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ridges, between which run a number of small rivers. Much of the province is still woodland, and wild boars infest the original forests. Iron, silver, copper, and coal are found. There is a moderate degree of agriculture. The chief town is Corunna,
CORVEI (Corbeia Nova), a Benedictine abbey on the Weser, near Höxter, the oldest and most famous in early Saxony, founded in the beginning of the 9th century. It was a colony from the monastery of the same name in Picardy, then part of the country of the West Franks. It received rich endowments; was the center of great agricultural improvement and prosperity during the earlier part of the middle ages; and the seat of a school, founded by Ansgar, the apostle of the north, which flourished greatly in the 9th and 10th centuries, and was next in reputation to Fulda. Its abbots were numbered amongst the spiritual princes of the German empire. In 1794, it was made a bishopric by Pius VI. Its territory then extended to about 22 sq.m., with 10,000 inhabitants. In 1803, it was annexed to Nassau, from which it was transferred in 1807 to Westphalia, and in 1815 to Prussia. In 1822, the lands belonging to the ancient abbey passed into the hands of count Victor Amadeus von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rothenburg, which were formed into a mediate principality of the Germanic empire. The church of the abbey is built in the Gothic style, very magnificently adorned in the interior, and contains a multitude of monuments of successive dynasties. The library and archives of the cloister, which contained most valuable records of the early ages of German history, have all been destroyed-the authenticity of the Chronicon Corbejense, an alleged record of this abbey from its foundation to the end of the 12th c., being doubtful.
CORVETTE', is a flush-decked vessel, ship-rigged, but without a quarter-deck, and having only one tier of guns. See illus., Navy, vol. X., p. 440, tig. 2.
COR'VIDÆ, a family of birds of the order insessores, tribe conirostres, having a strong bill, compressed towards the point, and covered at the base with stiff, bristly featliers, which advance so far as to conceal the nostrils. The plumage is dense, soft, and lustrous, very generally dark, but sometimes of gay colors, more particularly in the tropical species. The birds of this family are widely diffused over the world. They are generally birds of strong and rapid flight; some of them are solitary, some gregarious in their habits; some reside in woods, some in moors and wastes, some on seacoasts, etc. They are very omnivorous. They are also remarkable for their intel. ligence, their prying curiosity, and their disposition to pilfer and secrete glittering articles. Besides the crows, raven, rook, and jackdaw, which belong to the genus corous, the magpie, jay, chough, and nut-cracker are included among the C. of Britain.
CORVINUS, MATTHIAS. See MATTHIAS CORVINUS.
COR'VO, the most northerly of the Azores, is the smallest among the inhabited islands of the group. It measures only 6 m. by 3, the latitude of its southern point being 39° 42' north. It is of volcanic origin, and has, in an exhausted crater, a small lake 1277 ft. above the sea. With a fertile soil and a delicious climate, C. contains barely 1000 inhabitants, and these generally poor.
CORVUS, M. VALERIUS, a general of the early Roman republic, b. about 370 B.C. He was twice dictator and six times consul, and occupied the curule chair 21 times. He defeated the Gauls, the Volsci, the Samnites, the Etruscans, and the Marsi. He lived to be 100 years old.
COR'WEN, a t. in North Wales, in the n.e. of Merionethshire, situated on the right bank of the Dee, 10 m. w. of Llangollen. It' is sheltered by a rock at the foot of the Berwyn mountains. Pop. of parish '80, 3,000. Here the Welsh under Owen Gwynedd defeated Henry II., and afterwards under Owen Glyndwr defeated Henry IV.
CORWIN, THOMAS, 1794–1865; b. Ky.; a lawyer, practicing in Ohio, where his eloquence soon made him politically prominent. He was a leading member of the whig party, and a member of congress in 1830. In 1840, he was chosen governor of his state; in 1845, elected to the U. S. senate, where he made a powerful speech against the proposed war with Mexico. In 1850, he was secretary of the treasury; in 1858, again a member of congress; and in 1861, minister to Mexico. He was a man of great force of character.
