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In 1818, 14,743,675 lbs. of twist were exported, of which 14,727,882 lbs. went to Europe, and only 1861 lbs. to India and China. In 1843, 149,206,448 lbs. were exported; 128,664,218 lbs. to Europe; 899,746 lbs, to America and Africa; and 12,642,484 lbs. to India and China. In 1874, of the 220,599.000 lbs. exported, 77,438,000 lbs. went to Germany and Holland, 62,781,000 lbs. to India, China, and Japan. In 1880, there were in all 215,544,800 lbs. of yarn exported.

In 1820, Germany was the best customer for British plain and printed cottons. The next largest customer for plain cottons was Italy; then followed the Brazils, United States, Russia, Portugal, East Indies, Holland and Belgium, West Indies, etc.; and for printed cottons—British West Indies, United States, Italy, Holland and Belgium, Portugal, East Indies, Brazil, etc. The Netherlands were the principal buyers of the laces and small wares; then Germany, British West Indies, Central America, Brazils, United States, East Indies, Portugal, Russia, Italy, etc. At the present time, the East Indies take nearly one third of the exported manufactured goods. For plain calicocs, the next best customer is China; then follow Turkey, Brazil, Egypt, United States, Portugal, Italy, Germany, etc.; of printed and dyed calicoes, Turkey is the largest purchaser; then follow India, Brazil, Germany, United States, France, West Indies, Central America, etc. The United States take nearly one half of the exports of lace and patent-net; then follow Belgium, France, Holland, Germany, etc. The United States take over one third of the exports of stockings, and one half of the shipments of other sorts of hosiery; then follow Australia, the Argentine Republic, etc. One fourth of the sewing-thread exported goes to the United States; then follow Germany, Brazil, Russia, etc.

Subjoined is an estimate of the weight and value of the total production of cotton manufactures in Great Britain, with the cost of cotton consumed, and the balance remaining for wages, all other expenses, interest of capital, and profit for the years 1870, 1872, and 1874 (000's omitted; 1,071,770 = 1,071,770,000):

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£51,000

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Left for wages, expenses, prof. £51.000

its, etc.. The figures relating to the export of “piece-goods, etc.,” include two thirds of the goods shipped as apparel, haberdashery, etc. The average annual production of yarn and goods for the three years 1870–72, was 1,018,563,000 lbs., distributed as follows:

Ibs. Per cent.
Exported to India, China, Japan, etc., including
47,000,000 lbs. yarn...,

333,000,000 32.70
Exported to all other countries, including 150,166,-
000 lbs. yarn.......

529,030,000 51.94
Left for home consumption and stock. ........... 156,533,000 15.36
Total as above.

1,018,563,000

100.00 In round numbers, therefore, it may be said that one third of the total production of C. goods is exported to the east, one half to other countries, and one sixth consumed at home, The value of yarn exported, 1883, was £13,509,735 ; of all C. manufactures, £62,936,025.

With the great improvements which have taken place in the mechanics of the trade, and the reduced price of the raw material, a gradual but considerable decline has taken place in the cost and price of the fabrics produced. The price of 1 lb. of yarn contain: ing 100 hanks, in 1786, was 388.; in 1807, 68. 9d. ; in 1829, 3s. 2d.; at the present time, 28. 6d. The cost of weaving during the last 60 years has been reduced upwards of 60 per cent. A species of calico, selling at 68. per yard towards the close of the last century, can be purchased in our day at as many pence! The average price per yard of goods exported in 1815 was 18. 5 d.; in 1825, 10 d.; in 1835, 6d.; in 1845, 3;.d.; and in 1859, 3798. In 1864, the price rose to 6d. per yard, but in 1874 it fell to 3 d. per yard. The average price per lb. of yarn exported in 1815 was 38. 78d.; in 1825, 18. 1110.; in 1835, 18. 4 d.; in 1845, 18. 07d.; and in 1859, 11fd. In 1864, the average rose to 28. 4fd. per lb.; but in 1874, fell to 18, 31d. per lb. The most profitable years for spinners are said to have been 1845, 1848, 1859, 1860, and 1871.

