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pushed them so hard that their leader pulled off his mask, and disclosed the features of The prince. With an excess of loyalty which proved his death, C. threw himself upon his knees, and begged Vincentio's pardon, at the same time presenting him with his sword. The heartless wretch plunged it into the body of his tutor. Thus perished, in the 22d year of his age, the “Admirable Crichton."
What measure of truth there may be in the hyperbolical eulogies of his biographers, it is impossible to determine.
CRICKET (gryllus; acheta of some naturalists), a genus of orthopterous insects, of the section saltatoria (in which the hinder legs are long, very strong, and formed for leaping), allied to locusts and grasshoppers, and the type of a family gryllidae (or achetide). The wings are folded horizontally, and form, when closed, a slender thread-like acumination beyond the wing-covers. It is supposed to be by friction of the wing-covers against each other, and from a peculiarity of their structure, that the males produce the stridulous sound which makes these insects so well known. The antennæ are long and thread-like, inserted between the eyes. The best known species is the House C. (G. domesticus), which is about an inch long, with antennæ of almost an inch and a half, of a pale-yellowish color, mingled with brown. It is widely distributed over Europe, particularly the south, and is common in Great Britain. Its very frequent abode is in nooks and crevices of houses, and it sometimes burrows in the mortar; the neighborhood of the fire is very attractive to it, particularly in winter; and its merry note has, accordingly, become associated with ideas of domestic comfort and cheerfulness. Without the heat of fire, it becomes dormant, or nearly so, in winter. It remains quiet during the day, but is lively and active at night, issuing forth to seek its food, which consists both of animal and vegetable substances. Bread-crumbs are very acceptable to it; and for the sake, apparently, both of food and warmth, it very much frequents bakehouses. The larvæ are wingless, the pupæ have mere rudimentary wings. — The FIELD C. (G. campestris) is larger, blackish, with the base of the wing-covers yellowish, feeds on herbs and roots, makes a louder noise than the house C., and is not unfrequent in some parts of England, but very rare in Scotland. -A species of C. (G. megacephalus) found in Sicily, makes a noise loud enough to be heard at the distance of a mile.—The MOLE C. (gryllotalpa) will be noticed in a separate article. See illus., BEETLES, ETC., vol. II., p. 386, figs. 12, 13.
CRICKET (of doubtful derivation), a well-known game, is of very ancient date. The author of the Cricket Field-one of the best manuals on the subject-believes it to be identical with “club-ball," a game played in the 14th c.; it went originally by the name of “handyn and handoute." C. is a truly national English game. There is hardly a town, village, or school, that does not own its C. ground, and military authorities hold it in such estimation as a healthy recreation, that soldiers are encouraged to occupy their leisure time in its pursuit. Of late years C. has been introduced largely into Scotland and Ireland, and is rapidly becoming naturalized all over the world. The requirements for carrying on the game are-1st, a piece of level turf an acre or two in extent; 2d, a sufficient number of players to form two sides of eleven each, for double wicket, and a lesser number for single wicket; 3d, for double wicket (the mode in which the game is usually played), two bats, two sets of wickets and bails, and a ball. When a match is to be played between two “elevens," the first thing to be done is to “ pitch" the wickets. Wickets consist of six wooden stumps, 27 in. high, and are placed in the ground in sets of three, at a distance of 22 yards apart. On the top of each set of stumps are placed two small pieces of wood, called bails. The rival sides next toss for first “innings," and the director of the side that is to go in first, places two of his men at the wickets as batters; while a bowler, wicket-keeper, long stop, and fielders are placed in their several positions by the director of the opposite side. When these arrangements are satisfactorily made, and the markers or scorers are at their post, the umpires take their places, and the game begins. It may be well to mention here that the relative. merits of rival sides are decided by the total number of runs made by each eleven batters during two innings—the side whose players score the most being, of course, victorious,
We may further premise that the bowler's object is to direct his ball, by a swift movement of the arm, towards the opposite wickets, at which one of the batsmen stands, and, if possible, to strike down the stumps or knock off the bails; while the object of the batsman, on the other hand, is to protect his wickets from the bowler's attack, by either stopping the ball when it reaches him (blocking), or driving it out to the field. And much of the beauty of the game depends upon the precision with which the bowler can direct ball after ball in a straight line for the wickets, and the corresponding skill displayed by a good batsman in guarding them.
