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4,704. The principal village is 3 m. from the Connecticut, on the Sugar river, which furnishes abundant water-power, employed in the manufacture of cotton, wool, and paper. The Stevens high school, founded by Paran Stevens, a hotel-keeper first in Claremont and afterwards in Boston and New York, is the principal public institution.

CLAREMONT, a mansion or country-seat at Esher, Surrey, built by a noble family of that name. When the princess Charlotte, heiress-apparent to the crown of England, was married to prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, C. was assigned as their residence; and at the death of the princess in 1817, the use of it was continued to the widower for life, along with the allowance settled on him of £50,000. The prince lived here till his election as king of Belgium, after which time he only occasionally visited it. After the revolution of Feb., 1848, he placed it at the disposal of his father-in-law, ex-king Louis Philippe, who inhabited it till his death in Aug., 1850, and whose family have since continued to reside there. C. has been to the younger line of the house of Bourbon what Frohsdorf is to the elder, and has been the scene of more than one congress of the leading Orleanists.

CLARENCE, DUKE OF, the title occasionally given to a younger male member of the British royal family.

CLARENCIEUX, the first of the two provincial kings-of-arms, in England, the second being Norroy. The jurisdiction of C. extends to all England s. of the Trent, that of Norroy (q.v.) comprehending the portion n. of that river. C. is named after the duke of Clarence, third son of king Edward III. It is his duty to visit his province, to sur. vey the arms of all persons bearing coat-armor within it, to register descents and marriages, and to marshal the funerals of all persons who are not under the direction of Garter. He also grants arms within his province, with the approval of the earl marshal.

CLARENDON, a co. in e. South Carolina, bounded on the s. and w. by the Santee; 700 sq.m.; pop. '80, 19,190—12,908 colored. The surface is generally even and the soil fertile, producing corn, cotton, rice, etc. Co. seat, Manning.

CLARENDON, a t. and village in Rutland co., Vt., on Otter creek and the Western Vermont railroad, 6 m. s. of Rutland; pop. of township, '80, 1105. C. is much visited for its mineral springs, the waters of which are said to be useful in kidney and cutane. ous diseases.

CLARENDON, CONSTITUTIONS OF, were laws made by a parliament, or rather by a general council of the nobility and prelates, held at Clarendon, a village in Wiltshire, in 1164, whereby king Henry II. checked the power of the church, and greatly narrowed ihe total exemption which the clergy had claimed from the jurisdiction of the secular magistrate. These famous ordinances, 16 in number, defined the limits of the patronage, as well as of the jurisdiction, of the pope in England, and provided that the crown should be entitled to interfere in the election to all vacant offices and dignities in the church. The constitutions were unanimously adopted, and Becket, the primate, reluctantly signed them, at the solicitation of his brethren. But they were at once rejected by pope Alexander III., when sent to him for ratification, and Becket thereupon immediately retracted his consent, and imposed upon himself the severest penances for his weakness in giving it. This, and the other measures adopted by the haughty and imperious archbishop, to vindicate the independence of his order, led to the unhappy disputes between him and the monarch, which terminated in the famous tragedy at Canterbury, commonly known as the martyrdom of St. Thomas-à-Becket, the canonization of the saint, and the pilgrimages to his tomb, which subsequently became an institution of the Roman Catholic church. Notwithstanding the personal humiliation to which Henry submitted after Becket's death, most of the provisions of the constitutions of C. continued to be permanent gains to the civil power. A masterly and dispassionate appreciation of the constitutions of C. will be found in Dr. Pauli's Geschichte v. England, and in prof. Stubbs's Select Charters illustrative of English Constitutional History, the text of the constitutions is given.

CLARENDON, EDWARD HYDE, Earl of, an English historian and statesman, son of a private gentleman, was b. at Dinton, Wiltshire, 18th Feb., 1608, and educated at Oxford. He studied law under his uncle, Nicholas Hyde, chief-justice of the king's bench; was a member of the Long parliament, and for some time spoke and voted on the side of the popular party; but on the breaking out of the civil wars in England, he attached him. self to the royal cause, and in 1642 was appointed chancellor of the exchequer, knighted, and sworn of the privy council. Accompanying prince Charles (Charles II.) to Jersey, he remained there for two years, and began his History of the Rebellion (London, 1702-4; continuation, with Life, 1759), and also wrote the various papers which appeared in the king's name, as answers to the manifestoes of the parliament, and which far surpassed in vigor and elegance the productions against which they were directed. In May, 1648, he went to Paris, and in Nov., 1649, was sent on an unsuccessful mission for assistance from the Spanish court. He afterwards proceeded to the Hague, where, in 1657, Charles II. appointed him high chancellor of England. At the restoration, he was confirmed in that office, and elected chancellor of the university of Oxford. In Nov., 1660, he was created baron Hyde, and in April following, viscount Cornbury, and earl of Clarendon. In 1663, the earl of Bristol accused him of high treason in the house of lords; and though this charge failed, public indignation was excited against him by the ill success of the war with Holland, and the sale of Dunkirk to the French. The victim also of some court intrigues, he was deprived of his offices; and he secretly withdrew to Calais, whence he sent his apology to the lords; but this writing was ordered, by both houses of parliament, to be burned by the common hangman. After living six years in exile, he died at Rouen, Dec., 1674, and was buried in Westminster abbey. His daughter, Anne Hyde, became the wife, in 1659, of the duke of York, afterwards James II., and was the mother of Anne and Mary, both queens of Great Britain.

