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an explanation, anything but satisfactory, and a promise from C. to be silent for the future on that subject. His views were of the kind known as semi-Arian. For the rest, C. was a vigorous antagonist of the freethinkers of his time; in opposi. tion to Dodwell, he sought to demonstrate the immortality of the soul from the idea of an immaterial being. He died May 17, 1729. His most famous work is Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God (Lond. 1705); connected with it in subject is his Verity and Certitude of Natural and Revealed Religion (Lond. 1705). At the instigation of the princess of Wales, who was inclined to the doctrines of Leibnitz, C. entered into a keen correspondence with that philosopher on space and time, and their relations to God, on moral freedom, etc. This correspondence was published under the title of Collection of Papers which passed between Leibnitz and Clarke in the years 1715 and 1716 (Lond. 1717). In his ethical disquisitions, he seeks to find a foundation for moral obligation in a peculiar principle, which he calls the fitness of things, or the relations of things established from eternity by God. He published a valuable edition of Cæsar (Lond. 1712); that of Homer (Lond. 1729-46) was completed by his son. A colllected edition of his philosophical works appeared in 4 vols., Lond., 1738–42.
CLARKE, WILLIAM, 1770-1838; a native of Va., appointed by Jefferson second lieut. of artillery, and ordered to join the Rocky mountain expedition which left St. Louis in Mar., 1804. To Clarke's thorough knowledge of Indians and their habits the success of the expedition was mainly due. In 1813, he was appointed governor of Missouri, and held the office until the state organization was completed. In 1822, he was made superintendent of Indian affairs, which office he held until his death.
CLARKE, WILLIAM T. See page 883.
CLARKE'S FORK, or CLARKE's RIVER, formed by the junction of Flathead and Bitter-root rivers, in Montana, and flowing n.w., joining the Columbia river almost exactly on the line between the United States and Canada; length, about 650 miles.
CLARKSON, THOMAS, an eminent philanthropist, the son of a clergyman, master of the free grammar school at Wisbeach, Cambridge, was b. in that town, Mar. 28, 1760. He studied at Cambridge university, and was led to beccme the promoter of the anti-slavery agitation in Great Britain by a Latin prize-essay which he wrote in 1785, on the question, "Is it right to make slaves of others against their will?” An English translation, on being published, had an extensive circulation, and C. resolved to devote his life to a crusade against African slavery. Associations were formed, and, besides visiting the principal downs of England, and even going to Paris, in the cause, C. published numerous essays, pamphlets, and reports on the subject. Mr. Wilberforce, M.P., whose co-operation 0. had secured, took the lead in the anti-slavery agitation, and in 1787 brought the subject vefore parliament. On Mar. 25, 1807, the law for the suppression of the slave-trade passed the legislature, and C. subsequently wrote a History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slace-trade, 2 vols. 8vo., 1808. On the formation of the anti-slavery society, in 1823, for the abolition of slavery in the West Indies, C. became one of its leading members, and saw the object of its efforts attained in 1833. He took an active part in other benevolent schemes, particularly in establishing institutions for seamen in seaport towns, similar to the sailors' homes. He was in deacon's orders in the church of England, but manifested great liking for the society of Friends, although he never joined them. He died Sept. 26, 1846.
CLARKSVILLE, a village in Montgomery co., Tenn., on the Cumberland river, and the Memphis and Louisville railroad, 48 m. n. of Nashville; pop. 3,880. It is a shipping point for tobacco, and the center of a large trade in that article.
CLARKSVILLE : Va. See page 883.
CLARY, Salvia sclarea, a plant of the same genus with sage (q.v.), a native of Italy and other southern countries of Europe, and which has been cultivated in British gardens from a very early period for its aromatic and other properties. It is a biennial, about 2 ft. high, with clammy stem, large, heart-shaped, rough, and doubly crenate leaves, and whorls of pale-blue flowers in loose terminal spikes, with large colored bracteæ. The seed is generally sown in spring, and the plants flower in the second year, C. is antispasmodic and stimulating. It has an odor resembling that of balsam of tolu, and is used for seasoning soups, and in confectionery for flavoring. Its flowers are used for making a fermented wine, esteemed for its flavor.-A British species of salvia (S. verbenaca) is sometimes called wild clary.