We will now suppose the two batsmen to be at their places, the bowler at his, ball in hand, and the other players arranged in theirs: at a signal from the umpire the bowler cries “play!" and immediately after, delivers his first ball. If the batsman misses the ball, and it passes the wicket, the wicket-keeper stops it, and returns it to the bowler, who delivers another ball, and so on. When the batsman strikes the ball fieldwards, he immediately runs to the opposite wicket, passing his companion batsman, who crosses to his, and so on, till the ball has been returned by a fielder to the wicket-keeper or
bowler's hand. Thus, if the stroke be a long one, the striker may have time to run per. haps three times between the wickets before the ball is thrown up, when three “runs" are accordingly placed at his name by the scorers, on their sheet. If, however, the bowler or wicket-keeper receives the ball, and touches the wickets with it, before the advancing batsman has reached his “ground” or touches it with his bat, the striker is out, and another man takes his place. Besides, if a ball from a stroke of the bat be caught by one of the opposite party before it reaches the ground; or if in striking at & ball the striker hits down his wicket; or if he willfully prevents a ball being caught, or strikes it twice; or if any part of his person stops a ball which would otherwise have hit his wicket, the striker is out. It frequently happens that two skillful batsmen guard their wickets so effectually, and score so many runs, to one particular style of bowling, that a change either of the bowler, or style of bowling, is adopted by the other side. This change, say from swift to slow bowling, or vice versa, generally produces the required results, and leads to the speedy retirement of the hitherto fortunate batsmen.
The wicket-keeper's place is a very important one, his principal duty being to stop with his hands every ball the batsman misses, it being allowable to make runs (byes) for balls that elude his grasp. Behind him stands the long stop, who is always on the outlook for balls that escape the wicket-keeper. The fielders, who are posted in various parts of the ground, ought to possess quickness of eye and foot, and skill in picking up with either hand a ball that is running, and instantly throwing it to the wickets. They must also be well skilled in catching balls. Much depends on their judgment of distance between the point at which the ball is picked up, and the wickets, as miscon. ception of this may lead to overthrowing the ball, or throwing it short, while the batsmen are profiting by the error, and scoring additional runs. Fielders usually throw the ball to the wicket-keeper, who returns it slowly to the bowler; this saves the hands of the latter from being unsteadied by catching long balls.
At the end of every four bowls, the bowler, wicket-keeper, long-stop, and fielders, change places, and thus every four balls are delivered from alternate wickets; four balls constitute an "over,” which it is the umpire's duty to reckon and announce."
We have said that each side is allowed two innings, but it sometimes happens that one side scores more runs in one innings than the other does in two; thus, A's side, we will suppose, goes in first, and its eleven men score 180; B's side then goes in, and scores, say, 80 the first innings, and 70 the next: in that case, A would be said to have won by an innings and 30 runs.
In England, there are many professional men who make a livelihood by playing matches with amateur clubs, and by instructing the latter in the art. The Marylebone club is the parliament of cricket, and its laws are recognized as the only genuine code all over the world, and for skill and science, the “Eleven of all England," and the “United Eleven" (professionals), excel all other cricketers in the world. The attractions of C. are rapidly spreading. In America and Australia, the game is played to a large extent, and with skill almost equal to that of the English players. English elevens have crossed the ocean more than once to compete with the principal American and Australian clubs, and have returned to England covered with laurels. Good works on C. are The Cricket Field (Lond. Longmans), Felix on the Bat, and Lillywhite's Guide to Cricketers (Lond. Kent & Co). See also Captain Crawley's Cricket (1878).
