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many of them belonged to persons not only unconnected by family, but of different names, they no longer served the purpose of distinction when separated from the shield. To this latter class belong the vast majority of modern crests assumed at the suggestion of seal-engravers and coach-painters.
The lion assumed by Richard I., during the crusade in the Holy Land, to express the bravery for which he was proverbial, was borne by Edward III., Henry VII., Edward VI., and James I. ; and since that time has been recognized as the appropriate C. of the royal family of England. In early times, the same Č. was not always borne even by the same person. Besides the lion, Edward III. occasionally bore a white raven crowned; and other monarchs' made use of similar additions. Anciently, the nobility mostly bore plumes of feathers. But several of the earls of Warwick, of the Beauchamp family—the last of whom died in 1445—bore for C. a bear with a rugged staff, muzzled, collared, and chained, as it is still to be seen on signs. The origin of the wreath has been already mentioned. It is now represented as consisting of two stripes of gold or silver lace, twisted into a circular cord. Its tinctures are always those of the principal metal and color of the arms. It is a rule in delineating the wreath, which is shown edgewise above the shield, that the first coil shall be of metal, and the second of color. Civic, triumphal, and other crowns were used as wreaths; and this practice is supposed to have given rise to the use of coronets, out of which crests are sometimes represented as issuing, even in the case of persons who are not noble.
CRESTE, in architecture, an ornamental finishing, either carved in stone, or of tiles running along the top of a wall, or the ridge of a roof. Crest-tiles, or, as they are corruptly called, cress-tiles, or crease-tiles, are frequently in the form either of small battle. ments or Tudor flowers. See COP3.
CRESTED, in heraldry. When a cock or other bird has its comb of a different tincture from its body, it is said to be C. of such a tincture, naming the tincture.
CRESTON, Iowa. See page 896.
CRES'WICK, THOMAS, R.A., one of the best and most popular of recent English land scape-painters, was b. Sheffield, 1811. He early exhibited a taste for drawing, and in his 17th year removed to London, with a view to study the art as a profession. But already he had so far advanced, that two of his pictures were, during that year, admitted into the royal academy's exhibition. C. loved to paint the beautiful streams, and glens, and wooded dells of his native land; and these, which form the subject of his best paintings, are represented on his canvas with the very fidelity and freshness of nature itself. Among his greatest works are “ England," "London Road a Hundred Years Ago," and the Weald of Kent.” His knowledge of aërial perspective was unsurpassed. C. also painted some admirable sea-side studies. He was elected an associate of the royal academy in 1842, and R.A. in 1851. C. was one of the artists to whom the arrangement of the gallery of modern paintings at the Manchester exhibition of 1857 was intrusted. He died in 1869.
CRETA'CEOUS GROUP, or CHALK FORMATION, the upper strata of the secondary series, immediately below the tertiary beds, and resting on the oolite. This group is separated from the eocene tertiary beds by a decided change in both the rocks and fossils. The eocene strata rests unconformably upon the chalk; it is, however, more than probable that a number of beds may yet be discovered to fill up the gap which apparently here exists in the sequence of the rocks.
The C. G. covers a large extent of surface in Europe and the e. of Asia; beds of the period have also been noticed in North and South America. The typical strata occur in the s.e. of England, and are connected with similar beds in the n of France and Germany, and in Denmark. Indeed, the bed of the German ocean seems to be composed of rocks of this group, as is evidenced by the masses of chalk and flint thrown on the shores of Scotland after storms.
The strata of the group have been arranged in the following order. The maximum thickness of the divisions is given in feet.
Feet. (1. Maestricht.....
100 2. Chalk with Flints..
500 UPPER 3. Chalk without Flints.
600 4. Chalk Marl....
100 5. Upper Greensand,
100 6. Gault...
150 LOWER 7. Lower Greensand.
850 8. Wealden beds.....