The earnings of the work-people are higher at the present time than they have ever been before. The following table furnishes the rates current in 1839, 1849, 1859, and 1875. It will be observed that the proportionate advance during the years 1850-75 was very much greater in the lowest than in the highest paid hands:

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AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES.

1839. 1849. 1859. 1875.
Week of 69 Hours. Week of 60 Hours.
8. d.

8. d.
Steam-engine tenters....

.24 0
28 0
30 0

320
Warehousemen.

.18 0

200 22 0 26 0
Carding Department-
Scutchers (women and girls).....

6 80 12 0
Strippers (young men)........

120 14 0 19 0 Overlookers.....

0

28 0 28 0 32 0
::: :::::...............25
Spinning on Self-acting Mules-
Minders.............
................ .16 0

200 25 0
Piecers (women and young men)......... 80

10 0 16 0 Overlookers.....

.............20 0

22 0 260 30 0
Throstle Spinning-
Spinners (girls 14 to 18 years)..

90
" (women)......

........ 70 76 90 13 6
Overlookers......

24 0 26 0
Ruling-
Throstle reelers (women).......

12 6
Warpers..................

22 0 23 0 26 0 Sizers....

...........23 0

23 0

25 0 30 0
Doubling-
Doublers (women)...

..... O 16 9 0 12 6
Overlookers...........

........24 0 25 0 28 0 32 0 Other branches show the same ratio of advance. The following table exhibits the extent of the manufacture at the close of 1874: Estimated weight of cotton consumed ...... ........1,226,129,000 lbs. " value of same, at 7 d. per lb................

£40, 226.000 weight of yarn produced........

....1,120,525,000 lbs. Declared weight of yarn exported...

........... 220,599,000 lbs. " value of yarn exported (18. 3 d. per lb).......... £14,516,000 Number of yards of goods exported.....................3,587, 132,000 yds. Declared value of same (3 d. per yard).................. £54,356,000 " " “ other cotton goods exported...........

£5,380,000 Total declared value of all cotton manufactures exported. £74,232,000

" " " of all British exports............... £297,650,000 Proportion of cotton exports to entire exports per cent. ... 25 per cent. Estimated number of persons employed...

479,000 average rate of wages per week........

138, total amount of wages paid in 12 months ..... £15,190,000

ESTIMATED FIXED CAPITAL.
Cost of 41,300,000 spindles, at 258. to 278. per

spindle, inclusive of buildings, etc............ £53,690,000
Cost of 463,000 power-looms, at £26 each........ 12,038,000

£65,728,000

ESTIMATED FLOATING CAPITAL.
Employed in carrying on the routine of business. £18,000,000
Cash at bankers................................ 12,000,000

£30,000,000

The average price of cotton consumed in 1860 was 65d. per lb.; in 1861, 7 d.; in 1864, 18. 104d.; in 1867, 10fd. ; in 1871, 8fd.; and in 1881, 6 d. The average prices of the principal descriptions in 1871 to 1875 were as follows:

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Except Bengal, prices at the end of Sept. and Dec., 1875, were lower than since 1860.

The Cotton Famine. —The American civil war broke out in 1861, and in 1862 the import of cotion fell to 524 million pounds, against 1257 millions in 1861, and 1391 mil lions in 1860. Increased supplies from India and other sources brought the arrivals up to 669 millions in 1863, 893 millions in 1864, 978 millions in 1865. The war closed in 1865, trade with America was resumed, and the imports in 1866 rose to 1377 million pounds, and the cotton industry shortly afterwards resumed its former dimensions. At the crisis of the famine the mills were not working more than half-time, and in Dec., 1862, 247,000 cotton operatives and others connected with the trade, were out of employment, and 165,000 others only partially employed. In the same month, 234,000 persons, or 24 per cent of the total population of the districts affected, were in receipt of charita. ble relief. In 1863, the average number of persons out of work was 189,000, and that of those only partially employed, 129,000; in 1864, the figures were 134,000 and 97,000 respectively; and those for the first five months of 1865, 107,000 and 68,000. During the course of the famine, the losses of the trade amounted to between £65,000,C90 and £70,000,000, including from £28,000,000 to £30,000,000 loss of wages to operatives. Of the later amount about one fourth was recovered in the form of relief, or in wages for employment in public works, etc. The total sum distributed in charity alone was about £3,000,000. In some districts in 1863, the poor-rate rose to nearly 6s, in the £. In the same year, the average rate for the whole of the cotton districts was 28. 29d., against only 73d. in 1861. See also COTTON FAMINE.