CORYBANTES, priests of Cybele, in Phrygia, who celebrated her worship by dressing in full armor and performing loose dances to the music of flutes and cymbals. It is said that under the influence of the music and the dance they became insane, and were supposed to be possessed by spirits. In Rome the priests of Cybele were called Galli.
CORYDAL'IS. See FUMARIACEÆ.
CORYELL, a co. in central Texas on Leon river; 960 sq.m.; pop. '80, 10,924—385 colored. The surface is rolling or hilly, with timber-land and prairie. Stock-raising is the principal business. Co. seat, Gatesville.
CORYGAUM', an insignificant village in the presidency of Bombay, is historically interesting in connection with the final subjugation of he Peishwa of the hrattas. On 1st Jan., 1818, it was defended for nine hours by a mere handful of men under capt. Staunton against a oative force numbering at least 3,000 infantry and about 20,000
cavalry, the struggle terminating in the repulse of the assailants after terrible slaughter, C. stands 16 m. to the n.e. of Poona, in lat. 18° 39' n., and long. 74° 8' east.
CORYLA CEÆ. See CUPULIFERÆ.
COR'YMB, in botany, a form of indefinite and centripetal inflorescence, in which the flowers are arranged as in a raceme (q.v), but the ver flower-stalk are elongated so as to bring the flowers almost to the level of those of the upper. The C. is a very common form of inflorescence.
CORYMBIF'ERE. See COMPOSITÆ.
CORYM'BUS (Gr. korumbus), the particular mode of dressing the hair among the Greeks, with which the statues of Venice have rendered us familiar. The hair was often covered with a sort of open ornamental work.
COR'YPHA. See FAN PALM, GEBANG PALM, and TALIPAT PALM.
CORYPHÆ'US (from Gr. koruphe, a summit), the leader of the chorus in ancient Greece. The name is now used to signify those of the highest distinction in any art or science. In the Italian opera the choir-leader is called the corifèo; in French, coryphée.
COR'YPHENE, Coryphæna, a genus of fishes of the family scomberidæ, to which the name Dolphin, properly belonging to a genus of cetacea, has by some mistake been popularly transferred. The coryphenes are remarkable for the beauty and metallic brilfiancy of their colors, which delight the spectator as they are seen gliding with extreme rapidity near the surface of the water, gleaming in the light of the sun; and the changes of which, as they lie dying on the shore or on the deck of a vessel, have acquired a pecu. liar poetic celebrity. They have an elongated compressed body, covered with small scales, the head rising in a sharp crest, the mouth large. They are natives of the seas of warm climates, and some species are found in the Mediterranean, among which is the C. hippuris, the largest known, attaining a length of 5 feet. This and some of the other species are often seen playing around ships; and great interest is occasionally awakened by their pursuit of shoals of flying fish. In this chase, a C. may be seen to dart completely out of the water, making a leap of 10 yards or more. Capt. Basil Hall likens the velocity to that of a cannon-ball
. The C. is often caught by sailors, with a glittering bit of metal instead of a bait.
COS (more anciently Meropis), an island of the Grecian archipelago belonging to Asiatic Turkey. Its modern name is Stanko or Stanchio. C. has a length of 23 m., with a breadth of 5, and a pop. of from 20,000 to 30,000, the half of whom are Greeks: the other half being Turks and Jews, who congregate in the towns. On the eastern side of the island a range of hills extends along the coast, from cape Fonka on the n., to point Korkilo on the s.; but with this exception, C. consists mostly of delightful and fertile plains, which are well cultivated. S. of these plains, on which stands the principal town, of the same name as the island, rises a high mountain range, which, from its jagged summit, is called mount Prion—the “ sawing" mount, or sierra. There are many mineral springs on the island. The exports consist principally of raisins, lemons, salt, and grain. They amount annually to about £50,000. The chief imports are oil, soap, butter, butcher-meat, and English manufactures. The climate in general is pretty healthy. Many ancient Greek remains are scattered over the island. The chief town, Comopolis or Cos, is situated on the n.e. coast. It is built on the ruins of the ancient city of the same name; and in the center of the chief street is a gigantic palm-tree, said to have stood there before the Christian era. To the n.w. is an old fortress of the knights of St. John. The harbor is small, with only about 6 ft. of water in it. The inhabitants are employed chiefly in agriculture. Modern Greek is the language spoken. In early times C. was sacred to the worship of Æsculapius. It was the birthplace of Ptolemy Philadelphus, of the painter Apelles, and the physician Hippocrates.