1300 1. The maestricht beds (q.v.) consist of pistolitic limestones in the n. of France, and of loose yellowish sandstones in Holland. 2. The chalk with flints is a great mass of pure white pulverulent limestone, usually too soft for a building-stone, but sometimes passing into a more solid state. It occurs in beds of great thickness, with the stratification often obscure, except when rendered distinct by interstratified layers of flint a few inches in thickness, occasionally in continuous beds, but oftener in nodules, and recur ring at intervals from 2 to 4 ft. distant from each other. Iron pyrites is found frequently
in these beds in radiated nodules; it readily decompuses, and produces rusty stains on the rock. 3. Chalk without flints; this differs from the upper chalk only in the want of flints. 4. Chalk marl; the white chalk, by the gradual admixture of argillaceous matter, becomes hardened, until it passes into a pale buff-colored marl or argillaceous limestone, sometimes of a sufficient compactness to be used as a building-stone. 5. Upper greensand (see GREENSAND), composed of alternating layers of sands, clays, and limestones, occasionally, but not always, colored with green particles of a chloritic mineral. 6. Gault (q,v.), a stiff dark clay, used for brickmaking, with many beautifully preserved shells. 7. Lower greensand (q.v,), so like petralogically to the upper greensand, that when the intervening Gault is absent, it is impossible to separate them, except by their organic contents. The Specton clay, a local Yorkshire bed of dark clay, is of the same age. 8. Wealden (q.v.), divided into the two groups, the Wealden clay and Hastings sand, consists of a great series of shales and sandstones, with scattered beds of lime and ironstone.
The most remarkable petralogical characteristic of the group is the chalk, which exists in such abundance as to have given its name to the formation (Lat. creta, chalk). It is a white, soft, and pulverulent limestone, consisting almost entirely of carbonate of lime; the only foreign matter in any quantity being silex, which is aggregated together in an amorphous condition, in nodules or layers of flint. Occasional pebbles are also found, but they are extremely rare. Chalk was formerly supposed to be a chemical precipitate: the microscope has, however, shown it to be composed of minute shells mixed with the broken fragments of larger ones; and, very recently, the use of an improved deep-sea sounding apparatus has revealed a sediment now accumulating in many places, which agrees in every point, save solidity, with the chalk. When a piece of white chalk is rubbed down to powder with water, by means of a soft brush, and the powder examined by the microscope, it will be found that the greater portion consists of shells of the minuter kinds of foraminifera, mixed with the disintegrated prisms of pinna or other large shells of like structure, the shells of cytherina, a marine entomostracan, and probably a few diatoms. Deep-sea soundings have disclosed a formation precisely similar, as taking place at the present time. Of some gatherings obtained at a depth of 2 m. from the great Atlantic plateau, prof. Bailey says: "I was greatly delighted to find that all these deep soundings are filled with microscopic shells; not a particle of sand or gravel exists in them. They are chiefly made up of perfect little calcareous shells (foraminifera), and contain also a small number of siliceous shells (diatomaceae).” The occurrence of pebbles in the chalk can easily be accounted for, if we suppose them to have been floated in, attached to the roots of trees, or more probably to sea-weeds. It is more difficult to account for the origin of the flint. Prof. Bailey found that some seas, especially in the Arctic regions, supplied an enormous quantity of siliceous frustules of the diatomacex, and spicules of sponges. That such organisms may have been converted into the flint nodules seems very probable, when we remember that many of the nodules have the external conformation of sponges, and show occasionally also the internal structure. Mr. Bowerbank's microscopic examination of flint nodules, seems to lead to the conclusion that all flints are produced from the siliceous skeletons of organic beings. Chalk, then, seems to have been a deposit. in very deep seas, far out of the reach of land-currents, which would certainly have brought with them argillaceous and arenaceous débris.