CRICKLADE, an agricultural t. and parliamentary borough, in the n. of Wiltshire, 7 m. s.e. of Cirencester, on the right bank of the Isis. The town of C. consists of one long street. The government is in a high-bailiff, appointed by the town. It has a considerable retail trade; and the market for fat cattle, held on the third Thursday of each month, is well attended. The parliamentary borough called C. includes, besides its own two parishes of St. Mary and St. Sampson, nearly 50 other parishes or parts of parishes, comprising a large and rich agricultural district, which returns two members to the house of commons. Pop. of parliamentary borough (1881), 51,956 ; of the town, 7000.
CRIEFF—including the burgh of barony of C. and the burgh of regality of Drummond-a t. on the Earn, 17 m. w. of Perth. It is beautifully situated at the foot of the Grampians, near the entrance to the Highlands. Pop. (1881), 4,469. It has woolen manufactures, besides tanneries. The climate of C. makes it the resort of invalids in summer, and there is a superior hydropathic establishment, with accommodation for 200 visitors. It is eminent for its schools. St. Margaret's college was opened here in 1849, for the education of young ladies of the Episcopal communion. Near is the fine scenery of Glen Almond, with Trinity college, opened in 1847, for Scottish Episcopal students. Morrison's academy-built at a cost of £6,500, and endowed by Thomas Morrison, builder, Edinburgh, with £20,000—was opened in 1860. C. is the terminus of two branches of the Caledonian railway, and since the opening of the first in 1856 it has much improved. The greatest Scotch cattle-market stood here till 1770, when it was removed to Falkirk.
CRILLON, LOUIS DE BERTON DES BALBES, surnamed “LE BRAVE," was b. at Murs, in Provence, in 1541. Under Francis of Lorraine, duke of Guise, then the model of military chivalry, he was trained for war, and, at the age of 16, was accounted an accompiished soldier. In 1558, he gave the first public proof of his valor at the siege of
Calais. Shortly after, he covered himself with glory at the capture of Guines. The whole army celebrated the praises of the young hero, who was introduced by duke Francis in flattering terms to Henry II. As a reward of his numerous heroic deeds, he obtained a multitude of church benefices, which he intrusted to the care of learned clerks. In the religious wars of the 16th c., he fought against the Huguenots, and distinguished himself at the battles of Dreux, Jarpac, and Moncontour. He was likewise present at the battle of Lepanto, in 1571, and, though wounded, was appointed to carry The news of the victory to the pope and the French king. In the atrocities of the St. Bar. tholomew massacre, C. had no part. In 1573, he took part in the siege of La Rochelle. In 1585, Henry III. made him knight of his orders. He continued faithful to his sov. ereign in his struggle with the Catholic league. Henry IV. found in him a sincere friend and adviser. After the peace with Savoy, C. retired to Avignon, and, after tho fashion of a true Catholic warrior, ended his days “in the exercises of piety and penance," Dec. 2, 1615. The martial fire burned brightly in C., however, even in his last days; in proof of which, there is recorded the rather melodramatic story, that when listening at church one day to an account of the crucifixion, the old hero forgot himself, and, brandishing his sword, cried out, “Où étais tu, Crillon ?" (Where wert thou, Crillon ?)
CRIME, in its legal, as opposed to its moral or ethical sense, is an act done in violation of those duties for the breach of which the law has provided that the offender, in addition to repairing, if it be possible, the injury done to the individual, shall make satisfaction to the community. A private wrong, or civil injury, on the other hand, is an infringement on the rights of an individual merely, for which compensation to him is held, in law, to be a complete atonement. From this definition, which is that generally adopted by lawyers (Stephen's Com., iv. p. 77), it is obvious that legal criminality is not a permanent characteristic attaching to an action, but one fixed upon it arbitrarily, from considerations of expediency. Without changing its moral character, the same action may, and very often is, a C. in one country or in one generation, and no C. in another country or a succeeding generation. Malice, or evil intention, however, is in all cases essential to the character of C., for, though there may be an immoral act which it is inexpedient to punish as a C., it can never be expedient to punish as a C. what is not an immoral act. But it is pot necessary that the evil intention shall have had reference to the party injured. If the offender acted in defiance of social duty, and regardless of order, a C. has been committed, though it may not have been the particular C. which he intended. For example, it is murder if A kill B by mistake for C, unless the killing of C would have been justifiable, or excusable. The law can take no cognizance of a bare intention, which has not ripened into any sort of act. How far attempts to commit C. are punishable, is always a question of difficulty. The general rule seems to be, that if such acts can be unequivocally connected with the criminal intention, they are punishable, though not to the same extent as the completed crime. Pupils under seven years of age, and insane persons, as being incapable of design or intention, are regarded in the eye of the law as incapable of C.; but questions as to the responsibility of persons laboring under partial insanity are often surrounded with practical dificulties, which are positively insoluble. The defense of compulsion, or vis major, as it is called by lawyers, if completely established in fact, is generally sufficient in law. See COMPULSION. The subjection of a servant to a master, or of a wife or child to a husband or parent, will be no defense for the commission of an act of the criminality of which the offender was aware, unless it amount to compulsion. Magistrates acting bona fide, and soldiers acting under their officers in the ordinary line of duty, are not liable to a criminal charge. Extreme want is no excuse for a C. in law, though it furnishes a ground for an application for mercy.