COSCIN'OMANCY, a species of divination practiced from the earliest times by means of a sieve (Gr. koskinon) and a pair of shears or forceps. It appears to have been chiefly employed for the discovery of thieves. The sieve was supported or suspended by means of the shears, in some way not easily understood; a certain mystical form of words was then used, and the names of the suspected persons being mentioned in succession, at the name of the thief the sieve moved or turned round.
COSENZA, a province in Calabria, s. Italy, between the gulf of Tarento and the Mediterranean; 2,841 sq.m.; pop. 440,468. The region is mountainous, being traversed by the Apennines down to the sea. The vine, the olive, silk, and fruits are cultivated.
COSEN'ZA, a t. of Italy, capital of the province of the same name, about lat. 39° 20' n., long. 16° 15' east. It is situated 12 m. e. of the Mediterranean, in a mountaininclosed valley at the confluence of the Crati and the Busento, the waters dividing the town into two parts. The lower town is much affected by malaria arising from the river marshes, but the upper town is tolerably healthy. It is the residence of the principal families, and contains some handsome buildings, including a cathedral, and an unusually fine court-house. The streets generally are narrow and crooked. C. has considerable industry, the principal articles of manufacture being silk, earthenware, and cutlery, Pop. 1881, 16,686. Anciently, C., called Consentia, was a city of the Brutii.
captured by the Carthaginian general Himilco, and was forced to surrender (204 B.c.) to the Romans, who afterwards colonized it. Alaric the Goth died here 410 A.D., and is buried in the bed of the Busento. Area of province (formerly called Calabria Citra), 3,000 sq.m.; pop. '81, 451,271.
COSGROVE, HENRY, D.D. See page 893.
COSHOC'TON, a co. in central Ohio, on the Muskingum river and its tributaries, traversed by the Ohio canal, and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati and St. Louis railroad; 516 sq.m.; pop. '80, 26,640. The surface is hilly, and the soil is generally productive; wheat, corn, oats, butter, and wool are the chief productions. Co. seat, Coshocton.
CO-SINE, CO-TANGENT, etc. See TRIGONOMETRY.
COS'MAS, surnamed Indicopleustes, a merchant of Alexandria, who lived in the middie of the 6th c., and after having traveled much, returned to Egypt, where he spent the evening of his days in monastic retirement, and wrote a Christian Topography in 12 vols., in the Greek language, containing much information about many countries, and particularly about India. . An attempt to reconcile everything to his notions of the meaning of the Bible has led him into many errors. The work (which, among other things, gives the first account of the Monumentum Adulitanum, see ADULE) has been edited by Montfaucon in the Nova Collectio Patrum Græcorum, vol. ii. (Par. 1707). C. wrote also a description of the plants and animals of India, which was published by Thevenot in his Relations de Divers Voyages Curieux, vol. i. (Par. 1666).
COSMETICS (Gr. kosmeo, I adorn) are chemical preparations employed for improving the appearance of the skin and hair. Several of the C. in use are comparatively harmless, such as perfumed starch and chalk; whilst others, such as pearl white (the subni. trate of bismuth), are more or less poisonous, and dangerous to use. At all times, the employment of C. is not to be commended, as the minute particles tend to fill up and clog the pores of the skin, and prevent the free passage of gases and vapors, which is so essential to the preservation of any animal organ in a thorough state of health.
COSMO DE' MEDICI. See MEDICI.