The C. G. is highly fossiliferous. The remains of plants are abundant in the freshwater wealden beds; amongst them have been found fragmentary portions of dicotyledons. If we except the microscopic diatomaceæ, which are not unfrequent in the white chalk, vegetable remains are rare in the other members of the group. The various divisions of the animal kingdom are represented in the organic remains of the chalk, if we except the warm-blooded vertebrata, which have hitherto—if they existed-escaped notice. Foraminifera were enormously abundant in the seas, and active in the secretion of the soluble carbonate of lime, fixing it in their minute shells, which, after their death, as has been shown, formed the principal material of the chalk. In the lower beds, polyzoa have been found in great abundance on the continent. Echinoderms are in immense numbers, and beautifully preserved. Crustacea are occasionally found. Of mollusca, the brachiopoda and cephalopoda are especially abundant, both being pelagic types. Ctenoid and cycloid fishes appear in this group for the first time, though yet in small numbers-the placoids and ganoids being still the predominant forms. Reptiles, though not so numerous as in the former period, were yet far from rare. For further details of the fossils, see DIATOMACEÆ, VENTRICULITES, FORAMINIFERA, TEREBRATULA, RHYNCHONELLA, HIPPURITES, AMMONITES, PTYCHODUS, MOSOSAURUS, PLESIOSAURUS, ICHTHYOSAURUS, PTERODACTYL, etc.
CRETACEOUS SYSTEM (ante), in North America, extends along the Atlantic, §. of New York-where, though mostly hidden by the tertiary formation, it is visible in New Jersey and further s.-around the n. and w. shores of the Mexican gulf, up the Mississippi valley to the mouth of the Ohio, and, on the w, from Texas northward over the sides of the Rocky mountains. Its greatest development is in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and w. of the Sierra Nevada in California. In some portions of these last named regions it rises to heights of 10,000 and 12,000 feet. It is found also in Arctic America, near the mouth of the Mackenzie river. The American cretaceous beds con. sist of layers of greensand-called also marl, and extensively used in New Jersey and clsewhere for fertilizing land-sands of other kinds, clays, shells, and, on the gulf of Mexico, especially in Texas, limestone. In New Jersey the formation is 400 or 500 ft. thick, in Alabama 2,000, in Texas 800, chiefly solid limestone, in the upper Missouri more than 2,000, and e. of the Wahsatch more than 9,000. In Colorado, New Mexico, und Vancouver's island the formation contains important beds of brown coal or lignite. The coal-beds of Wyoming and Utah, and some southward, are regarded by some geol. ogists as belonging to this formation; others assign them to the tertiary age. Among American cretaceous fossils are included 100 species of the earliest dicotyledonous plants yet found on this continent, half of which are allied with living American forms. Among them are species of oak, willow, poplar, beech, maple, hickory, fig, tulip, sassa. fras, sequoia, American palm, and cycads. Among the mollusca are species of terebratula, ostrea, gryphæa, inoceramus, hippurites, radiolites, ammonites, scaphites, hamites, vaculites, belimnites, ancyloceras, and turrilites. Of the fishes of the American cretaceous seas nearly 100 species are known. They include large representatives of modern predatory types like the salmon and saury, together with cestracionts and ganoids. The American reptiles of this period are especially remarkable for their number, variety, and size. Cope (who includes, however, in his statement the lignite group, which other geologists rank among the tertiary formations) enumerates 18 species of deinosaurs, 4 pterosaurs, 14 crocodilians, 13 sea saurians, 48 testudinates, and 50 sea serpents. Some of the pterosaurs from the Kansas rocks measured from 20 to 25 ft. in expanse of wing. The sea saurians were from 10 to 50 ft. long. The elasmosaurus Cope describes as a snake-like form 40 ft. long, with an arrow-shaped head on a swan-like neck that rose 20 ft. out of the water. Consequently it could swim many feet below the surface, and yet have its head extended into the air for breath. The American rocks supply 40 species of the sea serpents, some of which were 75 ft. long, with a head 4 ft. long, and a mouth of enormous size, having 4 rows of immense curved teeth with which to seize their prey and joints in the lower jaw to enable them the better to swallow it whole. In the American portion of this formation, 9 species of birds, have been found. Three belonged to the order of swimmers, which includes modern ducks, geese, and gulls; four were waders, and two, of an order long extinct, resembled fishes and reptiles as well as birds. During the cretaceous period it is supposed that the Delaware and Chesapeake bays were in the main ocean, that Florida was under water, that the valley of the Missouri was a salt water region, that the Rocky mountains were in great part submerged, and that the gulf of Mexico extended over much of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, northward to the mouth of the Ohio and far on to the n.w., perhaps even to the Arctic seas.
