that it would have been utter madness to make any attempt upon it. C., which is the seat of the Russian admiralty, has three harbors: the east, intended for vessels of war, and capable of accommodating 30 ships of the line; the middle harbor, where vessels are fitted up and repaired, and which is connected with the former by a broad canal; and the west or merchant's harbor, for the merchant shipping, with capacity for 1000 vessels; all are admirably defended. Not only the trade of St. Petersburg is conducted through this port, but that of a great part of the interior of Russia, which is connected with it by navigable rivers and canals. C. contains many well-built houses; the population in summer amounts, with the garrison of about 20,000 men, to 45,000 or 50,000; in winter it is much less.

CROOK : co., Oregon. See page 896.
CROOK : co., Wy. See page 896.

CROOK, belonging to musical instruments, such as the French-horn or trumpet, is a circular tube, which fits into the end of the instrument next the mouthpiece, for the purpose of making the pitch of the instrument suit the key of the music; the notes of the parts for these instruments being always written in the natural key of C, with the name of the key of the piece marked in letters.

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