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COSTUMES (EUROPEAN).—1, 2. Students' dress (about 1500). 3. People of the upper-classes (about 15)
1560. 7, 8. German burgher and wife (1570). 9. Spanish nobleman (1580). 10. French lady
aves (about 1|10). 4. Participants in a wedding procession (1530). 5. Bride and bridegroom (1550). 6. Costume of
French lady (1590). 11. Italian (1590). 12. Hungarians. 13. Turk. 14. Russian (latter half of 16th century),
tion of the s. and the higher plains is occupied by heaths and woods, there are, here and there, fertile spots; and in the n. the influence of the neighboring sea is favorable to vegetation. The cultivation of flax and hemp, with pasturage and iron-mining, supply employment in the mountainous districts; while in the sheltered valleys and on the coast-levels all European kinds of grain, with pears and apples and other fruits, are produced; and maize is cultivated, but does not always ripen. The coasts are well sup. plied with various kinds of fish. The department is divided into the five arrondisse. ments of St. Brieuc, Dinan, Loudéac, Lannion, and Guingamp. The chief town is St. Brieuc.
COTESWOLD, or Cotswold Hills, a range of colitic and lias hills, running through the middle of Gloucestershire, from Chipping Camden in the n.e., by Cheltenham and Stroud, to near Bath in the s.w. They are parallel to the Avon and Severn, and separate the lower Severn from the sources of the Thames. They are 54 m. long, and in some parts 8 broad, and cover 312 sq.m., with an average height of 500 to 600 feet. The highest points are Cleave hill, 1134 ft., and Broadway hill, 1086 feet. The soil is a clayey loam, with gravel and stone-brash. The surface is generally bare, with little wood; corn, turnips, and sainfoin are grown, and coarse-wooled sheep fed on them. At Stroud, they are crossed by the Thames and Severn canal, and the Swindon Junction railway.
COTHEN, or KÖTHEN, an ancient t. of Germany, in the duchy of Anhalt, 22 m. s.w. of Dessau, and about 82 s.w. of Berlin, on a tributary of the Saale, and at the junction of railways from Berlin, Magdeburg, Bernburg, and Leipzig. The streets are broad, the town is neat and well built, is surrounded by high walls, and is divided into the old and new town. It contains a castle with three towers, several churches and schools, a synagogue, a library, a handsome railway station containing a gaming-house, and various charitable institutions. Sugar from beet-root is largely manufactured here. Pop. '80, 16,155.
COTHUR'NUS. See BUSKIN.
CO-TIDAL LINES, a system of lines on a globe or chart which show the movement of the ocean tidal waves. The lines mark the places of high water at the same moment.
COTIL'LON (Fr. under-petticoat), the name of a brisk dance, of French origin, performed by eight persons. The quadrille, which superseded it, is only a new variety of the cotillon.
COTINGA, Ampelis, a genus of birds of the family ampelidæ, or chatterers (q.v.), having a rather feeble and deeply cleft bill, and feeding both on insects and fruits. They are natives of South America, inhabit moist places, and are remarkable for the splendor of the plumage of the males during the breeding-season. Azure and purple are then their prevalent colors. During the rest of the year, they are clothed in a tame gray or brown.
COTONEASTER, a genus of plants of the natural order rosaceæ, suborder pomacem, having polygamous flowers; a top-shaped calyx, with five short teeth; five small, erect petals; erect, short stamens; and a top-shaped fruit, the nuts of which adhere to the inside of the calyx, but do not cohere in the center. The species are pretty numerous, shrubs or small trees; some of them evergreen; with simple undivided leaves, more or less woolly beneath; small flowers in lateral cymes; and small fruit not agreeable to the palate, but the bright color of which, and its remaining on the tree in winter, make them very ornamental. C. vulgaris is a deciduous species, a native of hills in Europe and Siberia, and said to be found wild in a single locality in Wales. C. tomentosa is also found in the Alps. Most of the species are natives of mountainous parts of Asia; they are sufficiently hardy for the climate of Britain, and have become among the most common of our ornamental shrubs. Some of them, as C. rotundifolia and C. microphylla - both from the n. of India-are much used for covering walls.
COTOPAX'I, the loftiest active volcano in the world, is in Ecuador, in the eastern chain of the Andes, and about 50 m. s. of the equator. Humboldt gave the height at 18,880 ft.; Reiss, the first to ascend it (in 1872), found it to be 19,500 ft. above the sea. The valley at its foot, however, is itself 9,000 ft. high. The upper part of C., a perfect cone of 4,400 ft., is entirely covered with snow, excepting that the immediate verge of the crater is a bare parapet of rock. Reiss estimated the crater, which is elliptical, as 1500 ft. in depth. ‘Below the snow is a well-marked barren belt covered with lichens and shrubs, below which again is forest. Smoke issues from the summit; sounds as of explosions are occasionally heard; and above, a fiery glow is often visible by night. Lava rarely flows even during eruptions, but flame, smoke, and immense volumes of ashes are then ejected; and when the heat melts large masses of the snow lying on the sides, destructive floods are occasioned in the valleys beneath. The first eruption recorded was in 1533. Others followed in 1693, 1743, 1744, and 1768, the most terrible of all. On the latter occasion ashes were carried 130 m. distance, and thickly
covered an extensive area. C. was quiet till 1851. In 1854, 1855, and 1856, there have again been eruptions. Whymper, 1880, gave the height as 19,600 ft.