CRETE. See CANDIA.
CRE'TINISM, from crétin (French), an idiot of the Alps, and this again probably from chrétien, a Christian, one who, from his state of fatuity, could not sin, and was viewed with some degree of religious respect. The name of C. is now applied in a more general sense to idiocy, or defective mental development depending upon local causes, and associated with bodily deformity or arrested growth. C. is very often found in connection with goitre (q.v.), in the lower Alpine valleys, not only of Switzerland and Italy, but of the Pyrenees, Syria, India, and China. In Europe, it is rarely met with at a higher elevation than 3,000 ft., and haunts chiefly the valleys surrounded by high and steep walls of rock, which exclude the light, and limit the free circulation of air. Cretins are always pitiable, and frequently repulsive objects; they are generally dirty, shameless, and obscene; their appetite is commonly voracious; the mouth is large and open, the tongue often protruded, the eyes small, the nose flat and broad, the skull narrow and small in all its dimensions, the forehead retreating, the complexion cadaverous; in addition to which, the whole body is dwarfish, the hands and feet large, the limbs often rickety, the belly protuberant. The cause of C. is still imperfectly understood; the recent researches of Virchow tend to the conclusion that it is a physical degeneration, dependent on the reception of an undue amount of calcareous matter into the system; and this agrees with the general result of numerous observations previously made, as to the prevalence of goitre and C. in places where calcareous waters are alone accessible to the inhabitants. See GOITRE. Many attempts have been recently made to improve the condition of the cretin in childhood, by removing him from the locality of his birth, and by careful training; the institution founded by Dr. Guggenbühl on the Abendberg (q.v.), near Interlaken in Switzerland, having been
the prototype of many others on the continent, and of some in England and Scotland, for the education of idiots.
CREUSE, a river and a department in the center of France. The river rises in the mountains on the southern border of the department of C., and flows in a generally n. n.w. direction through that department, then in a n. and westerly direction through Indre, and dividing the departments Vienne and Indre-Loire, falls into the Vienne, a tributary of the Loire, about 12 m. n. of Chatellerault, after a course of about 150 miles. The department to which the river gives its name lics in lat. 45° 39' to 46° 26' n., and long. 1° 24 to 2° 36' east. On an area of about 2,200 sq.m., it had a pop., in 1872, of 247,663: at the census of 1881, the pop. was 268,131. Low mountains and chains of hills occupy
the greater part of the land. The streams, with the exception of the C., are insignifi. cant. The climate is moist and variable, and the soil thin and light in the southern hilly district, which is interspersed with stretches of heath and pasture, but better in the low. lands of the n.e. The products are rye, buckwheat, oats, and potatoes; but agriculture is backward and the rearing of cattle forms the chief branch of rural industry. Large quantities of chestnuts and fruit are grown. The minerals are not important. The people of C. are but slightly educated, and use a coarse patois; but are generally industrious, and annually migrate in large numbers to find work in various parts of France. C. is divided into the arrondissements Aubusson, Bourganeuf, Boussac, Guéret, with Guéret for its capital.
CREUTZ, GUSTAF FILIP, Count, b. Finland, 1729-85; a Swedish poet. He was educated at Abo, where he made the acquaintance and friendship of Gyllenborg, and the two became the Beaumont and Fletcher” of their country. Creutz's best work was Alys and Camilla, a charming idyllic poem. In 1763, Creutz was sent as ambassador to Spain, and afterwards to France.
CREUZER, GEORG FRIEDRICH, a learned German philologer, was b. at Marburg Mar.,
1771, and studied here and at Jena. In 1802, he was appointed a professor at Marburg, and in 1804, obtained the chair of philology and ancient history at Heidelberg, which he occupied for 44 years in the worthiest manner, In 1848, he retired into private life, the infirmities of age having forced him to renounce the fatigue of teaching. He died at Heidelberg, 15th Feb., 1858.