In the technical language of the law of England, the term offense has a wider sig. nification than C., the latter including only such of the former as are punishable by indictment (q.v.). Crimes are divided into misdemeanors (q.v.) and felonies (q.v.), the latter being a higher species of offense than the former.
CRIME, SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF. See page 896.
CRIMEA (anciently, the Tauric Chersonese), a peninsula in the s. of Russia, forming the greater part of the government of Taurida, in lat. 44° 44' to 46° 5' n., long. 32° 30 to 36° 35' east. It is united to the mainland only by the very narrow isthmus of Perekop, between the Black sea and the sea of Azof, and separated from the isle or peninsula of Taman, on the e., only by the narrow strait of Yenikalé. The C. is thus almost surrounded by water--on three sides, by the Black sea, and on the fourth by the sea of Azof; while a trench, 70 ft. wide and 25 deep, across the isthmus of Perekop, cuts it off from the mainland. The C. is quadrilateral in shape, the four corners pointing to the four cardinal points in the compass; but a long narrow peninsula juts out on the e., which increases the extreme length of the territory from e. to w. to 190 m., the breadth being 110 miles. The whole extent of the C. is between 8,000 and 9,000 sq. miles. The coast is very much broken and indented, particularly on the side of the sea of Azof. The most easterly part of it is a mountainous peninsula, the seat of the ancient kingdom of Bosporus. From the strait of Yenikalé, through this minor peninsula and along the whole southern coast, a chain of mountains extends, which
may be regarded as a continuation of one of the chains proceeding from Mt. Cau casus. This southern district of the C. is very rich and beautiful. The mountains riso with steep slopes from the sea, whilst spurs and secondary chains extend northward, richly wooded, and with most beautiful intermediate valleys, gradually sinking into the uniform and desolate steppe which forms the northern and much greater part of the peninsula. The highest mountain is Tchatirdagh, i.e., the Tent mountain, Mone Trapezus of the ancients, which rises to a height of more than 5000 feet. It is a table mountain, and has many great and deep chasms, in some of which the ice remains unmelted all the summer. The southern district of the C. is well cultivated, and is adorned by many country-seats of the Russian emperor and nobles, with parks and gardens surpassed by none in Europe. Tartar villages, mosques, and Greek convents are to be seen in most picturesque situations amongst the woods and rocks, with many ruins of ancient fortresses. The vegetation may almost be called subtropical; olive groves are frequent; the vineyards yield excellent grapes, and some of them excellent wine; and even oranges are produced. Grain of various kinds is produced abundantly, and silk, wax, and honey. Much attention is bestowed upon horses, oxen, and sheep, in which no small part of the wealth of the country consists. The northern part of the C. is in every way a contrast to the south, being little else than one waste uniform steppe, destitute of water and of wood, with a soil generally very unfit for agriculture, and with numerous salt-lakes and salt-marshes, some of which dry up in summer, and which seem to indicate that it was recently covered by the sea. The air is infected by exhalations from these marshes, and from the Sirash or Putrid sea, which is a portion of the sea of Azof, but is almost cut off from it by a narrow tongue of land called the peninsula of Arabat. In the summer and autumn, a most offensive and powerful smell arises from the stagnant water, but the evaporation is often so complete that the Siwash is left dry, and horses can cross upon the hardened ground, where at other seasons vessels may sail. The capital of the C. is Simferopol (q.v.); the old Tartar capita! is Baktshi-serai (q.v.), both situated in the interior. Sebastopol (q.v.) is situated in the s.w.; Kalfa and Kertch are situated in the s.e.; Perekop on the isthmus to which it gives its name, in the north. The C. is now direcily connected with the Russian railway system, lines diverging to the s.e. coast and s.w. The small river Alma, on whose banks the first battle was fought between the Russian troops and the French and Eng. lish invading army (20th Sept., 1854), falls into the Black sea, where the picturesque southern district approaches the northern steppe.
