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law established within England and Ireland, and the territories thereunto belonging? And will you preserve to the bishops and clergy of England and Ireland, and to the churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges as do, or shall appertain unto them, or any of them? King. All this I promise to do.

The sovereign then goes to the altar, and laying his hand upon the Gospels, takes the following oath: The things which I have heretofore promised, I will perform and keep, so help me God."

The sovereign then kisses the book, and signs the oath.

The passage in the oath in which the sovereign guarantees the privileges of the church of England, is framed in conformity with the act for securing the church of England as hy law established,” which is declared to be a fundamental and essential part of the treaty of union, and which was inserted accordingly in the act by which the treaty of union was finally ratified. The passage in the act which provides for the security of the church of Scotland was framed in conformity with an “overture for an act for security of the church”—of which a copy will be found in the appendix to Defoe's IIistory of the Union, p. 617. It is to the effect that, “after the decease of her present majesty (whom God long preserve), the sovereign succeeding to her in the royal government of this kingdom shall, in all time coming (not at the coronation) at his or her accession to the crown, swear and subscribe that they shall maintain and preserve the aforesaid settlement of the true Protestant religion, with the government, worship and discipline of this church, as above (that is, by the previously recited act, 1 Will. and Mary, c. 5) established inviolably.” The security of the church of Scotland is thus provided for, by what may be called an accession oath, even during the period which must intervene between the accession of the sovereign and his coronation, when he is not bound, by oath at least, to the maintenance of the other branches of the constitution. The oath has not yet been altered to suit the disestablishment of the Irish Church.

CORONEL'LA, a genus of non-venomous serpents of the family colubridæ, of a small size, having a somewhat compressed and generally pentagonal body, and rather long conical tail. They inhabit the warm and temperate parts of the world. One species, C. lævis, is found in the center and s. of Europe.

CORONER (Lat. coronator, corona, a crown), a very ancient officer in England, at the common law. He is mentioned in a charter of king Athelstan, 905 A.D; and the office, like much of the common law, is acknowledged to be of Saxon origin. The name is derived from the fact, that the C. has chiefly to do with pleas of the crown. In this light, the lord chief-justice of the queen's bench is the principal C, in the kingdom, and may exercise jurisdiction in that capacity in any part of England. There are, however, particular coroners for every place in England, and in some counties, three or four, or even more. They were formerly paid by fees on each inquest, but now (23 and 24 Vict. c. 116) by salary paid out of the county rate. The C. is chosen for life, and the election rests with the freeholders of the county or district. A C. may, however, be dismissed by the lord chancellor for inability or misbehavior in his office. By the statute of Westminster the first (3 Edw. I. c. 10), it was enacted that none should be chosen but lawful and discreet knights; and in the time of Edward III., there is an instance of a man being removed from the office because he was merely a merchant. Subsequently, it was thought sufficient if a man had lands enough to entitle him to be made a knight; and Blackstone complains that in his time it had come to be sought for the perquisites, and not for the honor of serving the country. This motive has now ceased. The C. is now usually a professional man, frequently an attorney or a medical man.

The office of C. is to some extent the only one in England charged with the investigation of crime. Where the C. cannot act, there is no authority to examine witnesses until a suspected person has been actually charged or accused before a magistrate. But even the C.'s duties are very limited, and little is added to the statute 3 Edw. I. The C. can inquire only into the causes of violent or sudden death, and into these only when the body has been found. When such a death happens, it is the duty of the constable to give notice of it to the C., who then summons a jury from the body of the county for the purpose of making an inquisition into the matter. The C. presides over the inqui. sition, and the court thus constituted is a court of record. The jury consists of twelve men at least, who are sworn and charged by the C.; and the verdict must be of twelve. By 6 and 7 Vict. c. 12, it has been enacted that the inquest shall be held before the C. in whose district the body shall be “lying dead." If any be found guilty by such inquisition of murder or other homicide, the č. is to commit them to prison for further trial, and is also to make inquiry concerning their lands, goods, and chattels (which are for. feited thereby), if not otherwise known; and he must, moreover, certify the whole of this inquisition under his own seal and the seals of the jurors, together with the evidence thereon, to the court of queen's bench or the next assizes. The accused may thereupon be put on his trial without other indictment. By 6 and 7 Will. IV. c. 89, the C. is empowered to summon, and by 1 Vict. c. 68, to pay, medical witnesses, in place of referring them for payment to the church-wardens. The sums allowed are one guinea for a simple examination, and two guineas if a post-mortem examination of the body has been made. By 6 and 7 'Vict. c. 83, coroners are empowered to appoint deputies in case of absence from illness or other reasonable cause. 9 and 10 Vict. c. 37, regulates the duties

