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married when only 17 to M. Cottin, a Parisian banker, who left her a widow at the age of 20. From an early period she had exhibited a love of literature; and to cheer the solitude of her affliction (for she had no children), she now betook herself to the composition of verses, and even ventured on a lengthy history. But it was in fiction she was destined to win unfading laurels. In 1798, appeared Claire d'Albe; in 1800, Malvina; in 1802, Amélie Mansfield; in 1805, Mathilde; and in 1806, Elisabeth, ou les Exilés de Sibérie, a work which has been translated into most European languages, and has always been extraordinarily popular with the young. Madame C. died 25th Aug., 1807.

COTTLE: co., Tex. See page 893.

COTTLE, JOSEPH, 1774–1853; a publisher and bookseller of Bristol, England, and especial friend of Southey and Coleridge whose first poems he put before the public. He wrote poems himself, and a volume of reminiscences of the two poets named. His brother, who made a poor translation into English of the Norse Edda, lives only in Byron's sarcastic couplet in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers.

COTTON, an important vegetable fiber, extensively cultivated in various parts of the globe within the 35th parallels of latitude.

1. Botanical and Commercial Classifications.-C. is the produce of all the species of the genus gossypium, which belongs to the natural order malvaceæ, and is thus allied to mallow, hollyhock, hibiscus, etc., the general resemblance to wlrich is very apparent both in the foliage and flowers. The species are partly shrubs, partly herbaceous, and either perennial or annual; they are natives of the tropical parts of Asia, Africa, and America, but their cultivation has extended far into the temperate zones. They all have leaves with three to five lobes, which in a very young state are often sprinkled with black points, and rather large flowers, which are mostly yellow, but sometimes in whole or in part purple; the flowers very soon fall off; they grow singly from the axils of the leaves, and are surrounded at the base by three large, heart-shaped, cut or toothed, involucral leaves or bracts, partially growing together as one. The fruit is a 3 to 5-celled capsule, springing open when ripe by 3 to 5 valves, and containing numerous seeds enveloped in C., which is generally white, but sometimes yellow, and issues elastically from the capsule after it has burst open. Some of the other kinds have the flowers larger in proportion, and the leaves divided into more numerous and much deeper and narrower lobes, but the general appearance of all is very similar. Difference of opinion exists among botanists as to the number of distinct species, and there are very many varieties in cultivation, the number of which, through climatic influences and other causes, is continually increasing; but there are certain leading peculiarities on account of which some botanists and practical farmers reduce all, at least of the cultivated kiuds, to four primary species-viz., 1. Gossypium Barbadense; 2. G. herbaceum or Indicum; 3. G. Peruvianum; and 4. G. arboreum. The produce of the first species is the most valu. able. The beautiful long-stapled silky wool known as " sea island” is a variety, and is grown exclusively upon the islands and a portion of the mainland of Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida; the saline ingredients of the soil and atmosphere being indispensable elements of the growth. The plant bears a yellow flower, and the seeds are small, black, and quite smooth, and the wool is easily separated therefrom; but when sown far inland, away from the saline influences of the coast, the seeds increase in size, and become covered with innumerable short hairs. A large percentage of the crops raised in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, etc., are also varieties of this species, though, owing to climatic influences, the wool is shorter in staple, and less easily separated from the seeds than sea island. The commercial value of the latter kind varies from 18. to 38. per lb., rare specimens sometimes realizing 58. or 68. per lb. The better descriptions of Egyptian C. belong to G. Barbadense, and bring 18. to 28. 6d. per lb. in the Liverpool market. The short-staple varieties, known as New Orleans, Mobile, etc., sell at from 5d. to 10d., extra qualities sometimes bringing 18. per lb, G. herbaceum is found in India, China, Egypt, etc. The principal commercial varieties are those known as Surat, Madras, and short-stapled Egyptian. It is a small shrubby plant, bears a yellow flower, the seeds are covered with short grayish down, and the staple produced, though not long, is very fine. Its price varies from 3 d. to 9d. per lb. A variety is cul. tivated in the United States, and the C. known as nankeen is thought to belong to this species. G. herbaceum can be profitably cultivated in colder countries than any other species of C. plant. The third species is a native of South America, and the ** green seed” C. of the United States appears to be a variety. The stem reaches 10 to 15 ft. in height, the flowers are yellow, and the capsules contain 8 or 10 black seeds firmly attached together in a cone-like mass. The wool is long and strong-stapled, and in value stands next in order to sea island and long-stapled Egyptian. Maranham, Bahia, and Maceio are varieties which sell in Liverpool at from 8d. to 18. 2d. per lb. G. arboreum is found in India, China, etc., and, as its name imports, is a large tree-like plant. It bears a red flower, and produces a fine yellowish-white wool. Varieties of it have been long cultivated in the United States, and with the requisite soil and climate, are said to produce a wool somewhat resembling sea island.