CLASSICS. The term classici was originally asplied to those citizens of Rome that belonged to the first and most influential of the six classes into which Servius Tullius divided the population. As early as the 2d c. after Christ, it is applied figuratively by Gellius to writers of the highest rank, and this mode of designation has since been very generally adopted both in literature and art. Most nations have had at some one time a more than usual outburst of literature, and they usually style this the classical period of their literature, and its most distinguished writers their classics. But as the great productions of the writers and artists of antiquity have continued to be looked upon by moderns as models of perfection, the word C. has come to designate, in a narrower sense, the best writers of Greece and Rome, and “classical” to mean much the same as ancient.”
CLASSIFICATION, the act of forming into a class or classes; a distribution into groups, such as classes, orders, families, etc., according to relations or affinities. Arti
ficial C. is an arrangement based on principles adopted without reference to natural relations, or in ignorance of thein. Natural C. is an exhibition of systematic order as found in nature.
CLASSIS, in the Reformed church of Holland (and thence brought to America) the name of an ecclesiastical body, corresponding to a presbytery. The C. hears appeals from the consistories, which are the official boards of local churches, and the synod hears appeals from the Classis. The C. also confirms and dissolves pastoral connections, ordains and deposes ministers, and sends delegates to the local and general synods.
CLATSOP, a co, in n.w, Oregon, on the Columbia river and the Pacific ocean; 1100 sq.m.; pop. '80, 7,222. The soil is good, and timber is abundant. Co. seat, Astoria.
CLAUDE, St., a t. of France, in the department of Jura, romantically situated at the confluence of the Bienne and Tacon, 25 m. s. of Lons-le-Saulnier. The town originated in an abbey erected here in the 5th century. The abbey enjoyed extensive privileges, including a very oppressive one-viz., that a year's residence on the abbey-lands made a peasant a serf. Serfdom continued down to the revolution. St. C. has a fine cathedral, and manufactures of cotton and paper; and musical-boxes, snuff boxes, toys, . and fancy articles of horn, bone, etc., are largely made. Pop. '81, 7,000.
CLAUDE, JEAN, 1619-87; a French Protestant preacher and controvertist, professor of theology in the Protestant college at Nimes. He had a long controversy with Bossuet and Arnauld concerning the eucharist. On the revocation of the edict of Nantes he fled to Holland, and preached at the Hague until his death.
CLAUDE LORRAINE (properly named CLAUDE GELÉE), a celebrated landscapepainter, was a native of Lorraine, and b. in 1600. A relative, who traveled as a lacedealer, took C., when still a boy, to Italy, but deserted him in Rome. However, he soon found employment in grinding colors and doing other menial services for Agostino Tassi, a landscape-painter, from whom he gained some knowledge of art. He next studied under Godfrey Waals at Naples, and after some time spent in wandering through various portions of Europe, he finally settled at Rome in 1627. The demand for his pictures rapidly increased, and he received numerous commissions. C. died of gout in 1682.
C.'s landscapes are found in the chief galleries of Italy, France, Spain, and Germany, and in particular England, which, according to Dr. Waagen, contains 54 paintings by Claude. Four of his best works—the landscapes known as “Morning,” “Noon,"; “Evening,” and “Twilight'-are in the royal gallery at St. Petersburg. The painting on which C. himself set the highest value is the “ Villa Madama.” He kept it as a study, and refused to sell it, even when pope Clement IX. offered for it as much gold coin as would cover the canvas. As C.'s paintiags have always commanded very high prices, many copies and imitations have been imposed on buyers. This was the case even during the artist's lifetime; for he set high prices on his works. In order to stop the fraudulent trade carried on in his name, he collected the sketches of his pictures in 6 books, to which he gave the title Libri Veritatis. They are now in the library of the duke of Devonshire.