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of the C. and the expenses of inquests in Ireland. Another branch of the C.'s office is to inquire concerning shipwrecks and treasure trove; but this has been nearly superseded by the provisions of the merchant shipping act, 1854. He is a conservator of the king's peace, in which capacity he is mentioned in one of the oldest treatises on the common law (Mirror, c. 1, s. 3). As such, he may cause felons to be apprehended, whether an inqui. sition has found them guilty or not. The C. has likewise ministerial functions as the sheriff's substitute, in executing process in suits in which the sheriff is related either to the plaintiff or defendant. Latterly, the office of C. has been the subject of consideration, with a view to certain reforms of administration. In many cases, it is alleged that the C. makes a job of his office, trumps up cases, and acts vexatiously at variance with the warrants of magistrates. Coroners or crowners, as they were also called in England, are mentioned in many old Scottish statutes; and there is no doubt that the office, as well as that of alderman and mayor, existed in those parts of the country that were peopled by persons of Teutonic race. But it was abolished or fell into desuetude, prob. ably in consequence of the secession war and the French connection; and in Scotland the duties are now chiefly performed by an officer appointed by the crown, styled the procurator-fiscal (q.v).

CORONER (ante), in the United States, elected or appointed, usually one or more in each county or city. The functions of a coroner are almost exclusively confined to holding inquests upon persons who have died by violence or accident, or in a sudden or mysterious manner. He summons a jury, and if need be a physician, and inquires into the facts, after which a verdict is returned. Neither the coroner nor the jury have any defined responsibility; they can only recommend, except in cases of crime, where the coroner has power to cause arrests and to commit to prison.


COROT, JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE, 1796–1875; a French landscape painter. He labored many years without special recognition, but triumphed at last, and received the cross of the legion of honor and many other marks of distinction. Among his works are “ View in Italy,' Souvenir of the Environs of Florence,” “ Dance of the Nymphs,” “Sunset in the Tyrol,” “Hagar in the Desert, “Dante and Virgil, Repose, tude, etc.

CORPORAL (more properly caporal, from the Italian capo di escadra) is, so far as concerns the British army at the present day, the grade next below non-commissioned officers. When the regiment is formed as a corps, he has no function different from the private soldier. In barracks or camp, however, he exercises certain disciplinary control over the privates. At present, in the British army, there are 32 corporals to each regi. ment of cavalry, and 40 for each infantry battalion. They receive pay varying from 18. 3d. to 28. 5d. per day. The lance C. is an assistant C., who remains, however, on pri. vate's pay; he wears one chevron (q.v.) on his arm, and two when he rises to the rank of corporal.

On shipboard, there is a ship's corporal, a petty-officer under the master-at-arms; to aid in teaching the seamen the use of small-arms, to guard against the smuggling of spirits on board, to extinguish the fires and lights at a given signal, and to keep order below at night.

CORPORAL (ante), in the United States, does not differ from the same officer in England. He is the lowest officer in a company, standing between a private and sergeant, and does duty in the ranks as a private, except that he places and relieves sentinels, and at drill has charge or a squad.

CORPORAL (Lat. corpus, a body, because of the belief that the bread and wine are the body and blood of our Saviour), a name given to the cloth with which the minister covers what is left of the consecrated elements in the Lord's supper until the service is concluded. It is also called the pall, and its use is of the highest antiquity.


CORPORA'TION. This, in England, is either aggregate or sole. A C. aggregate is a society of persons authorized by law to act as one person, and to perpetuate its existence by the admission of new members. Without such legal authority, the acts of the society would be regarded only as the acts of the individuals, and the property of the society would descend to the heirs of the individual members. A C. sole consists of one person, and his successors, who are by law invested with the same capacities as a C. aggregate. The sovereign is a C. sole, and so is a bishop and the vicar of a parish, for these in the eye of the law never die, and each successive holder of the office takes the property belonging to it, neither by conveyance nor by ordinary succession, but is vested in it by his mere holding of the office.

