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at flow-tide, vast openings foam in the water, immense bodies of water tumble headlong as over a precipice, then rebounding from the abyss, dash together and rise in spray to a great height. The noise is heard over the isles around. The water is smooth for half an hour in slack-water.
CORRIGAN, MICHAEL A., D.D. See page 893.
CORRUGATED IRON (Lat. ruga, a wrinkle). Common sheet-iron, and what is improperly called "galvanized iron” (i.e., sheet-iron coated with zinc by immersion in a bath of the fused metal), have of late been made available for many useful purposes, by virtue of the great additional strength imparted to the sheets by corrugation, which is merely an application to metallic substances of the old contrivance of “goffering or crimping,” by means of which the frills of the olden time were made to keep their shape.
The sheets of metal are passed between rollers, the surfaces of which are formed into rounded grooves and ridges, the ridges of one roller filling the grooves of the other. The metal in passing between these is compressed into a waving form, or corrugated. It will be easily understood that a piece of sheet-metal, of given size and thickness, if rolled up to form a tube, will resist a much greater bending strain than when flat. Now the curves of the corrugation may be regarded as a series of half-tubes, and the additional strength is due to the application of the same principle. See STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Walls and roofs of temporary buildings are now exten. sively made of this material. Railway sheds, emigrants' houses, temporary churches, store-rooms, and sheds for dock-yards, etc., are among the common applications. Mr. Francis, of New York, has applied the principle to the construction of light boats, the strength of which, and their power of resisting violent blows, such as boats are subject to on landing through a surge, is said to be remarkably great. On this account, they are proposed to be used for life-boats, ships' boats, etc. They are made by stamping the metal in enormous dies, of the shape and size of the boat, and grooved for the required corrugations. Small boats thus constructed require no internal bracings, the requisite rigidity and strength being given entirely by the corrugations.
CORRUPTION OF BLOOD. See TREASON.
CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT. The laws relating to bribery, treating, and undue influence at elections of members of parliament, were consolidated and amended by 17 and 18 Vict. c. 102 (10th Aug., 1854), which was continued and amended by 21 and 22 Vict. c. 87 (2d Aug., 1858). Both of these statutes were further continued tiil 10th Aug., 1860, by 22 and 23 Vict. c. 48 (13th Aug., 1859); and till 10th Aug., 1861, by 23 and 24 Vict. c. 99.
Additional legislation on this very troublesome subject has been attempted in almost every session of parliament. See PaRLIAMENT.
CORRY, a city in Erie co., Penn., an outgrowth of the great petroleum speculation, situated at the crossing of the Atlantic and Great Western, and Philadelphia and Erie railroads, and at the terminus of other roads in the oil region; pop. '80, 5,277. There are manufactories, and general business; but its establishment and prosperity are due to the discovery of oil, or petroleum. It was chartered as a city in 1866.
COR'SAC, Canis or Cynalopex corsac, an animal of the dog family (canida), found in the deserts of Tartary and in India. In size, it resembles a small fox, but is more slen. der in body and limbs; it has long and pointed ears, a bushy tail, and is of a reddish or yellowish color; the form of the head resembles that of the fox. It lives in large communities, burrows, prowls during the day, and not during the night like foxes, and is believed to feed chiefly on birds and their eggs, but not to object even to insect food. There are several Asiatic species closely allied to this.
CORSAIR (Ital. corso, a race), a pirate or sea-robber, but generally limited in its application to the pirates who in former times sailed from Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and the ports of Morocco, and were the terror of merchantmen in the Mediterranean and the neighboring parts of the Atlantic ocean.
CORSEʼLET was the body-covering of pikemen. The C. was made chiefly of leather, and was pistol-proof.
