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speaks of her “enormous ruff and vaster fardingale." The upper part of the body was incased in a cuirass of whalebone, which was united at the waist with the equally stiff fardingale of the same material, descending to the feet, without a single fold, in the form of a great bell. Gosson mentions the fardingale in 1596, in his Pleasant Quippes for Up start Nerfangled Gentlewomen. In the end of the reign of James I., this fashion gradu. ally declined, and was further tamed down by Puritan feeling in the time of Charles I. and Cromwell, till it quite disappeared. We next hear of it in 1711 as “ that startling novelty the hoop petticoat," which differed from the fardingale in being gathered at the waist. Sir Roger de Coverley is made to say of his family pictures: “You see, sir, my great-great-grandmother has on the new-fashioned petticoat, except that the modern is gathered at the waist; my grandmother appears as if she stood in a large drum, whereas the ladies now walk as if they were in a go-cart.” Hogarth, in his night-scene in “Mar. riage à-la-Mode,” introduces on the floor a hoop of the time of George II.; and about 1744, hoops are mentioned as so extravagant, that a woman occupied the space of six men. An elongated oval form also came into fashion, raised at each side to show the high-heeled shoes, causing caricaturists to say that a lady looked like a donkey carrying its panniers. These hoops were of whalebone, with canvas over them, having capacious receptacles on each side for articles of convenience. In 1780, we find hoops of cane used, being advertised to “out-wear the best sort of whalebone." About the year 1796, hoops had been discarded in private life, but were still the mode at court, and never had been seen in more full-blown enormity, continuing so to the time of George IV., when they were abolished by royal command.
We now come to the development of this fashion about the middle of the present century; which began with C. in its original and proper sense, first in the form of the inelegant “ bustle" in the upper part of skirt, then the whole petticoat. Instead of the hair fabric, some used, for economy, cotton, thickly corded and starched. At length, about 1856, people were startled by the question: "Have you heard that Miss So-and-so actually wears a hoop?” and it became apparent that the fashion of queen Anne's time had returned upon us, only that the structure was somewhat lighter and more pliant; being usually composed of a series of horizontal small steel hoops, held together either by vertical bands, or by being sewed into a kind of petticoat. Unlike former times of hoops and fardingales, the fashion descended even to maid-servunts, so that where the dining room was small, table-maids have been known to give warning, because they could not clear the space between the table and the fire; and the newspapers were continually announcing * Accident from Crinoline,” or “Lady burned to Death from Crinoline." The Spectator dealt out much cutting though playful raillery on the hoops of his day, but apparently with little effect; and equally unavailing were the satires of Punch and other caricaturists of the 19th century against the hideous fashion of crino. line. The hoops were sometimes made with a circumference of four and even five yards. At last, after indignation and ridicule had for years assailed the monstrosity in vain, and when people had given over speaking about it, the inflation began about 1866, without any apparent cause, to collapse; and rushing to the opposite extreme, ladies might be seen walking about as slim as if merely wrapt in a morning-gown or bathing. dress. The sole relic of this kind of expansion now to be seen is a structure of lappets, called a pannier, projecting behind, immediately below the waist.
But women, it would seem, can never rest contented without adding, in one direction or another, to their proper dimensions; for the former C. was soon supplanted by great cushions or pads of frizzled hair, applied chiefly to the back of the head, and covered over by the natural hair or by artificial tresses. Such a cushion was known as a chignon (Fr., the neck or neck-hair). The side tresses were swelled out by smaller rolls, called, we believe, rats and mice. This fashion was not new, but was now carried to greater extravagance than ever before, the head being sometimes rendered three times its natural size.
CRI'NUM, a genus of bulbous-rooted plants of the natural order amaryllideæ, having long tubular flowers, the segments of the perianth hooked at the apex, the stamens straight and inserted into the tube, and a three-celled capsule. It contains a considerable number of species, natives of different tropical and subtropical countries, generally with umbels of large and beautiful flowers, some of them amongst the most admired ornaments of our hot-houses. C. amabile, an Indian species, is much esteemed for its fragrance as well as its beauty, and flowers about four times a year. All the species require a rich open soil, plenty of room for their roots, and the frequent removal of suckers.—The bulbs of C. Asiaticum are powerfully emetic, and are used in some parts of the east in cases of poisoning.
CRIS-CROSS ROW. See CHRIST-CROSS Row.