COSMOG'ONY (Gr. kosmos, the universe; gone, generation) is the (so-called) science of the formation of the universe. It is thus distinguished from cosmography, which is the science of the parts of the universe as we behold it (a science embodied in the work of Humboldt, entitled Cosmos), and from cosmology, which reasons on the actual and permanent state of the world as it is. Geogony, which confines itself to the formation of the earth, and speculative geology, are but subdivisions of cosmogony.
Cosmogonists proper may be divided into two classes-the theistical, and the pantheistical. According to theistic C., the world of matter and order sprang at once into existence at the Omnific fiat. The chief speculations from this point of view, have of late been regarding the date, if the expression may be used, of the world's formation, and, looking to the facts of geology and astronomy, the precise condition of the cosmos when evoked; how much, in short, of the evolution, since the date, is attributable to the operation of secondary causes. The pantheists hold the universe, on the other hand, to be the very body and being of Deity, and as such to have been from all eternity. God is all things, and all things are God-a conclusion reached from pure à priori reasoning, and that seems to exclude all further inquiry.
Men of science, in modern times, stopping short of an actual C. or genesis of the world, have pushed their inquiries into the order of development of its present state, which they, or at least some of them, aver to have taken place from the first by the divine power exercised in the manner of natural law. They assume the existence of matter; and with them there is no proper beginning of things, but an eternal round, 'under fixed laws of growth and decay.
In cosmogonical speculations, heat, air, atoms with rotatory motions, numbers—all in turn have had the honor of being recognized as the fountain and causes of things. Latterly, there has been a tendency to dynamical hypotheses, not only of the formation of our own rotating globe, but of our system, and of all similar systems in space. Of these, the chief is that of Laplace, founded on observation of the mutual relations of the planets, their common direction in rotation and revolution, their general conformity to one plane, etc.; taken in connection with such facts as the rings of Saturn and the fundamental unity of the asteroids. Thus arose the Nebular Theory (q.v.), which at one time had a support from sir William Herschel's observations on the nebulæ; of which, however, the discoveries by lord Rosse's telescope in a great measure deprived it. Following up this view of a formation of the globes by natural causes, there have been speculations as to the commencement and progress of organic life upon them by similar means: these are to be found in the Philosophie Zoologique of Lamarck; the Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation; and in the work of Charles Darwin on the Origin of Species by a Principle of Natural Selection; all of which involve great differences of view among themselves, though all meeting in one point-an assimilation of the processes of creation to the ordinary natural course of things presumed to be arranged and conducted by the Deity.
COSMOG'ONY (ante), properly denotes the science of the world's formation, but, in the absence of knowledge, is applied to theories on the subject and even to mythical accounts. The views of the ancients in regard to it may be comprised in three classes.
1. That the world is eternal both in matter and form. Aristotle taught that heaven and earth, inanimate substances and living beings, had no beginning, but were the eternal effect of an eternal cause. Yet he believed that that cause was a spiritual substance; that God is an intelligent spirit, incorporeal, indivisible, immovable, the mover of all things; and that the world is an emanation from him rather than a creation by him. 2. That the matter of the world is eternal, but not its form. Asserting that from nothing nothing could come, many felt compelled to maintain that the world has always existed in some form. Yet the many evident changes equally compelled them to deny that any one form was eternal. The first forms, as they said, had a succession of vari. able movements which became regular by chance. The Greek poets, following the old mythological views, represent the universe as coming forth from chaos and darkness, without the action of God. Some philosophers ascribed all things to an infinity of atoms or indivisible particles, having form, size, and weight, existing from eternity, moving by chance, combining into a variety of substances, and changed in the progress of time into the present organization of things. The Stoics attributed the origin of all things to two principles which they called God and matter, yet regarded them both as corporeal, as they did not admit the existence of spiritual beings. 3. The third theory ascribes the origin of the world to a great spiritual creator. There are traces of it among the Etruscans, Magi, Druids, and Brahmans, who probably derived it by tradition from a primitive revelation. It was, to some extent, received among the Greeks and Romans. It is especially the doctrine of the Scriptures, which teach it with the supreme design of exhibiting the wisdom and power of God rather than or setting forth, with what we call scientific exactness, the modes and processes by which the worlds were formed. They employ common language as that which the most scientific and the most uncultured alike understand and use. And although their main design is not to teach physical science, yet, considered as the word of God, whenever they do speak concerning his works, they must speak the truth. That the harmony between the word and the works may appear, it is necessary that both should be fully understood. If either or both be incorrectly interpreted, contradictions necessarily appear. In the past, the interpretations of both have been either absolutely false or only imperfectly true. But as biblical and physical science, each in its own line, advance towards perfection, the harmony between them is seen to be great and wonderful.