COR'SICA, an island in the Mediterranean, separated from the island of Sardinia by the strait of Bonifacio on the s., and situated in lat. 41° 20' to 43° n., and long. 8° 30' to 9° 30' east. It forms the French department of Corse, and has an area of 3,350 sq.m., with a pop., in '81, of 258,440. The greater portion of the island is occupied by ranges of rugged mountains, the highest being Monte Rotondo (ancient Mons Aureus), 9,068 ft. high, and covered with perpetual snow. There are several rivers in the island, the largest of which, having their source in Monte Rotondo, are the Tavignano (ancient Rhotanus) and the Golo (ancient Tavola). They flow into the sea on the e. coast; the Golo is navigable for boats. Several small rivers, most of which are dry in summer, flow westward into the sea. The soil is generally fertile in the valleys, yielding all kinds of cereals, and much wine is produced. Olive, orange, fig, almond, and other
fruit-trees flourish; fruit forming a considerable item in the exports. But C. is chiefly celebrated on account of its magnificent forests of oak, pine, chestnut, beech, larch, cork, etc. Many of the pines are upwards of 120 ft. high, and are much used for masts in the French navy. The chestnut forests are particularly fine, and the fruit serves as an important article of food for the inhabitants. Prickly pear, arbutus, myrtle, etc., abound. Iron, lead, black manganese, antimony, marble, and granite of beautiful quality, are found on the island, but these sources of wealth are not developed. Sheep of a pecu liar black breed, with four and occasionally six horns, goats, and pigs are numerous. and the rearing of cattle is carried on to a great extent. Tunny, pilchard, and anchovy abound along the coast. C. is divided into the five arrondissements of Ajaccio, Bastia, Calvi, Corte, and Sartene. Ajaccio is the capital. The language spoken in C. is a cor. rupt Italian. The Corsicans are great improvisatori; valor, love of freedom, and desire of revenge are their principal characteristics.
In early times C. was known as Cyrnos, although its native name is said by some historians to have been the same as that it now bears. As early as 564 B.C., a colony of Phocæans had founded a city on its e. coast. After successive changes of Carthagin. ian, Roman, Vandal, Greek, and Gothic rulers, it came in the 8th c. into the hands of the Saracens, who held it until the beginning of the 11th c., when it fell under the dominion of Pisa. It afterwards passed to the Genoese, who held it until 1755, when the Corsicans under gen. Paoli made themselves in great part independent. The French, to whom the Genoese surrendered the claims they themselves could not maintain, captured it in 1768; since which time, with slight intermission, it has remained in the possession of France.
CORS'NED, or morsel of execration, was a piece of cheese or bread made use of in early times with a view to ascertain whether persons suspected of any crime were guilty or innocent. The C., according to Blackstone, was consecrated with a form of exor. cism, desiring of the Almighty that it might cause convulsions and paleness, and find no passage, if the man was really guilty, but might turn to health and nourishment if he was innocent.” In this mode of divination, barley-bread appears to have had the pref
It was one of the many forms of ordeal (q.v.). COR'SO (literally, course or running) is an Italian word used to express not only the racing of horses (without riders), but also the slow driving in procession of handsome equipages through the principal streets of a town, such as almost always takes place in Italy on festivals. This custom has given a name to many streets in almost all the larger towns of Italy. The best known of these is the C. in Rome, which is the scene of the celebrated diversions of the carnival.
CORSSEN, WILHELM PAUL, 1820-75; a German philologist, a native of Bremen, educated in the university of Berlin, and professor in the Stettin gymnasium. He published The Pronunciation, Vocalization, and Accentuation of the Latin Language, which is considered to be the best work thus far published on the subject. At the time of his death he was engaged on the second volume of an elaborate work on the Etruscan speech.
CORT, CORNELIS, a famous Dutch engraver, was b. at Hoorn, in 1536. In 1572, he went to Venice, and was hospitably received there by Titian. Being less of a painter than of an engraver, he seems very soon to have been employed by the great Venetian colorist for the reproduction in copper-plate of some of his master-pieces, and it appears he did it so well, ihat he afterwards engraved for Tintoretto and other Venetian masters. C. next settled at Rome, where he erected an engraving school, and had among his pupils Agostino Caracci, and from this school sprang the most excellent Italian and Venetian engravers, C.'s works had a favorable influence on the graver's art in the Netherlands. He died at Rome in 1578. His engravings, considering his short life of 42 years, are very numerous, amounting to more than 150.
