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which are returned by universal suffrage. The congressmen are elected for four years, one half retiring every two years. The executive authority is in the hands of a president, elected in the same manner as the congress for four-year terms. He is assisted by two vice-presidents, elected annually by the congress. In recent years, there have been constant changes by revolutions and wars, so that few presidents have served their full terms. The administration is carried on by the ministers of justice and the interior, of public instruction and foreign affairs, of finance and commerce, and of public works. The latest estimate of the area of the republic is 26,040 sq. miles. There exist only vague estimates of the population, which is supposed to number from 180,000 to 190,000, but stated at twice as much in government returns. The exports of the country consist almost entirely of coffee. In 1883, there were in operation 3 lines (105 m.) of railroad, that between Limon and Punta Arenas now connecting the Atlantic and Pacitic oceans. At the close of June 1883, there were in all the country 542 m. of telegraph lines. The old weights and measures of Spain gave place to the French metric system about the year 1882. Normal schools were established in 1882.

Costa Rica is exceedingly fertile, its forests being filled with an immense variety of timber and useful dye-woods, such as mahogany, ebony, india-rubber, Brazil wood, and oak. Nearly all the fruits of the tropical and temperate zones thrive well, and flowering plants are in great profusion. Coffee, rice, maize, barley, potatoes, beans, and bananas are cultivated in the interior ; cocoa, vanilla, sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, and indigo on the warmer coast lands. In the forests are the jaguar, tapir, ocelot, puma, deer, and wild pig. Birds of all kinds, including the splendid quetzal or trogon, fill the woods. Among reptiles are the alligator, the iguana, and many other lizards, the bobo, the black-snake, and the rattlesnake. Among domestic animals, oxen and mules are the most valuable. There are no manufacturing industries worth noticing ; but the country is rich in gold, silver, copper, iron, nickel, zinc, lead, and marble, of which only gold, silver, and copper have been worked. The country is divided into the six provinces of San José, Cartago, Hérédia, Alajuela, Guanacaste, and Punta Arenas.

Costa Rica was one of the earliest discovered parts of America ; Columbus touched its shores on his third voyage. In 1821, when all the provinces which formed the kingdom of Guatemala declared their independence of Spain, two parties--one desiring union with Mexico under the dynasty of Iturbide, the other seeking to form a separate republic-divided opinions in the revolted provinces. In Costa Rica, the town of Cartago chose the former, and San José the latter. The opposing factions met, and the republicans were victorious, whereupon the seat of government was transferred from Cartago to San José. In 1824, Costa Rica joined the Central American confederation ; but that union was dissolved in 1839. In 1856, fearing for her own safety, the republic declared war against the filibuster William Walker, who had taken possession of Nicaragua. The Costa Rican forces, led by the president, Don Juan Mora, met Walker's troops under col. Schlesinger near Santa Rosa, routed them, followed them into Nicaragua, and, in conjunction with the forces of the other states, surrounded Walker in the city of Rivas, forcing his surrender to the commander of the United States sloop St. Mary's, under whose protection he left the country. On the 17th of Feb., 1872, the ministers plenipotentiary of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and San Salvador formed another Central American union, consisting of the independent republics named. The main objects of this union are to preserve the autonomy and integrity of Central American territory, to maintain the peace of the several states, to insure to each a republican form of govern. ment, to guarantee to every citizen full political liberty, and to promote progress, moral, intellectual, and material. Slavery was denounced, confiscation abolished, and the extradition of political offenders prohibited.

COSTE, JEAN JACQUES, MARIE CYPRIEN Victor, b. 1807, a French naturalist noted for researches in embryology, and for efforts toward the cultivation of fishes in his country. Mainly through Coste's influence, 600,000 salmon and trout were placed in the Rhone within two years. In 1862, he was appointed inspector-general of ihe river and coast fisheries. He had long been a member of the academy, and had published dissertations on pisciculture and embryology. He d, 1873.