The population of the government of Taurida is (1880) 879,000, two thirds of whom are Tartars; the remainder are Russians, Germans, Greeks, etc. The chief features in the early history of the C. are given under the head Bosporus (q.v.). The Tartars con. quered the territory in the 13th c., and converted it into the khanat of Krim Tartary. The Genoese under these rulers planted flourishing colonies here, which were destroyed by the Turks, who came into possession of the country in the 15th century. Russia finally subjected the C. in 1783. See Russia.
CRIME'AN WAR, begun in 1853. As the French and Russian governments had taken sides in the contention between the Latin (or Roman) and Greek (or Russian) churches for exclusive possession of the holy sepulcher and other sacred places, the czar sent prince Menschikoff to Constantinople Feb. 28, 1853, as envoy extraordinary. In addition to the claims with regard to the holy places, he made certain demands respecting the protection of the Greek Christians in Turkey. As to the holy places, the sultan recommended a mixed commission, which decided in favor of the Greek church. The demands of Menschikoff with respect to the Greek Christians in Turkey were not acceded to, and the envoy left Constantinople May 21. Two weeks later, the sultan confirmed all the rights and privileges of the Greek Christians, and appealed to his allies. In Jure, the French and English fleets appeared. A week later the Russians crossed the Pruth into Moldavia. Diplomacy was then renewed, and a conference at Vienna was agreed to by all except the sultan, who demanded modifications which Russia refused. About the middle of Sept., 1853, four English and French war-vessels entered the Dardanelles, and on Oct. 5, the sultan declared war against Russia. The first real act of war occurred Oct. 23, when a Turkish fortress fired on a Russian flotilla. Nov. 1, Russia declared war against Turkey. Then followed in and around the peninsula of the Crimea a series of battles through about 26 months. The chief of them in the order of time were the battles of the Alma, Sept. 20, 1854, when the English, led by lord Raglan, and the French under marshal St. Arnaud, routed the Russians, who lost 5,000 men, of whom less than 1000 were prisoners; loss of the allies, 3,400. Sept. 25, the allies took Balaklava. Oct. 17, they began an unsuccessful siege of Sebastopol. The battle of Balaklava—with the celebrated charge of the light brigade-occurred Oct. 25. On Sept. 8, 1855, the French captured the Malakoff by assault, and the Russians, eink. ing their fleet, retreated from Sebastopol. There was little more of important fighting; peace was concluded Mar. 30, 1856, and July 9 the allies evacuated the Crimea. The losses of the allies in the entire campaign were-English, killed or died of wounds, 5,000; died of cholera, 4,244; from other diseases, 16,000; total, nearly 24,000, besides 2.873 disabled. The British public debt was increased more than $200,000,000. The French lost about 63,500 men; and the Russian loss has been estimated as much more than that of all the allies.
CRIMEN REPETUNDA'RUM, the crime of accepting a bribe by a judge. See BARATRY, JUDGE.
CRIMINAL, one who has been convicted of a crime. A person indicted for a crimi. nal offense is often called a culprit in England; and when undergoing trial in the court of justiciary in Scotland, he is spoken of as tbe panel, a word which has a different signification in England. See PANEL.
CRIMINAL CONVERSATION. See ADULTERY.