2. Cultivation. The plant is a very delicate organism, and requires a peculiar soil and climate for its due development. The method of cultivation is much the same in the various countries where the fiber is grown; but the most perfect system is that which obtains in the United States of America. Although the plant is not, strictly speaking, an annual, it is found more profitable to destroy the shrub, after the crop is gathered. and sow new seed every year. The preparation of the land takes place during the win. ter months. After the ground has been thoroughly plowed, and as soon as all symptoms of frost have disappeared, the soil is laid off into rows varying in width from 3 to 4 ft., according to the situation and quality of the soil. The seed is then sown along the center of the beds in a straight furrow made with a small plow or opener; but in some plantations the seed is sown in holes from 12 to 18 in, apart. The sowing commences in Mar., and generally continues through April; but sometimes, owing to late spring frosts, the planting is prolonged to May. The young shoot appears above-ground in about eight to ten days, and is then and subsequently weeded and thinned. Blooming takes place about the beginning of June-in early seasons, towards the latter end of May; the average date is about June 5. As a general rule, C. is a dry-weather plant. For plowing, the planter requires just sufficient rain to give the soil a moist and spongy texture. During the early stages of its growth, the crop flourishes best with a warm steamy sort of weather, with an occasional shower until blooming; too much rain being productive of weeds and wood at the expense of wool, whilst a severe drought produces a stunted plant, forced into too early maturity, and resulting in a small and light-stapled crop. A great deal, however, depends upon the position of the plantation; lands situated in hilly or upland districts obviously requiring more moisture than those lying in the plains and river-bottoms. From the date of blooming to the close of the picking season, warm dry weather is essential. Picking generally commences in Aug., occasionally in July, and continues until the occurrence of frost-about the end of Oct. or beginning of Nov.-puts a stop to the further growth of the plant. All the available hands of the plantation, young and old, are called into full employment during the harvest. The C. is gathered into baskets or bags suspended from the shoulders of the pickers, and when the crop has been secured, it is spread out and dried, and then separated from the seeds. The latter process was formerly performed by hand-a tedious operation, by which one hand could clean only a pound or so a day; but since the invention of the saw-gin, by Eli Whitney in 1793, the process of cleaning has been both rapid and effectual. This machine is composed of a hopper, having one side formed of strong parallel wires placed so close together as to exclude the passage of the seeds from within. The wool is dragged through the apertures by means of circular-saws attached to a large roller, and made to revolve between the wires, the seeds sinking to the bottom of the hopper. This process is adopted only in cleaning the short-stapled varieties of American C., the seeds of which adhere so firmly to the wool as to require a considerable amount of force to separate them. The Sea island variety is cleaned by being passed through two small rollers, which revolve in opposite directions, and easily throw off the hard smooth seeds. In India, though the saw and other machine-gins bave been introduced in some districts, the wool is mostly cleaned by means of the primitive roller. Both descriptions of gins are used in Egypt and Brazil. The C. cleaned by the roller-gin, being uninjured thereby in staple, realizes the better price; but the deterioration caused by the saw-gin is compensated for by the greatly increased quantity cleaned; the latter turning out four or five times as much work as the former in an equal space of time, and thereby considerably reducing the expense cleaning. The introduction of improved gins has very largely increased the production of C. in Egypt and Brazil during the past 14 years.