The account at the opening of the Bible, as at present understood, sets forth the following points. 1. That the matter of the world had its origin in the beginning" by the action of God. The word bara, translated “create,” is used three times in the narrative, at its great transition points, with reference to the original matter, of animal life, and of man endowed with spiritual life; in all other instances, where processes of formation only are implied, another word, asah, translated “made," is used; and at the close both are joined together: 'God created to make." 2. Matter in its primitive state is said to have been “without form and void ;" both words have substantially the same meaning-empty, and by the repetition signify very empty; thus they supply the tit description of gaseous matter. 3. It is said that darkness prevailed unbroken.° 4. That motion was imparted to the mass. The root of the word te-hom signifies, revolving or circular motion, and the form of it denotes that which such motion has been imparted. 5. The action of God's power on the mass. 6. Light diffused through the mass as one of the first results of motion. 7. Separation of light from darkness. Light, wherever existing, is called “ day," and darkness, wherever remaining, is called night. This marked off the first period. 8. The second period was distinguished by the formation, not of a“ firmament" (as the English translation has it, from the Latin firmamentum, and that from the Greek Otepewa, all describing the heaven as a solid sphere), but of an erpanse, as Moses says, giving a good expression for the atmosphere expanded around the world. The great idea of the second period's work is division or separation. This follows from motion as certainly as light. “The vast primitive nebula of the first period breaks up into masses, and these are concentrated into stars." 9. To the third period two works are assigned: (a) The formation of the material globe of the earth. The main fact expressed is the condensation of matter into the solid globe and its liquid covering. The result is given without any statement of the process. (b) The introduction of vegetable life as the connecting link between inert matter and animal life. An outline of the system is given once for all at the origin of it. 10. At the fourth period, the sun, moon, and stars appeared as within the earth's atmosphere, to give light to the earth; to divide its day from its night; and to govern its seasons, days, and years. These were not formed in the fourth period, but then appeared, the original light of the earth hav. ing declined sufficiently to make them visible within its atmosphere. 11. The fifth and sicth periods unfold the successive creation of the various tribes of animals wbich people the water, the air, and the land, “in the precise order indicated by geology.