COSTEL'LO, LOUISA STUART, a voluminous English authoress, was b. in 1815. Her first production, at least of any note, was Specimens of the Early Poetry of France (1835). but it was as a tourist she gained the greatest popularity. The works in which she describes her traveling trips are A Summer amongst the Bocages and the Vines (1840); A Pilgrimage to Auvergne, etc. (1842); Béarn and the Pyrenees (1844); The Falls, Lakes and Mountains of North Wales (1845); and A Tour to and from Venice by the Vaudois and the Tyrol (1846). Miss C. also wrote several novels, the principal of which are The QueenMother (1841), and Jacques Caur, the French Argonaut (1848). In 1853, she published a work of a professedly historical character, entitled Memoirs of Mary, the Young Duchess of Burgundy; and in 1855, another of the same kind, Anne of Brittany. Miss C. wrote in a very pleasant and picturesque style. She died in 1870.

COS'TER, LAURENS JANSZOON, according to the Dutch, the inventor of printing, was b. at Haarlem, about the year 1370. The time of the invention ascribed to him must have fallen between the years 1420 and 1426. C., at first for his own amusement and the instruction of his grandchildren, cut letters out of the bark of the beech-tree, which

Costume.

he inverted, and employed to print short sentences. Afterwards, he discovered a more glutinous kind of ink, which did not spread in using, and succeeded in printing with it entire pages, with cuts and characters. He also replaced his wooden types by types cast out of metal, at first using lead for this purpose, but afterwards pewter, which he found harder and more suitable. C., for a time, worked in secret, because, he being a sacristan, his art, if known, would have brought him into unpleasant collision with the manuscript writing clergy, whose productions he tried to imitate, even to the abbreviations; thus his name did not appear on the productions of his press. As custom increased, C. had to take apprentices; and one of them, a German, Johann, making use of the confusion occasioned by C.'s death in 1439, is said have purloined the greater part of his master's types and matrices, and to have fled to Mainz, where he brought ihe hidden art to light. This Johann was probably Johann Gänsfleisch, a member of the Gutenberg family. Such, at least, is the history of the invention of printing as given by the Dutch, and which they support by the testimony of Hadrianus Junius, the historian of the states of Holland, who, in his account of the discovery, states that, at the time he wrote, C.'s descendants were in possession of drinking-cups made out of the remains of the types which C. had used. Moreover, a celebrated printer of Cologne, Ulrich Zell, deceased about the year 1500, is said to have declared "that Gutenberg, his master, had derived his art from Holland, after the model of a Donatu8 printed there." Now, a Lonatus of C.'s time still exists; it was produced in 1740, by Johannes Enschede, also a celebrated printer of Haarlem; and no sooner had his discovery been made known in Meerman's Origines Typographico, than fragments of the same work appeared in such quantities, that no one could any more aver that this early monument of imperfect typography, mostly printed from indisputably Dutch types, had been struck off from Gutenberg's press. Gutenberg's works, even now, are models of impression; those ascribed to C., at first printed on one side only, are the first proofs of a beginner. Then, all the characters of the oldest Dutch printed books resemble the Dutch handwriting of the first half of the 15th c., a proof of the independent nature of the attempts towards imitating manuscripts for sale. Other evidences are given by the Dutch that C. was the true inventor of printing; the most eminent advocates of his claims being Meerman, Koning, Scheltema, "Van Westtreenen van Tiellandt, De Vries, Schinkel, Noordziek, Ebert, Leon de Laborde, Paul Lacroix, and Bernard. Yet the most thoroughgoing assault on the claims of C. and of Haarlem, as being founded on local legends, was made in 1870 by a Netherlander, A. von der Linde. In the town-house of Haarlem, the typographical remnants of the productions ascribed to C. are preserved. See PRINTING; and for the German account of the invention, GUTENBERG. As for C., his memory still is held in due honor by the town of his birth; the site of his house is still pointed out with pride; and monuments to his memory have been erected.

COSTILLA, a co. in s. central Colorado, w. of the Rocky mountains, and bordering on New Mexico, bounded on the w. by the Rio Grande del Norte; 2,000 sq.m.; pop. '80, 2,879, mostly Mexicans and Roman Catholics in religion, still dwelling in adobe houses. Stock-raising is the main business. Co. seat, Costilla.