3. Production and Distribution.—The oldest C.-producing country is India, in which empire the plant has been grown and manufactured from time immemorial. Early mention is also made of it in the annals of Egypt, and it is believed to have a high antiquity in all parts of Africa. In the western world, it was found by Columbus, but was not so extensively cultivated as in the east; though during the past half century the culture there has outstripped, both in quantity and quality, the produce of the old world. Down to the commencement of the present century, the C. consumers of Europe were dependent upon the East and West Indies and the Levant for their raw material; but the inventive genius, superior farming, and greater energy of the planters of the southern states of America, had, prior to the civil war, almost secured the monopoly of supplying the manufactures of Great Britain and the European continent with this valuable fiber. The average import of American C. into Great Britain in 1858–60 reached 79 per cent of the entire arrivals; during the war the proportion fell to 31 per cent; but in 1871, it rose to 58 per cent. We will glance briefly at the history of the trade of the chief C. growing countries.

United States. — The introduction of the plant is traced as far back as 1536, but the export trade did not commence until two and a half centuries later, the first shipment of importance being about 2,000 lbs. in 1770. In 1791, the amount reached 189, 316 lbs. In 1793, the invention of the saw-gin gave a new stimulus to the trade, and in 1800, the exports reached 17,789,803 lbs.; from which period the shipments have continued to increase, being over 124,000,000 lbs. in 1821; 277,000,000 lbs. in 1831; 530,000,000 lbs. in 1841; 927,000,000 lbs. in 1851; and about 2,160,000,000 lbs. in 1860. Simultaneously with this rapid increase in production, there was, down to 1851, a gradual decline in the price of the wool, in consequence of improved processes of cultivation and cleaning, and the cheapening of carriage, etc.; the average price in Liverpool, in 1793, being 18. 6d. per lb.; in 1801, 28. 22.; in 1811, 18. 24. ; in 1821, 9fd.; in 1831, 6d.; in 1841, 6fd.;

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in 1851, 54d. per lb. ; from which period, however, the downward course was not only checked, but a movement in the opposite direction commenced, the average for 1856-61 being 7d. per lb.; the low prices current having caused consumption to overtake production. The outbreak of the civil war in 1861, and its continuance until 1865, completely revolutionized the industry of the south. The abolition of slavery added materially to the cost of producing C.; and this circumstance, along with the general rise which has taken place in values of all kinds during the past 12 or 15 years, has raised the price at which it will pay to sell American Č. in Liverpool to nearly 8d. per lb., against an average of 7d. per Ib. for the five years ended with 1861. During the war, middling Orleans touched 28. 71d. per lb. In 1867 (Dec.), there was a decline to 7d. every one expecting a return of old prices; within a few months, there was a reaction to 18. 1d. Since then the tendency has been downwards: the average for 1875 being 7fd., against 8d. in 1874, and 9d. in 1873.

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Proportional Produce of Average Exports to

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BALES).

ACTUAL AND PROPORTIONAL, IN AVERAGE 'PERIODS OF FIVE YEARS EACH(EXPRESSED IN THOUSANDS OF
STATEMENT OF THE PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND AVERAGE PRICE OF FIFTY CROPS OF AMERICAN COTTON,

Great Britain.

France.
Other Foreign

Ports.

Total.

916

7758

Average Consumption of U. S.

(N. of Virginia only.)

Average Stock at close of Season.

cero

Total Average Deliveries.

Great Britain.

France.