C. was an earnest, indefatigable student of nature, and possessed great invention. No one could paint with greater beauty, brilliancy, and truth the effects of sunlight at various hours of the day, of wind or foliage, the dewy moistness of morning shadows, or the magical blending of faint and ever-fainter hues in the far horizon of an Italian sky; but it has been affirmed-especially of late-that his conception is often artificial, couventional, and positively untrue, and it must certainly be admitted that his introduction of pseudo-Greek architecture into modern scenery is in the very worst taste. His figures are, in general, such inferior accessories, that he was wont to say he made no charge for them when he sold his pictures. In his private character, C. was amiable and very generous. See illus., RAPHAEL, ETC., vol. XII., p. 426, fig. 6.
CLAUDET'S FOCIM'ETER, an instrument for ascertaining the coincidence or noncoincidence of the chemical and visual foci in portrait or landscape combinations of lensos. It consists of eight fans or equal segments of a circle, arranged spirally round a horizontal axis; they are white, and numbered from one to eight with black figures, and, when in use, are so placed as to be all seen together from the lens. The method usually adopted in testing a lens is to focus with great accuracy the fan numbered 4, and take a photograph of the instrument, in which, if No. 4 be the sharpest and best defined, it is a proof of the coincidence of the chemical with the visual focus; if, how. ever, No. 3 should be sharper, the lens has been under-corrected; if No. 5, the lens has been over-corrected, in the former case, the lens must be turned more towards the ground glass, and in the latter further from the ground glass.
CLAUDIA'NAS, CLAUDIUS, a Latin poet of Alexandria, lived in the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th century. He wrote first in Greek, which appears to have been his native tongue (though he was originally of Roman extraction); but, as Gibbon says, he “assumed in his mature age the familiar use and absolute command of the Latin language; soared above the heads of his feeble contemporaries; and placed himself, after an interval of 300 years, among the poets of ancient Rome.” His poems brought him into such reputation that, at the request of the senate, the emperors Arcadius and
Honorius erected a statue in honor of him in the forum of Trajan. The productions of C. that have come down to us, consist of two epic poems, The Rape of Proserpine, and the incomplete Battle of the Giants; besides panegyrics on Honorius, idyls, epigrams, and occasional poems. C. displays a brilliant fancy, rich coloring, with variety and distinctness in his pictures; but he is often deficient in taste and gracefulness. A good edition of his works was published by Gesner (Leip. 1759), more recently by Doullay (Paris, 1836). An English translation was executed by A. Hawkins (Lond., 2 vols., 1817).
CLAU'DIUS I., TIBERIUS, a Roman emperor, the youngest son of Nero Claudius Drusus, step-son of the emperor Augustus, was b. at Lyon 10 B.C. He was naturally sickly and infirm, and his education was neglected, or left to be cared for by women and freedmen. His supposed imbecility saved him from the cruelty of Caligula; but C., in his privacy, had made considerable progress in the study of history, and wrote in Latin and Greek several extensive works now lost. After the assassination of Caligula, C. was found by the soldiers in a corner of the palace, where, in dread, he had concealed himself. The 'prætorians carried him forth, proclaimed him emperor, and compelled his recognition by the senate and many citizens who had hoped to restore the republic. By his payment of the troops, who had raised him to the throne, C. gave the first example of the baneful practice which subjected Rome to a military despotism under the succeeding emperors. The first acts of his reign seemed to give promise of mild and just government, but in the year 42, when a conspiracy against his life was detected, his timidity led him to yield himself entirely to the guidance of his infamous wife, Messalina, who, in concert with the freedmen Pallas and Narcissus, practiced cruelties and extortions without restraint. C. meanwhile lived in retirement, partly occupied in studies, and expended enormous sums in building, especially in the famous Aqua Claudia (Claudian aqueduct). This great work occupied 30,000 laborers during eleven years. Abroad, the armies of C. were victorious. Mauritania was made a Roman province, the conquest of Britain was commenced, and some progress was made in Germany. After the execution of Messalina, another woman equally vicious and more cruel, Agrippina (q.v.), married the emperor, and destroyed him by poison 54 A.D., in order to secure the succession of her son Nero. After his death, C. was deified.