COST MARY (i.e., cost, or aromatic plant, of the Virgin Mary), or ALE-cost, Balsamita vulgaris, a perennial plant of the natural order composite, sub-order corymbiferæ, a native of the s. of Europe, which has long been cultivated in gardens in Britain for the agreeable fragrance of the leaves. The root-leaves are ovate, of a grayish color, on long footstalks; the stem is 2 to 3 ft. high; the stem-leaves have no footstalk; the small heads of flowers are in loose corymbs, deep yellow. The leaves were formerly put into ale and negus, and are still used by the French in salads.

COSTRO'MA. See KOSTROMA.

costs, the technical name in English law for the expenses incurred in legal proceedings. As a general rule, the C. of the successful party are paid by the loser, but the rule is subject to important exceptions. 1. A party suing or defending in forma pauperis (to entitle him to which privilege he must swear that he is not worth £5), does not pay C., though he is entitled to receive them if successful. 2. In actions in which the plaintiff recovers damages under 40s., he is, in certain cases, not entitled to C., unless the presiding judge certifies that he ought to have them; and in all other cases, he is not entitled to them, if the presiding judge certifies that he ought not to have them. 3. A plaintiff who might have brought his action in the county court, is not entitled to C. if he sues in the Higher courts, and recovers not more than £5 in certain actions, or £20 in others, unless the judge who tries the case certifies that it was proper the action should have been brought in the higher court. 4. A party who is successful in the main, and therefore entitled to the “general costs,” may be unsuccessful upon some minor point, and therefore bound to pay the C. which belong properly to it. 5. A party who has tendered the amount recove

vered, and who pays the sum into court, and pleads the tender, is not bound to pay costs. 6. The payment of money into court in the course of an action relieves the party paying from C. of subsequent proceedings, if no greater amount be ultimately recovered.

C. formerly used to be given neither to nor against the crown, either in its fiscal, public, or private capacity; but by 18 and 19 Vict. c. 90, and 23 and 24 Vict. c. 34, thé crown is now entitled to C., and bound to pay C. in the same way as a private suitor.

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C. are taxed (i.e., the items allowed or disallowed) by the officer of the court appointed for the purpose under the name of the master. When so ascertained, they are, if in favor of the plaintiff, included in the amount for which judgment is given, if it be in his favor, and recovered as part of it. If they are in favor of the defendant, they are recovered as a judgment in his favor; and any party may have, if he chooses, his own attorney's or solicitor's bill taxed by the same officer before paying it, or even after payment in certain cases.

In criminal cases, the prosecutor's C. may be allowed by the judge, and in that case are paid out of the county rates, the county being reimbursed by the treasury.

In chancery suits, C. are, in the discretion of the court, given as a general rule to the successful party; but when the suit was properly instituted, and was of the nature of an administrative suit, C. are often given out of the estate.

C., in Scotland, are called expenses (q.v.). See also AUDITOR OF THE COURT OF SESSION.

COSTS (ante), in legal practice in the United States, are very much as in England, nearly all the states of the union having adopted substantially the statute of Gloucester, 6 Edw. I. c. 1. Statutes which give costs are not to be extended beyond the letter, but must be strictly construed. They do not extend to the government, and therefore when the United States is a party they neither pay nor receive costs unless by express provision of a statute. In equity, the giving of costs is entirely discretionary, as well with respect to the period at which the court decides upon them, as with respect to the parties to whom they are given. In the exercise of their discretion, courts of equity are generally governed by certain fixed principles.

COSTS in a Lawsuit. See EXPENSES.