A C. could formerly be established only by charter from the crown or act of parliament, unless, indeed, it existed by immemorial prescription; but of late years the exigencies of commerce have led to the passing of various enactments, by compliance with which any society of persons may acquire for themselves the character of a corporation. The particulars of these will be considered under the title JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES. A C. always receives a corporate name, by which it sues and is sued, and must possess a common seal, the affixing of which is the only competent way of affixing the signature of the corporation. The majority of the members of a C. are entitled to act in its name, and may, by a by-law, even delegate-except in the case of municipa! corporations—the power of acting in its name to a certain number of its members. For the acts of the C, none of its members are personally liable. A C. may hold landssubject to the statutes of mortmain (q.V.and may be possessed, if a C. aggregate, of chattels; but a C. sole has not this privilege, unless it be the representative of a number of persons for whose benefit the chattels are held. But no C. can be either a trustee. proper or an executor.

Corporations, whether aggregate or sole, are divided into ecclesiastical and lay, and the lay are subdivided into civil and eleemosynary. The ecclesiastical are such as are composed wholly of clergymen, in their ecclesiastical capacity, and are chiefly for the purpose of holding ecclesiastical property. Civil corporations include municipal corporations, the universities, the colleges of physicians and surgeons, learned societies, and many trading companies incorporated. Eleemosynary corporations are for the administration of funds for charitable and pious purposes, such as hospitals, the colleges in universities, etc. An important consequence of these distinctions is the effect it has on the right of visiting a C. or exercising a legal superintendence over its proceedings. The crown is the visitor of the archbishops, each archbishop is the visitor of his suffragan bishops, and each bishop is the visitor of all the ecclesiastical corporations in his diocese. Civil corporations have no visitor, but the court of queen's bench is the authority entitled to restrain and direct them. Eleemosynary corporations are visited by the founder and his heirs, or such persons as the founder appointed to be visitors; and in default of such persons, or of the founder's heirs, the court of chancery acts as visitor. Hospitals, if of ecclesiastical nature, are, however, subject to the visitation of the bishop.

AC. may be dissolved by the death of all its members, or of such number as leaves not enough to make new elections in the way the charter requires; by forfeiture of the charter, through breach of its conditions; by surrender of the charter; or by act of parliament. In all such cases, the lands of the C. revert to their several donors, and the debts due by or to the C. are extinguished.

Municipal corporations, formerl dependent on special charter alone, are now made uniform, and regulated by the 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 76, and some subsequent acts. See MUNICIPAL CORPORATION.

As to public corporations in Scotland, see BURGH, Town COUNCIL, FRIENDLY SOCIETIES; and as to private corporations for trading purposes, see BANK, LIABILITY (limited), PARTNERSHIP.

CORPORATION (ante). There are, strictly speaking, no ecclesiastical corporations in the United States. In addition to the explanation given respecting English corporations which serves equally to define the position of our own, it may be said, that corporations are public and private. A public corporation (as a village) is a governmental instrument, and may be dissolved at the will of the creating power; but a private corporation, as a college, cannot be dissolved at will, as no state has the power to deny obligation of contracts. Therefore it is that in many instances the right of repeal is reserved by the state in the charter of the corporation. But a private corporation may be dissolved for the non-fulfillment of contract, for misdirection of funds, and for other causes. The law respecting the power of corporations to inherit money or estate is dif ferently construed in different siates; in some they are entirely deprived of right of inheritance, while in others they have the right under various restrictions, such as the limitation of the value of the bequest, or an expiration of a certain time between the making of the will and the death of the testator. A corporation may, through an agent, act outside of the limits of its own state, unless prohibited from so doing by a special enactment. The direction of corporations is never placed in the hands of one person, as in England, but is generally vested in a board of trustees. The property of a corporation is subject to the control of the U. S. court of bankruptcy, and the corporation may be sued as an individual.

CORPS D'ARMÉE, in the military system of the greater continental European states. is an organization of the forces in the time of peace. The whole military strength is divided into several corps, each complete in itself as an army, with everything peedfui for service, staff and artillery park included. The English army is now distributed into eight army corps, stationed in eight territorial centers. The French army, had in 1879, nineteen corps d'armée; which have been increased in strength by the recent military reorganization. Germany had in the same year eighteen corps d'armée. In the Austrian service, the normal number of corps d'armee is thirteen. The military strength of Russia, as finally settled in 1876, is distributed over fourteen military districts.