CLAUDIUS, MARCUS AURELIUS GOTHICUS, the second of the Roman emperors named Claudius, b. in the first half of the 3d century. He had great military ability. Decius gave him command of an army, and Valerian appointed him general on the Illyrian frontier, and ruler of the provinces of the lower Danube. When Gallienus died, he was chosen emperor', it is said at his own request.
CLAUDIUS, MATTHIAS, 1743–1815; a German poet known also by the nom de plume of “Asmus." He wrote for the Wandsbecker Bote (a weekly publication), a great number of poems which suited the popular taste and were everywhere repeated and admired. In his later years, he became devout, and gave up light verses to translate the works of St. Martin and Fenelon. His most popular song is the Rhine-wine song, still often heard at festivals in Germany.
CLAUDIUS CÆCUS, APPIUS, of the 4th c. B.C.; a Roman patrician and author. While censor he achieved some radical constitutional changes." He filled senatorial vacancies with men of low birth, and when his nominations were rejected he continued, in defiance of long established custom, to hold his office, even although his colleague had resigned. He also held on to the censorship for five years in defiance of the law which limited the term to a year and a half. In many ways, he invaded the traditional rights of the patricians and elevated the lower classes. He built a road and an aqueduct and gave them his own name, a thing before unheard of; and these public works have kept his memory down to our times. In 307, he was elected consul, but bis military triumphs were unimportant. He was blind and tottering with age when Cineas, the minister of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, visited Rome to make a treaty; but the fiery eloquence of Claudius so discouraged Cineas that he quickly gave up the work, and the Romans forgot their recent misfortunes in the patriotic appeals of the aged consul.
CLAUDIUS CRASSUS, APPIUS. See APPIUS CLAUDIUS CRASSUS.
CLAUSEL, BERTRAND, a French marshal, was b. at Mirepoix, in the department of Ariège, Dec., 1772, and entered the army at an early age. He commanded a brigade in the Italian campaign of 1799; was made a general of division of the army of the north in 1802; and distinguished himself in the campaign of 1809 against Austria. The chief field of his fame, however, was Spain, where, after the battle of Salamanca, July 22, 1812, he succeeded Marmont in the command. He conducted the very difficult retreat from Portugal with the greatest circumspection, having to sustain a succession of battles. Although he had fought for Napoleon to the last, Louis XVIII., on his first restoration, named him inspector-general of infantry. When Napoleon again landed in France in 1815, C. immediately declared for him, was made a peer, and received the command of the army of the Pyrenees. On the return of the Bourbons, he was declared a traitor, but escaped to America; was condemned to death in his absence, but was subsequently permitted to return to France; and in 1830, after the July revolution, he
received the command of the troops in Algeria, and made a successful expedition over the Atlas range into the province of Titeri, for which he was made marshal of France. Some misunderstanding, however, soon led to his recall; but he was again appointed governor-general of Algeria in 1835. After the disasters that befell the French arms before Constantine in 1836, and which were attributed in great part to him, he returned to France and defended himself-though not quite successfully—both from the press and the tribune, against the attacks made upon him. C. died at Secourrieu (Haute Garonne), 21st April, 1842.
CLAUSEN, HENRIK NIKOLAI, b. 1793; a Danish statesman and theologian, professor of theology in the university of Copenhagen, editor of the Periodical for Foreign Theological Literature, and author of a number of religious works. He was president of the provincial diet in 1842–6, and two years later a member of the constituent assembly, and one of the privy council. He was also one of the signers of the Danish constitution. In 1851, he resigned from the cabinet, but retained his seat in the diet. He d. 1877.
CLAUSENBURG. See KLAUSENBURG,
CLAUSEWITZ, KARL VON, 1780–1831; a Prussian soldier and author. In 1806, he was adjutant to prince Augustus, and was captured by the French. After the restoration of peace he acted as maj.gen. of staff, and as military instructor to the crown prince of Prussia, and to prince Frederick of the Netherlands. In the Prussian army he served with distinction; and in the campaign of 1813 he was a staff officer under Blücher. He wrote the history of that campaign. In 1818, he was made maj.gen, and director of the military academy, and in 1831, chief of the general staff of Gneisenau's army on the Polish frontier. His works are good authority on military science and history.