COSTUME (Ital. costume; Fr. coustume, coutume, from Lat. consuetudo, use and wont) is another form of the word custom, and, in its wider sense, signifies the external appearance which the life of a people presents at a particular epoch of its history. In its narrower and more usual sense, C. signified the customary modes of clothing and adorning the person, in any particular age or country. In this sense, it includes the prevailing fashion in jewelry, weapons, and other personal equipments. In buth senses, C. plays an important part in art. The poet, more especially the narrative or epic poet, is compelled to resort to it as a means of carrying his reader back into the age which he describes. Homer has it constantly in view in narrating the exploits of his heroes. Amongst modern romance writers, sir Walter Scott has introduced the fashion of perhaps an excessive attention to mere external costume. But it is in art as presented to the eye, that C. becomes indispensable, and the loose and general treatment of it which is permitted to the novelist or the poet, is forbidden to the painter, the sculptor, and the player. How sorely the sculptor has been tried by the wigs and breeches of former generations, and by the trousers, straps, hats, and other monstrosities of our own, no one who has seen a statue of Frederick the great, or of the late sir Robert Peel, can require to be told. Two means, not of solving but of escaping from the difficulty, have been largely resorted to: the one consists in departing from the modern dress altogether, and reverting to the ancient toga; the other, in wrapping up the figure, as far as possible, in a cloak. The first of these devices is neither more nor less than a deliberate violation of what artists regard as the laws of C., by which they conceive themselves bound to represent every object with its appropriate accessories; the second, besides being very often open in a lesser degree to the same objection, has the further disadvantage of accomplishing its object very imperfectly. The wisest course for the artist is boldly to face the dificulty. That he may do so successfully, many of the works of Rauch, Tieck, Thorwaldsen, Schadow, and others abundantly testify. In the earlier stages of art, an excessive attention to C. may generally be remarked, which though useless, and sometimes hurtful to artistic effect, has proved of the greatest value for historical purposes. The tendency of the earlier schools of art to exhibit C. with an almost painful accuracy and minuteness, is exhibited in the works of the older masters, both of the Italian and German schools. Even during the period of the highest bloom of Italian art, the mediæval custom of representing historical, sacred, and ideal characters in the C. peculiar to the time and country of the artist, was in a great measure adhered to. From Paul Veronese, Tintoretto, and others, we may learn the aspect which a marriage-feast in the palace of a Venetian or Florentine grandee presented, but can form little conception of the C. of that simpler festivity in Cana of Galilee, or of that supper still less sensuous in Jerusalem, which they profess to reprcsent. In the hands of the greater masters, these scenes assume an ideal character; and in the works of Michael Angelo, Leonardo, and Raphael, C., though still exhibiting something of a native trace, rises into the highest regions of poetical conception. The effort to avoid anachronisms by a previous historical and antiquarian study of the subject, belongs, indeed, almost entirely to the modern European schools of art, and many painters of late have devoted themselves to it to such an extent as almost to forget that it is a means, and not an end, except, indeed, to a mere painter of clothes.

But it is in theatrical representations that attention to C., particularly in its narrower sense, becomes most imperative. When the stage, in western Europe, commenced in the religious mysteries of the middle ages, the dress adopted was that which belonged to the time and the country. To this dress some fantastical object was generally added

mere.

to indicate the character intended to be personated. In this position matters remained during the time of Shakespeare in England, of Lope de Vega and Calderon in Spain, and even of Corneille, Racine, and Molière in France. Whether a Greek, a Roman, an Assyrian, or a Turk, was represented, the ordinary court-dress of the time was adhered to, and the turban, the helmet, or the laurel-crown was placed on the top of the peruke or the powdered hair. In like manner, shepherdesses and peasant-girls had their hair dressed in turrets like feudal keeps, and long white kid-gloves which covered their hands and arms to the elbow. Towards the middle of the 18th c.., a reform was intro. duced by the famous actress Clairon, who acted Electra without hair-powder; but Talma was the first who introduced a C. really true to history. Garrick followed in the footsteps of the great Frenchman, though both he and Siddons, during their earlier period, personated the characters of Shakespeare in what has been called the rococo C.-kneebreeches and periwigs. Schlegel’s Hermann, and Goethe's Götz von Berlichingen, were the first plays which were given in Germany with historical costume. See Fashion.