C. was, on the whole, both well-intentioned and wise. There can be no doubt that he loved his country sincerely, and was humanely and liberally disposed. He was too moderate for the troublous times in which he lived. Lacking enthusiasm, he failed to appreciate the position of the Puritans; and after a brief period spent in their service, he passed over to the camp of the royalists, but was never a bigoted partisan. His firmness, however, was not equal to his sagacity, and hence arose the perplexities which ultimately occasioned his fall. C.'s private character was excellent, in an age when virtue was utterly unfashionable among noblemen.

CLARENDON, GEORGE WILLIAM FREDERICK VILLIERS, Earl of, a distinguished English statesman, was b. 12th Jan., 1800. He was a descendant of Thomas Villiers, who, in 1752, married the heiress of the last lord Clarendon of the Hyde family, and was, in 1756, made baron Hyde, and in 1776, earl of Clarendon. Having studied at Cambridge, he early entered the diplomatic service, and in 1833 was appointed to the then important post of ambassador at Madrid, where he acquired great influence, which he employed in establishing the government of Spain on a constitutional basis. On the death of his uncle, the third earl, without issue, in 1838, he succeeded to the title, and returned to England to take his seat in the upper house. In 1840, he was appointed keeper of the great seal. When the Whig ministry was broken up in 1841, he became an active member of the opposition; but warmly supported sir Robert Peel in his measures for the abolition of the corn-laws. Under lord John Russell's premiership, he became president of the board of trade in 1846, and the following year was appointed lord-lieu. tenant of Ireland. He entered upon his duties in troublous times. The insurrectionary follies of Smith O'Brien and his coadjutors might have set the whole country in a blaze. but for the prompt and decisive measures which C. adopted, and which soon rostered general tranquillity. At the same time, his tact and impartiality contributed to ally and reconcile the exasperations of party. The severity of his proceedings against the Orangemen on occasion of disturbances in 1849, was made the subject of a formal accusation in the house of lords; but C. made a convincing defense, and ministers declared their complete approval of his proceedings. When the Russell cabinet resigned in 1852, C. was replaced by the earl of Eglinton; but on the formation of the Aberdeen ministry, in a later part of the same year, he was intrusted with the seals of the foreign office. When lord Palmerston became premier in 1855, C. held the seals until the resignation of the ministry in 1858. He resumed them, under the same premier, in 1865; retired with his colleagues in 1866; and taking the same office once more in 1868, he retained it till he died in June, 1870.

CLARENDON PRESS, a printing establishment connected with Oxford university (England); founded in 1672, and named Clarendon, because the printing-house was paid for by the profits on the sale of Lord Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, of which work the university has a perpetual copyright.

CLARET (Fr. clairet), a term originally applied to wines of a light-red color, but which is now used in England as a general name for the red wines of Bordeaux (q.v.). The name as used in England is unknown in France.

CLARI, GIOVANNI CARLO MARIA, b. 1669; an Italian composer of music, pupil of Colonna, chapel-master, and author of the opera Il Savio delirante. He wrote also church music, duets, and trios.

CLARIFICATION is the process of clearing a fluid from a turbid condition, as in the case of beer (q.v.), or in the action of gelatine in fining British wines. Natural waters containing much organic matter in mechanical suspension and in chemical solution, are clarified by the addition of a little alum, which is precipitated with the organic matter, and the water then becomes healthy and refreshing. Liquids are often clarified by straining through several layers of cloth; and the addition of cold water to hot coffee, etc., causes a deposit to be thrown down, which clears the solution. The use of the clearing nut (q.v.), for clarifying water, is general in India.