COTRO'NÉ, a t. of Italy, in the province of Catanzaro, built on a point of land projecting into the sea, in lat. 39° 7' n., long. 17° 10' east. It is almost surrounded by the Esaro (ancient Æsarus), which here has its embouchure. C. is very strongly fortified. Its streets are dark and narrow, and its port of no importance; pop. above 7,000. C., however, possesses interest from its antiquity and its historic associations. It owes its origin to a colony of Acheans, as far back as 710 B.C., its ancient name being Croton or Crotona. It soon became prosperous, wealthy, and powerful. Its walls measured 12 m. in circumference, and the territory over which it extended its sway was considerable. Its inhabitants were celebrated for athletic exercises, and they carried off most of the prizes at the Olympic games. Milo was its most renowned athlete. Pythagoras settled here about the middle of the 6th c. B.C.; but the influence which, by means of a league of his formation, he exercised, became obnoxious to the citizens, and he was expelled. About 510 B.C., C. sent forth an army of above 100,000 men to fight the Sybarites, who were utterly defeated, and their city destroyed. The war with Pyrrhus completely ruined the importance of C., and in the 2d c. B.c. it had sunk so low, that a colony of Romans had to be sent to recruit its well-nigh exhausted population. It never afterwards recovered its prosperity. Some ruins belonging to the old, exist in the vicinity of the modern city, the most important of which is a Doric column, part of a once magnificent temple to Juno, on cape Colonne or Nau (the Naus of the ancients).
COTTA, the name of a very old German publishing-house, established at Tübingen in 1649, and still one of the most flourishing in Germany. The family came from Italy about the beginning of the 15th century. Its most prominent member was Joh. Friedr., Freiherr von C., a meritorious theologian of the 18th century.
Joh. FRIEDR., FREIHERR VON C., one of the most eminent publishers that Germany ever produced, was b. at Stuttgart, 27th April, 1764. He was educated at the university of Tübingen, and for some time practiced as an advocate. In 1787, he undertook to conduct the family book-trade at Tübingen; and in 1795, established the Horen, a literary journal, under the editorship of Schiller. In the same year, he commenced two larger periodicals, the Politischen Annalon and the Jahrbücher der Baukunde. In 1798, ne established the Allgemeine Zeitung-still published at Augsburg—the Almanach für Damen, and other works of a similar kind. C. now began to publish the works of the illustrious modern authors of Germany, such as Goethe, Herder, Fichte, Schelling, Jean Paul, Tieck, Voss, Therese Huber, Matthisson, the Humboldts, Joh. von Müller, and Spittler. Besides the periodicals already mentioned, C. established the Morgenblatt and the Literaturblatt, and carried on the Kunstblatt
, founded by Schorn. In 1810, he went to live at Stuttgart. The nobility of his family, which dated far back, was confirmed in his person under the title of Freiherr C. von Cottendorf. In 1824, he introduced the first steam-press into Bavaria, and, shortly after, founded at Munich the literary and artistic institute. He died 29th Dec., 1832. C.'s political principles were liberal, but temperate. In the diet of Würtemberg, and afterwards as president of the second chamber, he was always the fearless defender of constitutional rights. In manners, C. was simple and pure; and although covered with titles and orders from different governments, he had neither the pride por the selfishness of a hereditary patrician. The first Würtemberg proprietor who abolished servitude on his estates, C. also furthered the interests of his farmers by building model-farms, and by setting an example in all rural improvements.
COTTAGE, a small dwelling-house, detached from other buildings, and usually of one story in height. Originally applied to a humble order of dwellings in the country, the term C. now embraces a wide variety of structures, from the cottage orné of the French, to the simple but not unattractive cabin in the English rural districts, and the mountain chalet of Switzerland. In England, where universal security enables the people to establish dwellings in retired and picturesque situations, the building of cottages has been brought to great perfection; and it may be said with truth, that in no country in the world are there to be seen such a variety of beautiful cottages, scrupulously clean and neat in the interior, and ornamental exteriorly with flowers, shrubs, and bright green lawns. The different styles in which this class of houses may be built are well described in the elaborate work of J. C. Loudon, on Cottage Architecture. The subject of proper C. accommodation, as regards the laboring peasantry of England and Scotland, has lately engaged serious attention. See papers in the Transactions of the National Ax80ciation for the Promotion of Social Science. The best methods of keeping cows, pigs, poultry, bees, etc., are ordinarily described under the comprehensive title of C. economy. See Cobbett's Cottage Economy, also Chambers's Information for the People.
COTT'BUS, or Kott'bus, a t. of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, situated on the Spree, about 70 m. s.e. of Berlin. It is an ancient place, surrounded by walls, and it has an old castle with towers, a oyal alace, gymnasium, and manufactures of woolens, linen, leather, and tobacco. Pop. '80, 25,584.
COTTIN, SOPHIE, a very popular French authoress, was b. at Tonneins (Lot-etGaronne) in 1773. Her maiden name was Ristaud. Educated at Bordeaux, she was