CORTE, a t. in Corsica, on the Tavignano, 35 m. n.e. of Ajaccio; pop. '66, 6,094. Paoli, a native of the place, established and endowed here in 1836 an important school. There is also a communal college.
CORTE-REAL', the name of a noble Portuguese family. In 1500, Gaspard CorteReal landed on the Labrador coast and stole some of the natives, whom he took to Portugal and sold for slaves. He went the next year for another cargo, but never returned. Then his brother Miguel set out to find him, and he never returned. Then the king of Portugal sent two ships to find them, but nothing could be learned of their fate. A third brother, Vasco, intended to make a search, but was prevented by the king. The family produced one poet, Jeronymo, who also was a sailor.
COR'TÉS is the name given in Spain and Portugal 10 the assembly of representatives of the nation. As one district of Spain after another was recovered by the Christian princes from the Moors, there arose in each a corporation composed of the different * states" or orders of the population, limiting the power of the princes. From the union of several of these territories were formed the two leading kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, having each its C., representing the clergy, the nobility, and the cities. In Aragon, the C. appointed a judge, el justicia, who decided disputes between the king and his subjects, and eonfined the royal power within constitutional limits. In Castile the
rights of the burghers were less extensive than in Aragon, but in both states the king was dependent on the Cortes. After the union of Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella, the crown succeeded in making itself less dependent on the C., whose power and privileges were gradually encroached upon, until at last they were seldom assembled except to do homage or to sanction an arrangement as to the succession to the throne. After 1713, they did not meet till 1789, on the accession of Charles IV. In 1809, the C., as composed in 1789, was assembled by the Junta, and framed a new constitution, called the constitution of 1812, which, however, was set aside at the restoration. Endless attempts at restoration and modification of the Spanish C. have since been made, without any happy result. See SPAIN.
The history of the Portuguese C. is very similar to that of the Spanish. In 1826, Dom Pedro promulgated a new constitution after the model of the French, calling the C. again into life, and abdicating at the same time in favor of his daughter, Maria da Gloria. This constitution was set aside during the usurpation of Dom Miguel, but was finally restored in 1842.
COR'TÉS, HERNAN, the daring conqueror of Mexico, was b. in 1485, at Medellin, a village of Estremadura, Spain. He was educated for the law, but afterwards adopted the profession of arms; and in_1511, distinguished himself under Diego Velasquez in the expedition against Cuba. In 1518, the conquest of Mexico was intrusted to him by Velasquez, who was then governor of Cuba; but the latter had no sooner granted him the commission than he wished to revoke it, fearful that his dashing and sagacious lieut. would deprive him of all the glory of the enterprise. C., however, maintained his command in defiance of the governor. Never, perhaps, was an enterprise so great undertaken with so little regard for its difficulties and dangers. A force of between 600 and 700 men, only 13 of whom were musketeers, with only 10 field-pieces and two or three smaller pieces of cannon, were all the means at C.'s disposal to effect the conquest of the then extensive empire of Mexico, when, early in 1519, he landed on its shores. Sailing up the river Tabasco, C. captured the town of that name, the prowess of the Spaniards occasioning great terror to the Tabascans, who made liberal presents to the white men, and volunteered all the information about Mexico in their power. Arriving off the coast of San Juan de Ulloa, C. was here visited by some Mexican chiefs, with whom he entered into negotiation regarding a visit to