CLAR'INET, or CLARIONET', a wind-instrument of the reed kind, invented by Joseph Christoph Denner, in Nürnberg, in 1690. Its tone is produced by a thin piece of Spanish reed nicely flattened and tied, or otherwise fixed on the mouth-piece. On the body of the instrument there are holes and keys for the fingers of the performer, by which the notes are produced. In extent, fullness, and variety of tone, the C. is the most perfect of wind-instruments. Its construction, however, does not admit of every key in music being played on the same instrument, for which reason clarinets of different pitch are used in orchestral music-viz., the C C., which plays all the notes as they are written;

Clarke.

the B flat C., a whole tone below the C; and the A C., a minor third below the C. In military music, an E flat C., a minor third above the Cone, is much used.

CLARION, a co, in n.w. Pennsylvania, on the Alleghany and Clarion rivers, traversed by the Alleghany railroad, 600 sq.m.; pop. '80, 40,326. Surface hilly, and soil fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats, rye, buckwheat, butter, wool, etc. Co. seat, Clarion.

CLARION, or CLAR'IN, a species of trumpet, more shrill in tone than the ordinary one; also the name of an organ-stop of four feet pitch.

CLARK : co., S. Dak. See page 882.

CLARK, a co. in e. Illinois, bordering on Indiana, and bounded on the s.e. by Wabash river, intersected by the St. Louis, Vandalia, Terre Haute and Indianapolis railroad; 460 sq.m.; pop. '80, 21,900. The chief business is agriculture. Co. seat, Marshall.

CLARK : co., Kansas. See page 882.

CLARK, a co. in central Kentucky, bounded by the Red and Kentucky rivers on the s.; intersected by the Lexington and Big Sandy railroad; 210 sq.m.; pop. '80, 12,113

4,185 colored. It has a hilly and broken surface, with unusually fertile soil; chief products, wheat, corn, butter, and wool. Co. seat, Winchester.

CLARK, a co. in s.e. Mississippi, on the Alabama border, intersected by the Mobile and Ohio railroad; 650 sq.m.; pop. '80, 15,022—7,792 colored. The region is hilly, and occupied chiefly by pasture lands. The crops are corn, cotton, rice, etc. Co. seat, Quitman.

CLARK, a co, in s.w. Ohio, on Mad river, traversed by the Cincinnati, Sandusky and Cleveland, the Pittsburg, Cincinnati and St. Louis, and a branch of the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati and Indianapolis railroads; 380 sq.m.; pop. '80, 41,947. The surface is diversified; soil fertile, with plenty of timber, and well watered. The chief products are wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, butter, wool, and flax. Co. seat, Springfield.

CLARK, a co. in Wisconsin, on the Black and Eau Claire rivers, reached by the w. branch of the Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad; 1548 sq.m.; pop. '80, 10,715. It has a hilly surface and fertile soil. Agriculture is the chief business. Co. seat, Neilsville.

CLARK, ABRAHAM; 1726–94; one of the signers of the declaration of American independence. He was a native of New Jersey, in which colony and state he held many important offices, representing the state in congress, and in the commercial convention of 1786.

CLARK, ALONZO, b. Vt, 1807; a graduate of Williams college, and of the New York college of physicians and surgeons in 1835, in which institution he was professor of

physiology and pathology, and of the practice of medicine. He has been president of · the New York state medical society, and has been a leading hospital and general practitioner in New York city for many years.

CLARK, ALVAN ; 1804-87; b. Mass.; the son of a farmer, and a self-taught engraver, portrait-painter, and optician. His telescopes have won high reputation and the praise of astronomers in all countries. He was the inventor of a double eye-piece, an ingenious method of measuring celestial arcs of from three to sixty seconds. In 1863, with one of his own telescopes he discovered a new star near Sirius, in honor of which the French academy of sciences awarded to him the Lalande prize. He resided in Cambridge, Mass.

CLARK, Davis WASGATT, D.D., 1812-71 ; a native of Maine, graduated at Wesleyan university in 1836, and for seven years presided over the Amenia seminary. In 1853, he was editor of the Ladies' Repository, and of the works issued by the western Methodist book concern. In 1864, he was elected bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church. He published Treatise on Mental Discipline; Fireside Readings; Life and Times of Bishop Hedding, Man Immortal; Sermoms, etc.