CORPS D'ARMÉE (ante), a title not used in the United States. At present the army is in three great divisions: the Atlantic, the Pacific, and the Missouri. During the late war, sections of the army were known by location, such as the army of the Poto mac, or of the Cumberland.


CORPS LÉGISLATIF, the name of the lower house of the French national legis lature under Napoleon III. from 1857 to 1870. Members were elected for six year terms.

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CORPUS CATHOLICORUM, a name given in Germany after the peace of Westphalia to the Roman Catholic division of the empire. The elector of Mayence was at the head or president of the corpus catholicorum, which generally held its meetings in a convent of that city in which the diet happened to meet. The corpus catholicorum was extinguished by the abolition of the German empire in 1806.

CORPUS CHRISTI, the seat of justice of Nueces co., Texas, 178 m. s.e. of Austin; pop. '70, 2, 140; '80, 3,257. There is a good harbor, with steamboat communication with New Orleans, and considerable trade.

CORPUS CHRISTI, Oxford. This college was founded in 1516 by Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester, under a license from king Henry VIII. The statutes were issued in 1517. The foundation consisted of 20 fellows and 20 scholars; of whom the fellows were to be elected from the scholars, while the scholars were to be elected from certain specified counties. Two peculiarities marked this foundation. First, the usual rules of life and discipline were enforced with peculiar severity; and, second, the object of the college was expressly connected with the studies of the age. Classical literature was for the first time distinctly mentioned. The subjects of the lectures were enjoined to be, not the old routine of divinity and the two philosophies, but divinity, humanity, and Greek. Incessant industry in these pursuits was inculcated by the founder, and the fellows were even forbidden to accept the proctorship, Jest the avocations of that office should interfere with their proper duties. The object and the stringency of these regulations called forth the celebrated encomium of Erasmus, that what Colossus was to Rhodes, what the Mausoleum was to Caria, that C. C. college would be to the kingdom of Great Britain. This prediction has hardly been fulfilled. The rules of the founder have been gradually set aside by acts of parliament, by custom, and by injunctions of the visitor. Of the three university lectureships contemplated by the founder, one was never founded at all, and the other two were merged in the college fellowships and tutorships. And, lastly, the college has suffered greatly from the severe restrictions imposed by statute upon the elections to fellowships. In virtue of the powers conferred by 17 and 18 Vict. c. 81, important changes have been effected oy the college working in harmony with the commissioners. Both fellows and scholars are now elected without any restrictions as to place of birth. The fellowships are still 20 in number, value rather more than £300 a year, The college is now one of considerable eminence. Two of the fellowships are permanently attached to the two professorships of Latin and Jurisprudence, the professors being admitted honorary fellows of Corpus, and each receiving from its revenues a sum of £600 a year. The scholarships are 24 in number, tenable for five years, and of the annual value of £80, with rooms rent free; besides seven exhibitions recently instituted to be competed for annually by the commoners of the college. There are 22 benefices in the gift of this college; and in the year 1881, there were about 280 names on the college books.

COR'PUS CHRIS'TI, or BE'NET COLLEGE, Cambridge, was founded by two guilds or fraternities of townspeople—the guild of C. C., who had their prayers at St. Benedict church; and the guild of the Blessed Virgin, who prayed at St. Mary's. These were united in 1352, and a small college erected by them. Archbishop Parker added largely to the endowments of this college, and bequeathed to it his valuable manuscripts, amongst which are the only authentic manuscript copies of the 39 articles of the church of England. Of the 12 fellows, all except 4 must take holy orders. There are 31 scholarships, some of considerable value, given to the students who most distinguish themselves at the annual examinations. Among the eminent men of this college were Hugh Latimer, archbishops Parker and Tennison, Fletcher the dramatist, and Gough the antiquary.

CORPUS CHRISTI FESTIVAL, the most splendid festival of the Roman Catholic church. It was instituted in 1264, in honor of the consecrated host, and with a view to its adoration, by pope Urban IV., who appointed for its celebration the Thursday after the festival of the Trinity, and promised to all the penitent who took part in it indulgence for a period of from 40 to 100 days. The festival is chiefly distinguished by magnificent processions. In France, it is known as the Fête Dieu.