C.'s whole life was devoted to the study of antiquity. His first, and probably his greatest work, was Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Völker, besonders der Griechen (4 vols., Leip. 1810–12). This treatise, which asserted the symbolical character of ancient mythologies, excited a lively controversy, in which Hermann and Voss appeared as the oppoDents of Creuzer. His next work in importance was a complete edition of the works of Plotinus (3 vols., Oxford, 1835). Along with G. H. Moser, C. edited several works of Cicero-De Natura Deorum (1818); De Legibus (1824); De Republica (1826): and De Divinatione (1828), etc. Between 1837 and 1848, he published a partial collection of his writings in 10 vols. (Deutsche Schriften. Leip. and Darms.); the last of which contains an autobiography of C. under the title Aus dem Leben eines Alten Professors. He was also the writer of essays on archæological topics too numerous to be mentioned. In 1854, appeared Friderici Creuzeri Opuscula Selecta.
CREUZOT, LE, a t. of France, dep. of Saone-et-Loire, 12 m. s.s.e. of Autun. It is situated in the midst of a district rich in coal and iron, and possesses large iron foundries, which turn out cannon, anchors, steam machinery, etc., and which employ 10,000 workmen. A short railway connects the town with the canal du Centre, which traverses the coal-field. There is also a glass manufactory, one of the most important in France. C. has of late increased rapidly in size and importance. The population, which in 1841 was 4,000, in 1881 had reached 15,749.
CRÈVECEUR (Heart-breaker), the name of a Dutch port in the province of North Brabant, on the left bank of the Meuse, where this river receives the Dieze, about 4 m. n.n.w. of Bois-le-Duc. It figures somewhat prominently in the wars of the Dutch and Spaniards.
CRÈVECEUR, HECTOR SAINT JOIN DE, 1731–1813; a French traveler and agriculturist, who settled in New York as a farmer. In the American revolution he was sent to England as a prisoner, was exchanged, and went to Normandy. Afterwards he returned to the United States, and became consul-general for the states of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. He found that his wife was dead and his property destroyed, but his children had been protected by a gentleman of Boston. He wrote Letters of an American Agriculturist; Travels in Pennsylvania and New York; and a paper on the introduction of the potato into Normandy.
CREVILLEN'TÉ, a t. of Spain, in the province of Alicante, about 20 m. w.sw. of the city of that name. It is situated at the foot of the hills forming the boundary of Murcia, and has a population of about 8,000, who are chiefly engaged in weaving and in agricultural pursuits.
CREW, of a ship, is a collective name for all the persons employed therein, but usually limited to designate petty officers and seamen only. In men-of-war the entire C. are divided into five groups: 1. Commissioned and warrant officers; 2. Chief petty officers; 3. First-class working petty officers; 4. Second-class working petty officers; 5. Able seamen, ordinary seamen, landsmen, and boys. In the very largest war steamers now afloat, there are upwards of 152 different ranks, grades, or offices among the C., excluding officers and marines.
In a merchant ship, under the new mercantile marine act, the master, before he starts on a voyage, must send a list of his C. to the customs' comptroller at the port of departure, and a similar list within 48 hours after his return. The masters of coasting vessels, however, are required to do this only twice a year. Emigrant officers insist that ships to Australia shall have four seamen as C. to every 100 tons burden, and three to ships bound for America. In the large sea-going steamers, however, the number of hands is relatively greater, owing to the various duties relating to the machinery; a steamer of 1000 tons will have as many as 60 or 70 hands, if bound for a long voyage.
CREWE, a t. in the s. of Cheshire, forming a central station of five important railways, to which it owes its present importance. Pop. '61, 8,159; '81, 24,372, chiefly employed in the railway stations, and in the manufacturing of railway carriages and locomotives. About the year 1840, there were only two or three houses where C, now stands. The London and Northwestern Railway Company have erected a handsome church, and a large mechanics’ institute, containing an assembly room:
CREWKERNE, a t. in the s.e. of Somersetshire, in the fertile valley of the Parret and Isle, 10 m. s.s.w. of Ilchester, and surrounded by a wide amphitheatre of highly cultivated hills. Pop. '81, 4,000. The chief manufactures are sail-cloth, sacking, hair-seating, webbing, and girths. Its weekly markets, and annual fair, which is held on 4th Sept., for sheep, cattle, and horses, are much frequented and well supplied. The word C. means “ hermitage of the cross.