CLARK, Sir James, Bart., a distinguished physician, was born at Cullen, Banffshire, Dec., 1788. His early education was obtained at the grammar-school of Fordyce; and he afterwards passed to King's college, Aberdeen, where he took the degree of M.A. He studied medicine at Edinburgh and London, and entered as a navy surgeon in 1809a position he held until 1815. Taking his degree of M.D. in Edinburgh in 1817, he, after traveling on the continent, settled at Rome, where he practiced as a physician for eight years. In 1826, he took up his residence in London, where he soon secured for himself 9 prominent place among the most eminent medical men of the time. On the accession of queen Victoria to the throne, C., who for two years previously had acted as physician io the duchess of Kent, was appointed physician in ordinary to her majesty; and in that capacity he attended the queen on most of her journeys to Scotland and the continent. He was created a baronet in 1838. Among the most important of C.'s contributions to medical science, is his work on the Sanative Influence of Climate, a subject upon which he was considered a high authority; and A Treatise on Pulmonary Consumption, in which he showed that this destructive malady is one of the general health, depend. ing upon mal-assimilation of the food, and to be prevented, and in certain cases arrested, by a wise regulation of food, air, and exercise. He was among the first in his profession, along with Dr. Andrew Combe and sir John Forbes, who demonstrated the importance of the study of the laws of health, in order to the salutary direction and control of morbid action in disease; and he did great public and professional good by

inculcating attention to the powers of recovery inherent in all living organisms. C. edited the last edition of Dr. Combe's Management of Infancy. He died June 29, 1870.

CLARK, JOHN BULLOCK, Jr. See page 882.

CLARK, JONAS, 1730–1805; a graduate of Harvard in 1752, and pastor at Lexington, Mass. It was near his residence that the first blood of the revolution was shed. The next year he preached an anniversary sermon on the battle.

CLARK, LEWIS GAYLORD, 1810-73; for 25 years the editor of the Knickerbocker Magazine, a monthly publication in New York city. He was the twin brother of Willis Gaylord, who wrote the Olla podiana for the Knickerbocker, and at the time of his death (1811) was the editor of the Philadelphia Gazette.

CLARK, THOMAS, 1801-67; a Scotch chemist, and lecturer on chemistry, in the Glasgow mechanics institution. He was apothecary to the Glasgow infirmary, and in 1833 was professor of chemistry in Marischal college, Aberdeen. He made many valuable discoveries in chemical science.

CLARK, THOMAS MARCH, D.D., LL.D., b. Mass., 1812; graduate of Yale, in 1831; studied theology at Princeton, and was licensed to preach in 1835. In 1836, he became an Episcopalian, and was made rector of Grace church, Boston. In 1843, he went to Philadelphia, but returned to Boston four years later. In 1854, he was consecrated bishop of Rhode Island. He has published Early Discipline and Culture and Primary Truths of Religion.

CLARKE, a co. in s.w. Alabama, between the Tombigbee and Alabama rivers; 1270 sq.m.; pop. '80, 17,806—10,090 colored. The surface is uneven, and much of it is covered with pine forests. Corn and cotton are the leading productions. Co. seat, Clarkszille.

CLARKE, a co. in s.w. Arkansas, on the Washita and Little Missouri rivers, 941 sq.m.; pop. '80, 15,771–5,205 colored. The chief productions are corn and cotton, Co. seat, Arkadelphia.

CLARKE, a co. in n.e, central Georgia, on the Oconee river and its branches, reached by the Athens branch of the Georgia railroad. The land is poor, except near the streams. Productions; wheat, corn, oats, cotton, etc. Gold, garnets, and tourmaline are found. Co. seat, Athens. Pop. '80, 11,702-6,394 colored.

CLARKE, a co, in s.e. Indiana, on the Ohio river, traversed by four or five railroads; 400 sq.m.; pop. '80, 28,638. The surface is level and the soil fertile. Iron, limestone, and hydraulic cement are found. Productions, wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, butter, wool, tobacco, and sorghum molasses. Co. seat, Charleston.

CLARKE, a co. in s.w. Iowa, traversed by the Burlington and Missouri River rail. road. Drained by the e. fork of Grand, and Whitebreast, and South rivers, 432 sq.m.; pop. '80, 11,512. Surface mainly prairie, and soil good; products, wheat, corn, oats, butter, wool, etc. Co. seat, Osceola.

CLARKE, a co. in n.e. Missouri, on the Mississippi and Des Moines rivers; 516 sq.m.; pop. '80, 15,031. The surface is uneven, chiefly of fertile prairie lands, with forests of good timber. Productions almost entirely agricultural. Co. seat, Waterloo.

CLARKE, a co. in n. Virginia, on the West Virginia border, traversed by the Winchester, Potomac and Strasburg division of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and intersected by the Shenandoah river, 208 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 7,682—2,562 colored. It is a hilly region, with fertile soil, producing wheat, corn, wool, etc. Co. seat, Berryville.

CLARKE, a co. situated in the s.w. part of Washington, bounded s. and w. by Columbia river, which separates it from Oregon ; 1400 sq.m.; pop. 1880, 5490. The soil is fertile, and agriculture is the chief business. Co. seat, Canyon city.