CORPUS DELIC'TI, a criminal law term used in Scotland to signify the body or substance of the charge. Before a conviction can take place the fact libeled must be proved-e.g., before a man can be convicted of murder, it must be clearly made out That there was a murder; and it is this fact that is called the corpus delicti. See CRIMI. NAL LAW.

CORPUS DOCTRI'NÆ, collections of writings which were intended to have authority in the Protestant churches of Germany. The chief collection was Corpus Philippi cum, containing the Apostolic, the Nicean, and the Athanasian creeds, the Augsburg confession, and Melanchthon's Loci Communes. This, and similar collections were supor seded by the Formula Concordiæ.


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CORRE'A DA SERRA, JOSÉ FRANCISCO, 1750–1823; a Portuguese politician and scientist, who was educated and took orders in Rome. With the assistance of the duke of Alafoès, he founded the Portuguese academy of science, in Lisbon, and was made perpetual secretary with the privilege of publishing its transactions without reference to censorship. He soon came in conflict with the church, through the inquisition, and fled to France, and afterwards went to England, where he became secretary to the Portuguese legation. In 1813, he came to New York; and in 1816, he was made Portuguese minister at Washington; in 1820, he was called home and made a member of the financial council, with a seat in the cortes. He ranked high as a botanist.

CORRECTION, HOUSE OF, a prison for the reformation of petty offenders. See PRISON, REFORMATORY.

CORRECTION OF THE PRESS. This is one of the most important of the many opera. tions that every piece of printed matter must undergo before it is put into the hands of

To rule the nations with imperial swdy, to impose terms of peace, to spare the humbled, and to rcush the proud, resigning itto others to de. scribe the courses of the heavens, and op explain the rising stars; this, to use the words of the poet of the Æneid in the apostrophe of Anchises to Fabius in the Shades, was regarded / as the proper province of a Roman.

1. A wrong letter. A line is drawn The genius of the people was ever

through the wrong letter, and the proper

one written in the margin. After every more adverse to the cultivation of the 89

mark of correction a line / should be drawn,

to prevent its being confounded with any physical sciences than that, the Euro. O of other in the same line. 2. A word or let

ter to be transposed. Where letters only pean Greeks, and seen we have that ;/ 3tr.

are to be transposed, it is better to strike

them out, and write them in their proper the latter left experimental philosophy

sequence in the margin, like a correction,

3. A space wanted. This mark is also used chiefly in the hands of the Asian and

when the spacing is insufficient. 4. A space. African colonists, The elegant litera. O

or quadrat sticking up. 5. Alteration of

type. One line is drawn under the word ture and metaphysical specuplations"

for italics, two for SMALL CAPITALS, three

for CAPITALS. 6. Correction or insertion of Athens, her histories, dramas, epics,

of stops (points). 7. A word struck out, and afterwards approved of (Lat. stet, let

it stand). 8. A turned letter. 9. An omis. and orations, had a numerous host of

sion. 10. A letter of a wrong fount. 11. A admirers in Italy, but a feeling of

u Roman.

word or letter to be deleted. 12. Alteration of type.

13. A new paragraph. This indifference was displayed to the

should be avoided as much as possible, as it

causes great trouble and expense. 14. Inpractical science of Alexandria. [This w New line

sertion of a sentence. 15. A space to be re

moved or diminished. 16, A wrong word. repugnance of the Roman mind at

This is struck out, and the

proper one writ

ten in the margin, 17. When letters or home to mathematics and physics,,

Sec bcloro. lines do not stand even. 18. Mark for a extending from the Atlantic to the

hyphen or rule. 19. No new paragraph.

This is also troublesome and expensive. Indian Ocean, from Northern Britain #10

20. The manner in which the apostrophe, inverted commas, the star, and other ref.

erences, and superior letters and figures, to the cataracts of tho Nile, annili.

are marked. lated in a measure alt pure sciences in the conquered districts where they had had been pursued, and prohibited 18 attention to them in the mother 1.1 country. CLong, indeed, after the


of Ptolemy, the school in connection with which he flourished, remained in existence ;, &c.

^ together 'with the prevalence of its military despotism abroad, the reading public; and in every considerable printing establishment, it forms a special department executed by one or more functionaries, technically called "readers.” The

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