COS'TUS, or Costus ARAB'ICUS, an aromatic much esteemed by the ancients, and concerning which great doubt long existed, but which seems now to be ascertained to be the dried root of Aucklandia costus, a plant of the natural order compositæ, sub order cynarocephala. It is a native of the moist open slopes surrounding the valley of Cash

The roots are there burned as incense. They have a strong aromatic pungent odor, and are employed in protecting bales of shawls from moths.

COS'WAY, RICHARD, a very noted painter in his day, was b. at Tiverton, Devonshire, in 1746. He early displayed a taste for painting, and between his 14th and 24th year carried off five premiums from the society of arts. As a miniature-painter, he was particularly famous, and gained all the patronage of the nobility of his time. His works, in fact, were the fashion, and all attempts at rivalry were useless. Many of them were distinguished by great delicacy, correctness, and beauty, and his drawings were not unworthy of a place beside some of the old masters. The immense sums of money which he made enabled him to live in the most sumptuous style, and to give musical parties (his wife, on such occasions, being the principal performer), so far surpassing all other efforts of the kind that they formed a feature of the time, and were attended by all the rank, fashion, and intellect of that day. •C. died in 1821.

COT, on shipboard, is an officer's hammock. It is made of canvas, in the form of a kind of chest, 6 ft. long, 24 wide, and 1 deep. This receptacle is kept out at full length by means of a square wooden frame. The bed or mattress is placed within the C.; and the arrangement is more comfortable than that of a sailor's hammock; but both are alike slung from the rafters or beams of the cabin.

COT-PIERRE, AUGUSTE. See page 893.

CÔTE-D'OR, a department in the e. of France, formed of part of the old province of Burgundy, in lat. 46° 55' to 48° 10' n ., long. 4° 2' to 5° 30' east. It has an area of 3,850 sq.m., with a pop. in 1881, of 380,548. The surface is in general rather elevated, and is traversed by a chain of hills forming the connecting link between the Cevennes and the Vosges. A portion of that range, called the Côte-d'Or (“golden slope”), receives its name (which it gives to the department) on account of the excellence of the wines produced on its declivities. See BURGUNDY WINES. A great part of the department is covered with forests. The valleys and plains are fertile, and there is good pasture. land; but agriculture is in a backward state. Côte-d'Or is watered by the Seine, which rises in the n. w., and by several of its affluents; by the Saone and by the Arroux, a tributary of the Loire. By means of canals, Côte-d'Or has water communication with the German ocean, Mediterranean, English channel, and bay of Biscay. The climate is temperate; iron, coal, marble, gypsum, and lithographic stones are found, the first in large quantities. Côte-d'Or, is divided into four arrondissements; viz., Beaune, Chântillon-sur-Seine, Dijon, and Semur, with Dijon for a capital.

COTES, ROGER, a scientific man of much promise, was b. at Burbage, near Leicester, July 10, 1682; but death cut him off on the high-road to fame ere he had attained his 34th year; not, however, before he had left some marks of his presence in the history of exact science. He was the author of the admirable preface explaining the Newtonian philosophy, and answering objections to gravitation, which was prefixed to the second édition (1713) of Newton's Principia. Various mathematical papers of his own, tending greatly to the development of logarithms, were published after his death. Short as his life was, his influence on mathematics is clearly traceable. He was held in the highest esteem by the scholars and scientific men of his time; and sir Isaac Newton is asserted to have said of him that, had he lived, we should have known something."

COTES-DU-NORD (northern coasts), a department in the n.w. of France, forming a part of Bretagne, and bounded n. by the English channel, in which are several small islands belonging to Côtes-du-Nord; lat. 48° 3' to 48° 57' n., long. 1° 53' to 3° 35' W.; area, 2,650 sq.m.; pop. '81, 619,632. The Armoric hills, called also the Montagnes Noires, and the Menez mountains, cross the department from e. to west. They have a breadth of about 16 m., and consist chiefly of granite and clay-slate. These formations give a rude and broken aspect to the coasts. The chief rivers, which are short but navigable, are the Rance, Gouet, Trieux, Guer, and Arguenon. The southern district has the advantage of a considerable length of the canal between Nantes and Brest. Though a great por

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