CLAUSIUS, RUDOLPH JULIUS EMANUEL, b. 1822; in 1855, professor in the poly. technic institute of Zurich; in 1867, professor in the university of Würzburg, and in 1869, professor at Bonn. His mathematical calculations based on the dynamical theory of heat, intended to show the scientific necessity of a Creator and the possibility of miracles, have attracted much attention.
CLAUSTHAL. See KLAUSTHAL.
CLAVAGEL'LA, or CLUB-SHELL, a genus of lamellibranchiate mollusks of the same family with aspergillum (q.v.), of which fossil species were first known to naturalists, but existing species have also been discovered. These mollusks inhabit holes, which they excavate for themselves in rocks or in masses of coral, and the ordinary form of the bivalve shell is curiously modified; one valve being fixed to the inner surface of the chamber in which the animal lives, and the other free and capable of motion on its hinge within that chamber, whilst the shelly substance of the fixed valve is continued without interruption into a tube extending from the chamber outwards. The young mollusk is supposed to make its way into the rock by excavating this tube, but whether its excavations are accomplished by mere mechanical means, or by the aid of some chemical sol. vent, is still uncertain.-Fossil clavagellæ have not been found in any strata older than the supracretaceous group.
CLAVA'RIA, a genus of fungi of the division hymenomycetes, subdivision clarati. The spores are produced equally on all parts of the surface. The species are numerous, some of them simple and club-shaped, some branched. Some are natives of Britain. C. botrytis, a species common in oak and beech woods in Germany, growing on the ground among moss, grass, heath, etc., is gathered when young, and used as food, hav. ing a very agreeable sweetish taste. It ceases to be edible when it becomes old. Another German species, C. flava, which grows on sandy ground in fir-woods, is used in the same way. Other species appear to possess similar properties, and Liebig found them to contain the saccharine substance called mannite. C. botrytis is the keulenpilz, and C. flava the ziegenbart (goat's beard) of the Germans. See illus., Mosses, ETC., vol. X., p. 250, fig. 23.
CLAVERACK, a village and township in Columbia co., N. Y., on the Iludson and Chatham railroad, 4 m. s.e. of Hudson ; pop. 1880, 4347. Here are the Hudson river collegiate institute, the Claverack academy, and important manufactories.
CLAVICLE, or COLLAR-BONE, a bone which, in conjunction with the scapula (q.v.) or blade-bone, forms the shoulder. It derives its name from the Latin word clavis, in consequence of its resemblance to the key used by the Romans. As reference to the figure shows, it is placed horizontally at the upper and lateral part of the thorax, immediately above the first rib, and it articulates internally with the upper border of the sternum (q.v.) or breast-bone, and externally with the acromion process (or highest point) of the scapula.
Its chief office is to keep the shoulders well separated and steady, and to afford a fulcrum by which the muscles (the deltoid and great pectoral) are enabled to give lateral movement to the arm. Accordingly, it is absent in those animals in which the moveinent of the fore-limbs is only backwards and forwards in one plane) for the purpose of progression, as in the pachydermata, ruminantia, and solidungula; while it is present in all quadrumana and in those of the rodentia in which the anterior extremities are used for prehension as well as motion, as the rat, squirrel, and rabbit; and in the cheiroptera and insectivora, as the bat, mole, and hedgehog. In the mole it occurs in the form of a cube, being very short and broad, and of extreme length. In many of the carnivora (the cat, for example), the C. is present in the rudimentary form of a small bone suspended (like the hyoid bone in the neck) amongst muscles, and not connected either with the sternum or with the scapula. In birds, where great resistance is required to counteract the tendency of the enormous pectoral muscles to approximate the shoul. ders, the clavicles are large and united at an angle in the median line (just above the anterior end of the sternum) into a single bone, anatomically known as the “ furculum," but popularly recognized as “the merry-thought.” In this class of animals, additional, and even more efficient, support to the anterior extremity is afforded by the extension of the coracoid process of the scapula into a broad thick bone called the “ coracoid bone” (q.v.), which extends to the sternum. It is unnecessary to trace the various modi. fications which this bone presents in reptiles and certain fishes.