*COTTON (ante). Cotton culture in the United States began feebly in Virginia in 1621, when the seed was planted by way of experiment, and its easy growth attracted much interest in England. In books relating to the early English settlements, “cotton wool” is spoken of as one of the products of that happy country “seated near the midst of the world, between the extremities of heat and cold.” For a long time the cultivation was limited to gardens or small fields, and only for home use. The cultivation appears, somewhat singularly, to have spread northward rather than southward. Traces of the culture are found in Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, down to the era of the revolution. In 1776, it was grown near Philadelphia in sufficient quantity for domestic uses; but very little was used, human clothing being chiefly of linen and woolen fabrics. It was first planted in the Carolinas and Georgia in 1733, and in Louisiana in 1742. In 1747, several bags of the staple were exported from Charleston, and in 1770, there were shipped to Liverpool three bales from New York, four from Maryland and Virginia, and three barrels full from North Carolina. It was near the close of the 18th c. before the cotton trade of the United States became important. Our crop in 1791 was estimated to be 2,000,000 lbs. In 1795, the few factories in this coun. try were still importing foreign cotton; the imports in that year were 4,107,000, and the exports 6,276,300 lbs. In 1801, the crop was 48,000,000 lbs., of which 21,000,000 lbs. were exported. In 1810, the exports were 94,000,000 lbs. In 1813, owing to the war with Eugland, only 19,400,000 lbs. were exported;' the price in the United States was 12c. per lb., while in England it was three times as much. In 1821, the yield of the United States was 180,000,000 lbs., of which nearly 125,000,000 lbs. were exported. In 1825, the crop rose to 255,000,000 lbs. The following table gives the annual product of the United States in bales since 1829. The average weight of a bale is 440 lbs.:

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[There is no record of production during the war of the rebellion.]

The section of the United States where this staple is largely cultivated is called the “cotton belt," and includes nearly the whole of the states nained in the following tablo of acreage, or surface in acres growing cotton in each year from 1871 to 1877:

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The yield of cotton per acre varies from 100 to 250 lbs. The heaviest recorded pro. duction per acre for a series of years was in Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana. Half a bale to the acre is considered to be a good crop.

This great staple is by no means easy to cultivate, and the results of the crop are always uncertain. The plant loves the sun, and is easily damaged by a wet season or by an early frost. It has, also, many insect enemies, and is liable to diminution by insufficient culture. The planting of seed, beginning in Texas in February, is later as one goes northward, closing in North Carolina and Tennessee not before early in May. The seed, resembling a bean in its early growth, shoots up two green leaves, striking a tap-root deep into the earth, and growing in a few days 2 or 3 in, high. More leaves soon appear, and in about three weeks a process of plowing and cutting out the superfluous plants begins, leaving only 3 or 4 plants in a bunch, the bunches being from i to 2 ft. apart. The plowing is twice repeated, followed by the hoe, cutting out all the grass, and all the plants except one in a hill. What is known as the “stand” of cotton is of great consequence. Bringing to a stand and cutting out all the plants except one on a hill, gives additional growth, vigor, and productiveness to the remaining plants. The flower or bloom of the plant, white in the morning, and red in the evening, comes usually in June. The flower drops off after about 3 days, leaving a small ball which incloses the cotton wool. The shell finally bursts and the balls are ready for picking from the bush from Sept. to Dec., according to latitude, season, and time of planting. The ball is about the size and shape of the egg of the guinea hen. The balls are picked by hand and cast into large sacks loosely suspended from the shoulders. A good picker will gather from 150 to 200 lbs. per day. The next process is the ginning, or separating the fiber from the seed. This is done by passing the balls over a revolving apron and circular saw run at high speed to cut the fiber from the seed. The seed falls to the ground, and the fiber is blown from the gin into the picking room. The seed weighs nearly twice as much as the fiber. About one fourth of it is reserved for planting, and the remainder is sold for making oil. The fiber is then compressed by powerful presses into bales, and is ready for market.