Other Foreign

Ports.
Consumption

of
United States.

Deliveries.
Total Average

Proportional
Distribution of Price p. lb.

Crop.
of whole
Average

Five Years.

Last Year.

dioral

The figures between 1861-65 were disturbed by the war. Down to within a few years before the war, the bulk of the crops grown in the various states were shipped at the several ports of each state-Alabama C. at Mobile, Georgia C. at Savannah, and so on; but the more general introduction of railways has diverted a great deal of C. from the old channels. The increase under the head "N. Carolina and Virginia" is owing almost entirely to this cause. One of the most remarkable features in the last line of the above table is the large proportionate increase in the consumption of the United States. The particulars for three seasons, from 1872 to 1875, compare as follow.

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cents.

The following table is interesting as showing the wide fluctuations which have taken place in the exports of C. from the United States during the 12 years ending in 1871, expressed in millions of lbs. Average

Average Weight, Price,

Weight, Price, Ibs.

lbs.

cents, 1859-60... 1767.6 10.85 | 1865–66....

650.6 43.24 1860-61. 307.5 11.07 | 1866-67.

661.5 30.1 1861-62. 5.0 23.30 | 1867-68.

784.3 19.2 1862–63. 11.4 58.43 | 1868–69,

644.3 24.9 1863-64, 10.8 83.43 | 1869-70.

900.4 23.4 1864-65.. 6.6 86.58 | 1870–71.

1462.9 14.8

In 1871–72, there was a reduction to 933,000,000 lbs., owing to a failure of the crop. In 1874–75 the weight exported was about 1,178,700,000 lbs., or still considerably less than in the great crop season 1870–71.

East Indies. After the United States, the most extensive cotton-producing country is India. The plant is indigenous to the soil, and the culture and manufacture bave existed from prehistoric times. A century ago, the western world was almost entirely dependent upon the east for its C. goods, but within the past 100 years the order of things has been almost reversed. The mills of Lancashire are now in successful com. petition with the famed looms of India, and the natives of that vast empire find it cheaper to take our calicoes in exchange for their raw C., than it is to manufacture their own clothing. The first import of East Indian C. into Great Britain took place in 1783. The average receipts, from that year to 1792, were 65,550 lbs.; from 1793 to 1800, 2,223,039 lbs.; 1801 to 1810, 6,357,000 lbs.; 1811 to 1820, 24,016,805 lbs.; 1821 to 1830, 18,835,567 lbs.; 1841 to 1850, 79,815,403 lbs.; and 1851 to 1859, 23,017,310 lbs. In 1820, only 224 pounds-weight of cotton-yarn, and 14,191,177 yards of goods, were exported to India ; but in 1880, the figures, including shipments viâ Suez, were 44,000,000 lbs. yarn, and 1,670,000,000 yards of calico! It is impossible to ascertain the total amount of C. raised in India; but we may observe that the fiber is grown all over the peninsula, and is used for all the purposes for which we employ C., flax, wool, and mostly hemp. The following figures will give the reader some idea of the extent of the export branch of the trade; they also show the marvelous expansion incidental to the American war.

WEIGHT AND VALUE OF COTTON EXPORTED FROM INDIA.
lbs.
£
lbs.

£
1857..319,653,524..... 4,437,949 1866..803,150,424. 35,587,389
1860..345,953,569.. 5,637,624 1869..691,196,905.. 19,778,924
1863..473,678,421..... 18,779,040 | 1872..809,246,087.... 21,272,430

Prior to the American war, the supply of C. from India was merely supplementary to that from the United States. With a small crop in America, prices advanced, and the imports from India increased; but with a large American yield, prices drooped, and the receipts from India fell off; the surplus produce finding its way to China, or being consumed in the interior. This is in a measure still the case (as is shown in the above

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figures), though not to the same extent as formerly. By the introduction of improved methods of cultivation, cleaning, etc., the quality of Indian C. has been greatly improved; and it is now much more generally used than it was 12 or 15 years ago.