Montezuma, who then ruled with nearly absolute sway over Mexico. Montezuma sent C. rich presents, but objected to his visiting the capital. But C. had resolved upon seeing the emperor in his palace, and was not to be daunted by opposition. Having founded the town of Vera Cruz, and burnt his ships, so that his troops could not return, and must, therefore, conquer or perish, C., with a force reduced to 400 Spaniards on foot and 15 horse, but with a con. siderable number of Indian followers, lent him by dissatisfied chiefs dependent on Montezuma, marched upon the capital. Overcoming the Tlascalans, a brave people, on the way, who after became his firm allies, and taking fearful vengeance on the city of Cholula, where, by Montezuma's orders, a treacherous attempt was made to massacre his troops, C. on the 8th Nov., 1519, reached the city of Mexico with his little band, and was received with great pomp by the emperor in person. The Spaniards were regarded as those descendants of the sun who, according to a current prophecy, were to come from the east and subvert the Aztec empire-a tradition that was worth a good many soldiers to Cortes. An attack on C.'s colony at Vera Cruz by one of Montezuma's generals, however, proved the mortality of the Spaniards, and would have been the ruin of them but for the decisiveness of C., who immediately seized the emperor, and carrying him to the Spanish quarter, forced him to surrender the offending general and three other chiefs, whom he caused to be burnt in front of the palace, and ere long compelled him formally to cede his empire to Spain. One has nothing but astonishment for this man, whose daring acts in the capital city of the empire, containing, it is calculated, 300,000 inhabitants, had nothing but 400 Spaniards, and a few thousand Indians, whom he had recently conquered, to support them. Mean while Velasquez, enraged at C.'s success, sent an army of about 1000 men, well provided with artillery, to compel his surrender. C. unexpectedly met and overpowered this force, and secured its allegiance. But in his absence the Mexicans had risen in the capital, and C. was finally driven out with much loss. During the disturbance, Montezuma, who was still kept a prisoner, appeared on a terrace with the view of pacifying his people; but he was wounded by a stone, an indignity against his kingly person which he took so much to heart that he died in a few days. C. now retired to Tlascala, to recruit his fatigued and wounded men; and receiving reinforcements, he speedily subjugated all Anahuac to the e. of the Mexican valley, and soon marched again on the city of Mexico, which he succeeded in capturing (Aug. 16, 1521) after a siege of four months, ended by a murderous assault of two days. Famine had assisted the Spanish arms, so that of the vast population only about 40,000 remained when the Spaniards entered the city, which lay in ruins, “like some huge churchyard with the corpses disinterred and the tombstones scattered about.” Mexico was now completely subjugated, for though some attempts at revolt were afterwards made, they were soon crushed by C., who had been nominated governor and capt. gen. of the country by Charles V. In 1528, C. returned to Spain, to meet some calum. nies against him, and was received with great distinction. On his return to Mexico in 1530, however, he was divested of his civil rank. At his own expense he fitted out several expeditions, one of which discovered California. In 1540, he came again to Spain, but was coldly received at court, from which he soon retired, and died at Seville, Dec., 1547.
CORTLAND, a co. in central New York, intersected by the Syracuse and Binghamton and the Southern Central railroad; 480 sq.m.; pop. '80, 25,825. There is iron ore in some places, but agriculture is the chief business, the production of cheese, butter, and maple sugar being prominent. Co. seat, Cortland.
CORTLAND, a village and seat of justice of Cortland co., N. Y., on the Syracuse and Binghamton railroad, 36 m. s. of Syracuse; pop. of township, '80, 7,114.