The raising of cotton in the United States shows a steady and rapid increase. In 13 years before the rebellion there were 40,994, 419 bales produced; in 13 years following the war the product was 45,627.847 bales; and this in spite of the disturbance of labor in the cotton-raising states by emancipation and the extreme financial depression of the planters. The price of cotton from 1825 to 1877 inclusive is shown in the table below. The highest and lowest price for each year is given in cents. The figures from 1862 to 1877 represent United States currency, but those for the last year differ very little from gold:

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The cost of production and the price obtained in the market for the cotton crop raised in 1876 and sold in 1877 are thus stated. To avoid fractions, the sums are put in mills, or tenths of a cent.

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Average.........

Even at this small margin of six tenths of a cent on a lb. the crop of 1876 paid the planters a profit of nearly $12,000,000. The total value of crop at place of shipment is but a little less than $200,000,000 per year.

The home manufacture of cotton is one of the most important industries of the coun. try. The subjoined table shows the distribution of the manufacture by states, and into northern and southern groups. It gives the number of mills or factories, the number of spindles, and lbs. of cotton used in 1875.

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STATES. Mills. Spindles. Lbs. used.

STATES.

Mills. Spindles. Lbs, used. Maine... 638,944 33,603,236 Alabama....

58,480 6,756,170 New Hampshire. 815,709 57,326,126||Arkansas..

1,781 132,400 Vermont..... 46,344 2,372,420 Georgia ...

131,340 23,299, 303 Massachusetts... 206 3,775,634 208,894,352 Kentucky....

9,514 2,420,362 Rhode Island 129 1,438,479 61,409,470 Louisiana..

2,260 713,033 Connecticut. 889,784 45,492,513 Mississippi..

18,256 1,990,800 New York 615, 205 28,473,469 Missouri...

19,700 2,810,485 New Jersey.. 178,928 10.114.300 North Carolina...

54,500 9,671,028 Pennsylvania. 451,900 31,572,305 South Carolina..

55,384 6,701,718 Delaware.. 48,276 • 3,858, 162 Tennessee...

70,282 982,365 Maryland.. 20 127.352 21,368,020 Texas ..........

5,700 Ohio. 4 13,000 1,764,000 Virginia .......

54,624 5,560,835 Indiana.

22,988 3,261,340
Total South....

481,821 67,733,140 Total North....... 694 | 9,057,543 509,009,613 Whole country...

875 9,539,364 576,742,753

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This amount represents 1,242,080 bales.
In regard to the goods manufactured, the following figures will be interesting:

COTTON GOODS MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES—1875.

N. England Middle and Total Total Total Un'd

States. Western, Northern. So'thern. States.

Threads, yarns, and twines, lbs...
Sheetings, shirtings, and plain goods, yds..
Twilled and fancy osnaburgs, jeans, etc., yds
Print cloths, yds......
Gingham, yds.......
Ducks, yds.....
Bags, No......

45,000,000
540,000,000
180,000,000
640,000,000

30,000,000
12,000,000
8,000,000

19,000,000 64,000,000 19,000,000 91,000,000634,000,000 92,000,000 45,000,000 226,000,000 21,000,000 109,000,000 749,000,000

5,000,000 85,000,000 16,000,000 28,000,000 2,000,000 10,000,000

83.000.000 726, 247,000,000 749,000,000 35,000,000 28,000,000 10,000,000

The following shows the exports of raw cotton and cotton manufactures from the United States since 1835. Before that period our manufactures of such goods were comparatively unimportant. In both columns value is expressed in dollars, and not quantity.

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