CRISIS (Gr. a judgment, from krino, I judge), a name used by the ancient physicians to denote the rapid or sudden determination of an acute disease in the direction of con. valescence or of death. It was opposed in signification to lysis (luo, I relax), which denoted the gradual subsidence of the symptoms noticed in most chronic and in some acute diseases. The doctrine of crises was closely bound up with that of a maleries morbi, or material of disease in the blood, which was presumed to be undergoing changes, during the whole course of the malady, tending to an evacuation of some kind from the
system in the form of a critical discharge (apostasis or abscess), which, when observed, was supposed to contain the matter of disease in a state of coction, and to be the direct cause of the sudden relief of the patient. Thus, according to the character and seat of the critical discharge, it was common to speak of a C. by sweating, by diarrhea, by expectoration, by urine, by parotid swellings, etc.; and no C. was considered regular that was not attended by some symptom of this kind. Another curious doctrine associated with that of crises, was the belicf in certain days as ruling the beneficent or injurious, the complete or incomplete character of a crisis. The seventh, fourteenth, and twentieth (according to some, the twenty-first) days of the disease were regarded as eminently critical; less so, but still favorably critical, were the third, fifth, eleventh, and seventeenth; the fourth day was the indicator of a complete C. on the seventh; the sixth day was the tyrant, notorious for unfavorable crises; the secord, eighth, tenth, thirteenth, and the rest were non-critical. Few physicians now attach much importance to critical days, but the doctrine of crises and of a materies morbi is still taught, with various modifications, in our medical schools and text-books.
CRISPIN, a saint and martyr, was descended from a noble Roman family. About the middle of the 3d c., under the reign of Diocletian, he, along with his brother Crispianus, fied from Rome into Gaul, where he worked as a shoemaker in the town which is now called Soissons, and distinguished himself by his exertions for the spread of Christianity, as well as by his works of charity. According to the legend, his benevolence was so great that he even stole leather to make shoes for the poor! From this, charities done at the expense of others have been called Crispinades. In the year 287, he and his brother suffered a most cruel martyrdom. Both brothers are commemorated on the 25th Oct. King Crispin, as he is called, is the universally recognized patron saint of shoemakers, and is represented with dramatic effect in the ceremonial processions of the “gentle craft.” There is an amusing but scarce book about shoemakers, entitled Crispin Anecdotes.
CRISPIN, KNIGHTS OF SAINT, a society of shoemakers organized in Wisconsin, in 1866, to protect the interests of workingmen against employers, regulate wages, and sustain unemployed and sick members and their families. It has extended to other parts of the country and comprises a large membership.
CRITHMUM. See SAMPHIRE.
CRITIAS, an Athenian orator and poet, one of the thirty tyrants. He was a politi." cal agitator and disturber of the peace, and became so troublesome that he was banished by the people. Returning to Athens he was made ephor by the oligarchical party, and was one of the most cruel and unscrupulous of the thirty who in 404 B.C. were appointed rulers of the Lacedæmonians.
CRITICISM, the act and art of passing judgment according to a right standard upon any literary, artistic, philosophical, or mechanical work, and pointing out its merits and defects. It is the outgrowth and aid of literature and art: valuable in proportion as it is intelligent, impartial, thorough, and free from prejudice and passion. Criticism was exercised in ancient times by men of the highest eminence, among whom were Aristotle, Horace, and Quintilian. Some of the greatest critics of modern times in England were Dryden, Pope, Johnson, Coleridge, Hazlitt, Mackintosh, Hallam, Brougham, and Macaulay. Boileau, Voltaire, Saint-Beuve, and Taine may be reckoned among the eminent critics of France; while Germany has had a host, among whom should be mentioned Lessing, Goethe, Schlegel, and Kant. There was but a narrow field for criticism in the United States during the first fifty years after the revolution, but it has widened rapidly since. The earliest workers in this field were prof. Andrews Norton and prof. Levi Frisbie, of Cambridge, Willard Phillips, Samuel Gilman, and Richard H. Dana. Among those of a later day may be mentioned William Ellery Channing, Francis Gray, Edward and Alexander Everett, John G. Palfrey, George Ripley, George Bancroft, William H. Prescott, prof. Francis Bowen, James Russell Lowell, Charles Norton, Edwin P. Whipple, and George S. Hillard. In the department of theological and biblical criticism Moses Stuart, Charles Hodge, Bela B. Edwards, and Edwards A. Park have distinguished themselves. In recent years the number of critics in various departments has greatly enlarged, and much of their work is of a high order.
CRITICISM, THE HIGHER BIBLICAL. See HIGHER CRITICISM, THE.
CRI'TO, a friend of Socrates, who assisted the philosopher with material aid, arranging for his escape from prison. He was a writer on philosophy, but none of his works are extant.
CRITOLA'US, commander of the Achean army in the battle of Scarphea, 146 B.C. He was defeated by Metellus, and is supposed to have committed suicide.
CRITTENDEN, a co, in e. Arkansas on the Mississippi river, intersected by the Memphis and Little Rock railroad; about 800 sq.m.; pop. '80, 9,415—7,518 colored. The land is low and subject to inundations; corn and cotton are the chief productions. Co. Beat, Marion.
CRITTENDEN, a co. in w. Kentucky on the Ohio river, bounded on the s.w. by the Cumberland; 420 sq.m.; pop.'80, 11,688—1152 colored. The soil is good. Coal, iron, and lead are found. The chief productions are corn and tobacco. Co. seat, Marion. CRITTENDEN, ALONZO, D.D. See page 896.