In the human subject, the C. being exposed to the full force of blows or falls upon the shoulder, and not being easily dislocated in consequence of its being well secured at both ends), is very frequently broken.
Ossification takes place in the C. earlier than in any other bone, commencing as early as the 30th day after conception, according to Beclard; and at birth it is ossified in pearly its whole extent. Mr. Humphrey (in his admirable Treatise on the Human Skeleton) suggests that the early ossification of this bone is a provision on the part of nature to prevent it from being fractured at birth in case of difficult labor.
Much in portant anatomical and physiological matter in connection with this bone will be found in Humphrey's work above cited, and in a memoir which he has recently published in the transactions of the Cambridge philosophical society; in Owen, On the Nature of Limbs; and in Struthers, Osteological Memoirs, No. 1, The Clavicle.
CLAVICOR'NÉS (Lat. club-horned), a great family of coleopterous insects, of the section pentamera, distinguished by the club-shaped termination of the antennæ, which are longer than the maxillary palpi. Most of the beetles of this family feed on animal substances, and many of them, and particularly their larvæ, find their appropriate food in substances undergoing decay. It contains many genera, divided into groups (tribes), histeroiles, silphales, dermestini, etc. Burying beetles and the bacon beetle may be mentioned as examples of it.
CLAVIGE RO, FRANCESCO SAVERIO, a Mexican historian, was b. in Vera Cruz, South America, about 1720, and entering the order of the Jesuits, was educated as an ecclesi. astic. Sent as a missionary among the Indians in various parts of Mexico, he lived among them for 36 years, and made himself fully acquainted with the languages, traditions, and antiquities of the aboriginal tribes. On the suppression of the Jesuits in South America by Spain, in 1767, Č. sailed for Italy, and with others of his brethren had the town of Cesena assigned to them by the pope as a place of residence, where he died Oct., 1793. He wrote in Italian a History of Mexico, a comprehensive and valuable work, of which an English translation by C. Cullen was published in 1787, in 2 vols. 4to.
CLAY (Ang, Sax, clag; of the same root as clag, claggy), a term applied, in a vague way, to those kinds of earth or soil which, when moist, have a notable degree of tenacity and plasticity. The clays are not easily distinguishable as mineral specics, but they all appear to owe their origin to the decomposition of other minerals, and to consist chiefly of alumina in combination with silica and with a certain amount of water. See ALUMINA, SHALE, LOAM, PIPE-CLAY, KAOLIN, etc. Common C., when, from the large proportion of alumina which it contains, it is sufficiently plastic, is of great use for making bricks (q.v.), tiles, etc.
C. is used by sculptors and others engaged in the production of works of plastic art, as a means of adjusting the form which is to be given to their work, in the harder or more enduring substance of which it is ultimately to be composed. As modeling C. is apt to crack in drying, it must be kept damp by sprinkling water over it, and covering it with a wet cloth when the artist is not engaged in his work.
CLAY Soils derive their character from the alumina which they contain in a state of mixture, as well as in chemical combination with other substances. Some soils contain as large a proportion of alumina as 40 per cent, but generally the proportion is much smaller. The feldspar which chiefly yields the alumina of clay soils contains also soda and potash, substances essential to vegetables, and which tend to render clays fertile whep under cultivation. The physical characters, however, of the different varieties of clay soils arising from the varying proportions of silica, and other substances mixed with the alumina, are chiefly concerned in their relative fertility. Calcareous matter exercises a considerable influence on their powers of producing crops.
In Scotland, clay soils are chiefly found on the coal-measures, the bowlder-clay, and as alluvium in the valleys. Those derived from the coal-measures are generally unkindly, being tenacious and difficult to labor. In the eastern counties, these are usually farmed on a five or six course shift, according to their quality. In the western, the moister climate is less suited for cultivating them to advantage, and dairy husbandry usually prevails where they are found under culture. The clay soils derived from the bowlderclays are also generally coarse and inferior in quality. The richest clay soils are found along the margins of the rivers, and go under the name of carse clays, which have already