Brazil.—The C. trade of Brazil has undergone a most extraordinary development during the past 10 years, owing to the impetus given to the cultivation of the plant during the American war, and to the general adoption of the saw-gin in place of the roller-gin; this substitution of the American gin has produced quantity at the expense of quality; but the demands of fine spinners have been met by increased supplies from Egypt. "The subjoined statement shows the progress made by this branch of Brazilian trade:

IMPORT OF BRAZIL COTTON INTO EUROPE.
Bales.

Bales.
1831-35, average.
175,000 1861–65, average.

201,000
1841-45,
105,000 1866–70,

614,000
1851–55,

149,000
1871–74,

723,000

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Egypt.—The C. plant has been known in Egypt from time immemorial; but the trade, properly so called, was first introduced by the celebrated Mehemet Ali, about 50 years ago. The first exportation took place in 1821, and amounted to 944 cantars. During the seven years ending 1827, 1,011,697 cantars were produced, or 144,528 cantare per annum. In the next septennial period, there was a falling off, owing to the withdrawal of a large number of laborers to carry on the wars of the pasha in Soudan, etc., and Syria; the exports therefore only reached 900,521 cantars, or 128,646 per year. The transactions of the subsequent seven years show a considerable improvement, the total shipments being 1,498,042 cantars, and the annual average 214,006 cantars. During the years 1842–48, the total rose to 1,549,909 cantars, being an annual average of 221,415 cantars. Since then, the trade has continued to augment. The average shipments of the years 1849–59 were 473,282 cantars. The cantar is equal to 94 lbs., and there are about 54 cantars to the bale of the present (1873) average size; so that the exports in 1849–59 represented 86,000 bales per annum. In 1865, the shipments reached 406,000 bales; in 1875, they amounted to 347,000 bales—or 2,020,000 and 1,908,000 cantars respectively. Great Britain is the principal consumer of Egyptian C., after which comes Austria, then France. The following figures show the destination of the C. exported from Alexandria during the six years ending Sept. 30, 1875.

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Other Countries.-In addition to the districts just passed in review, C. is grown in numerous other countries. During the infancy of the trade our spinners received 75 per cent of the C. consumed from the West Indies, and the remainder from the Levant; with the great expansion of the culture in America, the supplies from the West Indies gradually fell off, the planters finding it more profitable to occupy their labor and capital in the production of sugar and other growths. Early in the present century, the imports into Great Britain from the West Indies averaged 80,000 bales per annum; but by 1858, the arrivals had dwindled to only 6,500 bales, of which only about 2,200 bales were from the West Indies, properly so called. Under the stimulus of the high prices which ruled during the C. famine, the supplies from miscellaneous sources-that is, from all countries except the United States, East Indies, Brazil, and Egypt-rose from 6,500 bales in 1858, and 9,800 in 1860, to 23,000 in 1863, and 131,000 in 1865. With the decline in prices, the import fell to 100,000 in 1868. There was an increase to 166,000 in 1872, owing to the high prices ruling in that year, but the increase was chiefly from Peru. Since that year, with a falling market, the import from “other countries” has annually diminished, being only 89,000 bales in 1875, against 166,000 in 1872, the decrease, like the previous increase, being principally in Peruvian. Twenty years ago, Peruvian cotton was almost unknown in the Liverpool market; in 1864, the imports reached 27,000 bales; in 1872, they amounted to nearly 105,000 bales; but in 1875 they fell to 56,000 bales.

4. Consumption.-Our remarks under this bead will be confined to Europe and the United States of America. An immense quantity of C. is consumed annually in India, China, and Africa, but there are no means of ascertaining even an approximation of the amounts so used. There are 11 spinning and weaving mills in Bombay, containing 404,000 spindles, and 4, 294 looms; and there are 8 mills in other towns of the presi

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