CRIBBAGE is a game with cards, played by two, three, or four persons, the whole pack being used. When four persons are engaged, they take sides. The value of the cards is : face cards, ten, ace, one, and the rest as marked ; but there are no trumps, The number of cards dealt is usually 5 or 6, the mode of playing the game varying slightly with the number of cards used. The points are scored on a board with holes for pegs, and 61 constitutes game. The terms used in the game are as follow: Crib, the cards laid out by each party, the points made by them being scored by the dealer. Pairs are two similar cards, as two aces or two kings; they reckon for two points, whether in hand or playing. Pairs royal are three similar cards, and reckon six points. Double pairs royal are four similar cards, and reckon twelve points. These various points are thus made: If your adversary plays a seven, and you another, a pair is made, which entitles you to two points; if he then play a third seven, he makes a pair royal, and marks six; and if you play a fourth seven, it constitutes a double pair royal, and entitles you to twelve points. When playing the hands, the one whose last card can make it thirty-one scores two points, or the one so near that the following card goes over that number, scores one point. Fifteens.-If any combination, whether of two or more cards, in your hand, or in play, make together fifteen, such as a ten and a five, a two, a five and an eight, etc., you reckon two points. Sequences are three, four, or more successive cards, and reckon for an equal number of points; and in playing a sequence, it is of no consequence which card is played first; for instance, if your adversary plays an ace, and you a five, he a three, you a two, and he a four, he scores five for the sequence. Flush is when the cards are all of one suit, and reckons for as many points as there are cards. A koave of the same suit as the turn-up card counts for one in any hand. If a knave be turned up, it counts two for the dealer.
CRIB-BITING is a bad habit met with especially in the lighter breeds of horses, and those spending a considerable amount of leisure in the stable. The act consists in the animal seizing with his teeth the manger, rack, or any other such object, and taking in at the same time a deep inspiration, technically called wind-sucking. Crib-biting springs often from idle play, may be first indulged in during grooming, especially if the operation is conducted in the stall, and the animal be needlessly teased or tickled; is occasionally learned, apparently, by imitation from a neighbor; and in the first instance is frequently a symptom of some form of indigestion. Its indulgence may be suspected where the outer margins of the front teeth are worn and rugged, and will soon be proved by turning the animal loose where he can find suitable objects to lay hold of. It usually interferes with thriving and condition, and leads to attacks of indigestion. It can be prevented only by the use of a muzzle or throat-strap; but in those newly acquired cases resulting from gastric derangement, means must further be taken to remove the acidity or other such disorder.
CRICE'TUS. See HAMSTER.
CRICHTON, JAMES, surnamed the “ADMIRABLE,” was a native of Scotland, where he was b. in 1551, or, according to others, in 1560. His father, Robert Crichton of Elliock, in the co. of Perth, was lord advocate of Scotland from 1561 to 1573. On the mother's side, C. was descended from the old Scottish kings, a circumstance of which he used to boast on the continent. He was educated at St. Andrews university. Before. he reached his 20th year, he had, it seems, “run through the whole circle of the sciences," mastered ten different languages, and perfected himself in every knightly accomplishment. Thus panoplied in a suit of intellectual armor, C. rode out into the world of letters, and challenged all and sundry to a learned encounter. If we can believe his biographers, the stripling left every adversary who entered the lists against him hors de combat. At Paris, Rome, Venice, Padua, Mantua, he achieved the most extraordinary victories in disputation on all branches of human knowledge, and excited universal amazement and applause. The beauty of his person and the elegance of his manners also made him a great favorite with the fair; while, as if to leave no excellence unattained, he vanquished, in a duel, the most famous gladiator in Europe. The duke of Mantua, in whose city this perilous feat was performed, appointed him preceptor to his son, Vincentio di Gonzago, a dissolute and profligate youth. One night, during the carnival, C. was attacked in the streets of Mantua by half-a-dozen people in masks. Но