In the fifth the water-animals were created, marine monsters and birds; the sixth (the third period in the era of life) was distinguished (as the third in the era of matter had been) by two works: (a) the formation of the higher animals that live on the land, and (b) the creation of man. For the former, the word employed is “God made.” The word "create" hav. ing been used to describe the beginning of animal life, all the modifications of it are described only as “made." But the second work of the sixth period was the introduction of a higher order of life, consequently it is said, God "created” man in his image
12. The creative and formative works of the six periods are followed by the seventh, the period of God's resting from them both. That this is still in progress is indicated in the record by no evening being assigned to it, as had been to all of the six, and in the universe by its being simply upheld in existence without the creation of any new worlds or new orders of creatures. And as the Scriptures, at the beginning, declare the fact of God's resting from the work of formation, so, at the close, they announce that the work is to be resumed. He that sitteth on the throne said—“Behold, I make all things new." These six periods of work the account calls “days.” For a long time it was assumed, without reflection, that they were only 24 hours long. Consequently when, by examination of the rocks and strata of the earth, scientific inquirers were brought to believe that its formation had been continued through a very long period, there was an apparent and startling contradiction between the new science and the Bible. But the account in Genesis nowhere limits the length of the periods. It uses the Hebrew word yom (to which the English word “day” corresponds) in six different applications. 1. As meaning light, in opposition to darkness or night, without reference to duration. 2. The day of 24 hours--the period of the rotation of the earth, indicated by the apparent rising and setting of the sun and stars. 3. The illuminated portion of these 24 hours, as distinguished from the dark, making the earth's day and night. 4. The cosmogonic day, the length of which is the question to be determined. 5. The sum of the whole six of these periods——" in the day that the Lord God made the heavens and the earth.” 6. The seventh day, without being yet ended, has already been as long as the whole number of years since the earth and heaven were made ready for man—that is, according to the lowest computation, nearly 6,000 solar years. Moreover, the account does not determine how long the interval was between “the beginning" and the origin of light, or that between the successive periods of work. If, therefore, the strata of the earth certainly show that they have been formed during a very long period of time, what is there in the Mosaic account that is inconsistent with thein? The views on the scientific side of the subject presented in this article have been either taken from the published writings of prof. Arnold H. Guyot or confirmed by comparison with them.
COSMOS. See COSMOGONY.
COSNE, a t. of France, in the department of Nièvre, and on the right bank of the Loire, here crossed by a suspension bridge. It has iron manufactures. Pop. '81,6,000.
COS SACKS (Russ. Kasak), a race whose origin is hardly less disputed than that of their name. The latter has been variously derived from words meaning, in radically distinct languages, an armed man, a saber, a rover, a goat, a promontory, a coat, a cassock, and a district in Circassia.” The C. are by some held to be Tartars, by more to be of nearly pure Russian stock. The most probable view is that they are a people of very mixed origin. Slavonic settlers seem to have mingled with Tartar and Circassian tribes in the regions to the s. of Poland and Muscovy, in the Ukraine and on the lower Don; and to have given to the new race, first heard of as Cossacks in the 10th c., a predominantly Russian character. On the conquest of Red Russia by Poland, numerous Russian refugees fled to the Cossack country; and more on the Tartar conquest of Muscovy. The numbers of the C. were also recruited from time to time by adventurers or fugitives from Poland, Hungary, Wallachia, and elsewhere; but in physique, as in language and religion, the C. have always been mainly Russian. They distinguished themselves in war against Turks and Tartars, and were known as a powerful military confederacy in the 15th century. The kings of Poland and the czars of Muscovy employed them largely to defend their frontiers, especially against nomadic neighbors; but the connection between the C. and their lords paramount was always very elastic, and was frequently repudiated to suit the convenience of either party. The C. are still the outposts of Russian authority towards Siberia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus. Living near, or as “ free Cossacks” amongst, hostile peoples, the C. developed their peculiar military organization-either forming a cordon of military settlements along the confines of occupied territory, or as isolated camps in the nomad country beyond. Agriculture they eschewed: self-reliance and readiness at all times for defense or assault were their chief characteristics; though such of them as inhabited the banks of the Don and Dnieper, and their islands, became and still are skillful boatmen and fishers. Their political constitution was completely democratical; all offices were elective for one year only; and every Cossack might be chosen to any post, includ. ing the supreme one of Attaman or Hetman. This organization they have in great measure retained, though the office of Hetman was abolished by the emperor Nicholas, except as a title hereditary in the imperial family. There have been two main branches of the C.-the Malo-Russian and the Don Cossacks. To the first belonged the Zaporogian C., those dwelling near the Porogi or falls of the Dnieper. From them again are descended the Tschernomerian C., those of the Kuban valley and of Azov. From the Don C. spring those of the Volga or of Astrakhan, of the Terek valley, of Orenburg, of the Ural, and of Siberia. They furnish a large and valuable contingent of light cavalry to the Russian army, and are very patient of fatigue, hunger, thirst, and cold. The Don C. give name to a province with an area of nearly 60,000 sq.m., and a population of over a million inhabitants (of whom 20,000 aro