CORTO'NA, a t. of central Italy, about 50 m. s.e. of Florence. It is beautifully situated amid vineyards on a hill rising from the fertile valley of the Chiana, and commanding a view of the lake of Perugia (anc. lacus Trasimenus). The city is of fabulous antiq. uity, older, it is said, than Troy; and the Cyclopean walls, erected by the Pelasgianswhich in many parts remain unchanged-prove, if not a history quite as old as tradition affirms, at all events one second in remoteness to few places in Italy. It was one of the most powerful of the twelve cities forming the Etruscan league. By the Romans, who settled a colony here about the time of Sulla, it was called Corythus. After many vicissitudes during the middle ages, the town became subject to Florence in the 15th century. Besides the walls, there are several objects of Etruscan antiquity at Cortona. The modern town contains above 3,900 inhabitants. Among the principal buildings are the cathedral, dating from the 10th or 11th c., with some fine paintings and monuments, the churches of Jesus, St. Francesco, and others. The Etruscan academy has its seat here, the museum connected with which contains a multitude of Etruscan sarcophagi, vases, etc. C. has a trade in wine and olives, and fine marble is found in the vicinity.
CORTONA, PIETRO BERRETTINI DA, 1596–1669; an Italian architect and painter employed by Urban VIII. to decorate a chapel and to execute the frescoes on the ceiling of the grand salon of the Barberini palace, which, with others from his hand, are among the most remarkable specimens of decorative art of the period. The church of Santa Maria del Pace in Rome was his best architectural work.
CORU'NA (English, Corunna), a fortified seaport of Spain, situated on a small headland in the Atlantic, formed by the three bays of Betanzos, Coruña, and El Ferrol, about midway between capes Finisterre and Ortegal, in lat. 43° 22' n., long. 8° 22' west. C., which is a thriving place, is built partly on the slope and partly at the foot of a hill, and is divided into the upper and lower towns, the former being the most ancient. The lower town, which was formerly inhabited chiefly by fishermen, is now more important than the upper. It is well built, chiefly of granite, and some of its streets are broad and well paved." There are few public buildings of any note in Coruña. A citadel defends the town, and the harbor, protected by forts, is safe and commodious. In 1871, 356 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 34,927 tons, entered, and the same number and tonnage cleared the port. During the same year, the value of cargoes amounted to £119,260. Pop. 34,000. C. dates its origin from the Phænicians, from whom it was taken by the Romans in the 1st c. B.C. For Englishmen, great historical interest attaches to Coruña. Here, in 1386, John of Gaunt landed to claim the crown of Castile in right of his wife, daughter of Pedro the cruel; in 1554, Philip II. embarked here for England to marry queen Mary; and in 1588, the great Spanish armada, which had been refitted at this port, set sail for the conquest of England. "But C. is best known in connection with the death of sir John Moore, who, as a fitting conclusion to his memorable retreat, with about 14,000 men defeated (Jan. 16, 1809) on the heights of Elvina, behind C., 20,000 French under Soult. Moore, who was mortally wounded in the action, was buried on the ramparts in his military cloak. A monument, erected by the British government, marks the place of his burial.
CORUNDUM, a mineral consisting essentially of mere alumina, yet of great specific gravity-about four times that of water-and of remarkable hardness, being inferior in this respect only to the diamond. Mineralogists regard the sapphire as a variety of C., and along with it the gems popularly known as oriental ruby, oriental topaz, orien ial emerald, and oriental amethyst; but the name C. is more usually limited to the coarser varieties, to which it is applied by the natives of India. These, instead of exhibiting the brilliancy of gems, are in general of a dull and muddy appearance, and the crystals —which are usually six-sided prisms, and six-sided pyramids-are externally dull and rough. The color is various, often green, blue, or red, incliving to gray. The variety called adamantine spar is of a hair-brown color and adamantine luster. Some corun. dums-known as asteria sapphires or star sapphires—when cut in a particular manner, exhibit an opalescent star of six rays. C. is found in many parts of the world, and has long been used in India for polishing all gems except the diamond, which is too hard for it, and also for polishing the stones used in temples and other buildings. Emery (q.v.), so well known as a polishing substance, is a variety of corundum.
CORUNNA, a province of Spain, in Galicia, forming the extreme n.w.corner of the kingdom, bordering on the bay of Biscay and the Atlantic ocean; about 3,000 sq.m.; pop. '70, 630,504. It has a sinuous and rugged coast, and is traversed by mountain