CRITTENDEN, JOHN JORDON, 1786-1863; b. Ky., a U. S. senator from that state, He was a lawyer of great ability. In 1841, he was appointed attorney-general by president Harrison, but he resigned when Tyler became president. In 1842, he was sent to the senate. In 1848, he resigned and was chosen governor of Kentucky. When Fillmore was president, he was again attorney-general, and in 1855, he was again sent to the senate. In the war of the rebellion, he was one of the few southern statesmen who stood firmly by the union. His last public speech was in opposition to a conscription bill then before congress.
CRITTENDEN, THOMAS LEONIDAS, b. Ky., 1819; son of John J.; a lawyer. He served with distinction on gen. Taylor's staff and under gen. Scott in the Mexican war. When Taylor became president, he appointed Crittenden consul at Liverpool. He served in the union army during the war of the rebellion ; became brevet maj.gen. of volunteers ; retired, 1881.
CRIVEL'LI, CARLO, Cavaliere, a Venetian painter of the 15th c., said to have stud. ied under Jacobo del Fiore. He introduced agreeable landscape backgrounds, and was particularly fond of giving fruits and flowers as accessories. It was thought that he was of the same family as the painters Donato and Vittorio Crivelli.
CROATIA, a kingdom forming part of the Austrian empire. Along with Slavonia it forms one of the administrative divisions of the kingdom of Hungary, and their joint pop. was (1880) 1,191,845; their area,8,757 sq. miles. C. lies to the n.e. of the Adriatic, and borders on one side with Turkey. It is traversed by low chains of mountains, in the s. proceeding from the Julian Alps, and in the n. from the Carnic Alps. These moun. tains are generally covered with forests, and the chains are separated by very fertile valleys. The principal rivers are the Save and its affluent the Culpa, the Drave and its affluent the Mur. Some of the valleys, especially in the s., are quite shut in, so that many of the streams have to make their way through subterranean channels. The climate much resembles that of the neighboring parts of Hungary, the more southern situation being counterbalanced by the greater elevation. The inhabitants are mostly of Slavonic race and language. The religion of C. is that of the Roman and Greek churches. The Croatians are warlike, but the name Croats is employed to designate light-cavalry regiments in the imperial army, in which Magyars and others are mingled with true Croatians. Grain, chestnuts, wine, and gall-nuts are amongst the principal exports of Croatia. The keeping of cattle is neglected. The wood of the great forests, although much of it is admirably adapted for shipbuilding, is turned as yet to little account. The Litorale or coast district contains valuable marble quarries. The capital of C. is Agram (q.v.). C. with its Litorale and Slavonia (q.v.) formerly formed a crown-land, at the head of the administration of which was the ban (q.v.) of Croatia.
C. was, in the earliest historic times, inhabited by the Pannonians, who were conquered by the Romans under Augustus, and the country made a province of Illyria. During the irruptions of the northern nations into the Roman empire, C. suffered a variety of vicissitudes. In 640, the Croats, Chrovats, or Horvats, migrated into it from the Carpathian mountains, and gave it its present name. In the 14th c., having previously been in some measure incorporated with Hungary, C. was more completely united with that kingdom, and passed with it in the beginning of the 16th c. to the Austrian house of Hapsburg. In the end of the 16th c., the Turks conquered a portion of it, now known as Turkish Croatia. The city of Fiume was declared in 1797 to be a constituent and integral part of the kingdom of Hungary; and after the termination of the French wars, Fiume remained united to Hungary till 1848. The Croatians long entertained a feeling of hostility to the Magyars, which manifested itself in 1848 and 1849 in a manner very unfavorable to the cause of the Hungarian revolution. The wise policy of Austria, however, in recognizing the legal rights of the kingdom of Hungary, has had a good effect in allaying this feeling. See MILITARY FRONTIER.
CROCHET (a French word signifying a hook), a species of handiwork, which may be described as an extensive system of looping by means of hooks made for the purpose. You take a hook of a size proportioned to the fineness of the cotton or wool employed, and begin by making a chain of loops. You then turn, and with your hook still in the last loop, begin the double process of catching the thread through each loop of the chain, and also through that in which your hook is, and thus form another chain attached to the first, and so on. This is called simple or plain crochet. Endless vari. eties of patterns may be formed, and lightness and elegance attained, by twisting the thread one or more times in taking up the loop, and open work is formed by passing one or more loops. This work may be made round by beginning with a very few loops, joining the first to the last, and then proceeding to take several loops through one, and so widening on. C. has this advantage over knitting, that by drawing the last loop, and leaving it wide, there is no fear of the work running down as happens when knitting. needles slip. Shades of the same color, and varieties of colors in wool as well as in silk, are used for this work. In white cotton C. can be made available, from large bedquilts to delicate lace-like edgings. See numerous sinall books describing and giving patterns of crochet.
CROCKER, a township in Polk county, Iowa, formed in 1870 from parts of Madison and Saylor. Pop. 1880, 700.