CRIMP is the name given to an agent for supplying ships with seamen, just before & voyage; he receives so much per head for his trouble. This offensive name is applied to these persons, because in general they make use of untruthful representations and other unfair means to entrap sailors into service. Crimps are numerous in all large sea. ports, and are usually in league with publicans and prostitutes to deprive seamen of their wages. They also keep & sharp look-out for emigrants, and convey all who are simple enough to put faith in their statements to low lodging houses in which they have an interest. The mere charge for lodging is often small, but the lodgers are cheated by provision-merchants and others who pay the C. a liberal commission on their custom. Fairly conducted, the C.'s business is no more objectionable than any other agency, ard within recent years the system has been greatly improved by the operation of the “passengers' act” and “mercantile marine act," and especially by the appointment of registrars of seamen and government emigration agents.
CRIMSON. See RED COLORS.
CRI'NAN CANAL, THE, is an artificial water-communication 9 m. long, in the w. of Argyleshire, between loch Gilp, a branch of loch Fyne, and loch Crinan, in the sound of Jura, at the head of the peninsula of Cantire. It was constructed to avoid the cir. cuitous passage of 70 m. round the Mull of Cantire, on the route from Glasgow to Inver. ness by the Caledonian canal. It is 24 ft. broad, and 12 deep, has 15 locks, and admits vessels of 200 tons. It was excavated in the end of last century, and cost £183,000. After a continuance of heavy rain in Feb., 1859, the three reservoirs supplying the canal with water (the highest being 800 ft. above the canal) burst, and a torrent of water rushed down the mountain-slope, washed away part of the canal banks, and filled the canal with débris and stones for upwards of a mile. Government repaired the damage at the cost of £12,000. The receipts of the canal and harbor during the year ending April, 1881, were £4,103-being £2000 less than the year's expenditure.
CRINED (Lat. crinis, the hair), a term in heraldry. When the hair of a man or woman, or the mane of a horse, differs in tincture from the rest of the charge, the object is said to be crined, of such a metal or color.
CRINGLES, short pieces of rope, with each end spliced into the bolt rope of a sail; commonly confining an iron or brass ring or thimble. Smaller ropes are passed through them, to aid in managing the sails.
CRINOIDEE (Gr. lily-like), an order or family of radiate animals of the class echinodermata (q.v.), of which the recent species are few, but the fossil species so very numer. ous as to constitute great tracts of the dry land as it now appears. The C. have a cen. tral disk, in which is contained the digestive cavity, with two orifices, and from which arise arms or rays, five in number, but soon subdividing, so as at first sight to appear more numerous, and again subdividing into lateral appendages, either fin-like or filamentous, the disk as well as the rays and their subdivisions formed of a calcareous jointed skeleton, clothed with a fleshy integument, of which the fin-like expansions are formed, and which is thicker than in star-tishes, and contains imbedded in it the innumerable ovaries. The joints are also extremely numerous, and the subdivision of the rays often very great. The disk is composed of calcareous pieces and fleshy integument like the rays, as is also a stalk on which the whole is usually supported; the base, it is supposed, being fixed, and the disk and rays expanding like a flower. It appears probable that many of the fossil C. were permanently fixed in this manner, and this ia supposed to be the case with the species of pentacrinus still existing, as the P. caput Meduse, or Medusa's head of the West Indian seas; but others are fixed only when young, the disk and arms finally becoming detached from the stalk and moving freely in the sea, swimming in a manner analogous to that of the medusee. This interesting fact was first discovered by Mr. J. V. Thompson, who found in the sea near Cork the stalked young of the comatula rosacea, a small but very beautiful species, and the only species of the C. found in the British seas. See ENCRINITES.
CRINOLINE (Fr., from Lat. crinis, hair) was the name originally given by the French modistes to a fabric made of horse hair, capable of great stiffness, and employed to distend women's attire; it is now applied in a general way to those structures of steel wire or hoops, by means of which women some years ago attained such overwhelming dimensions. This fashion of expansion is not new. The first name we find given to it is the fardingale, introduced by queen Elizabeth. Walpole, in his fancy description of her,