CLARKE, ADAM, LL.D., an eminent minister and scholar of the Wesleyan Methodists, was b. about 1762 in the north of Ireland. He studied at Kingswood, near Bristol, and at the age of twenty, became a preacher or evangelist, in which capacity he obtained a great name, and seems to have exercised a most beneficial influence. Although the office of a Wesleyan pastor is very unfavorable for the development of scholarly habits, C. contrired to find time for extensive study. His first work was a Bibliographical Dictionary, published in 1802. His attainments in oriental literature and Biblical knowledge procured for him the degree of LL.D. from St. Andrews university. The board of commissioners on the public records selected him to edit Rymer's Fadera. He also edited and abridged several other works, but the great work of his life was his edition of the Holy Scriptures in English, illustrated with a commentary and critical notes, into which were compressed all the results of his varied reading. The first volume appeared in 1810, the eighth and last in 1826. C. died Aug. 26, 1832.

CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN. See page 882.

CLARKE, EDWARD DANIEL, known as a traveler and author, was b. at Willingdon, in Sussex, in 1769. He studied at Cambridge, and from 1790 to 1799 was employed as tutor and traveling companion in several noblemen's families, and made the tour of Great Britain, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. In 1799, he set out on an extensive tour with Mr. Cripps, a young man of fortune; they traversed Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Lapland, Finland, Russia, the country of the Don-Cossacks, Tartary, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Greece, and did not return to England till 1802. In conse

quence of bis donations to the university of Cambridge, C. received the degree of LL.D. In 1807, he began a course of lectures on mineralogy, and the university established a professorship of that science in his favor. He presented to the library of Cambridge a number of valuable marbles collected during his travels; among others, the colossal statue of the Eleusinian Ceres, on which he wrote a treatise in 1803. England is also indebted to him for the possession of the famous sarcophagus with the inscription in three languages. On this he wrote a treatise: The Tomb of Alexander, a Dissertation on the Sarcophagus brought from Alexandria, and now in the British Museum (Lond. 1805). His “Travels,” of which the first volume was published in 1810, and the fifth in 1819, were received with extraordinary favor. An additional volume, containing his Travels through Denmark, Sweden, Lapland, Norway, Finland, and Russic, was published after his death (Lond. 1823). A complete edition of his travels appeared in 11 vols. (Lond. 1819-24). The university of Cambridge purchased his Greek and oriental manuscripts, among which is the famous Codex of Plato, which C. discovered in the island of Patmos. C. died Mar. 9, 1822.

CLARKE, EDWARD H., M.D. See page 883.

CLARKE, GEORGE ROGERS, 1752–1818; a native of Virginia, who served against Benedict Arnold in that colony in 1780. He was made a brig.gen. in 1781.

CLARKE, HENRY F., b. 1820; graduated at West Point in 1843. He served in the Mexican war, and was in ten battles ; at Molino del Rey he was wounded ; served in commissary department in the civil war ; brevetted brig.-gen. ; retired, 1884. · CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN, D.D., b. N. H., 1810; a graduate of Harvard, and of Cambridge divinity school; pastor of a Unitarian church in Louisville, Ky., then of the Church of the Disciples in Boston; and for many years one of the overseers of Harvard college. Besides a vast number of articles contributed to current journals and magazines, Dr. C. published Theodore (a translation from the German); Campaign of 1812; Eleven Weeks in Europe; Christian Doctrine and Forgiveness, Service Book and Hymn Book for the Church of the Disciples; Memoirs of the Marchioness d'Ossoli; Christian Doctrine of Prayer; The Hour which Cometh and Now Is; Orthodory, its Truths and Errors, Steps of Belief; The Ten Great Religions; Common Sense in Religion, etc. He d. 1888.

CLARKE, JOHN, 1609–76; an English physician, who came to Massachusetts soon after the Plymouth settlement was elected. He was one of the friends of Ann Hutchinson, and with her was driven out of the colony. Roger Williams received him, and Clarke thus became one of the founders of Rhode Island. He founded in Newport (in 1638, some say; others, 1644) a Baptist church, which some believe to be the earliest in America of that denomination. He went with Williams to England in 1651, as an agent for the colony, and there published II News from Nero England, or a Narrative of New England Persecution. After spending 12 years in England, he procured a second charter for Rhode Island, which secured to every person at all times the right to follow his own judgment in matters of religious concern On his return, he resumed the care of the Newport church, and kept the pulpit until his death.

CLARKE, JOHN S. See page 883.

CLARKE, McDonald, 1798-1842; known as the “mad poet.” He was a native of Bath, Maine, but was for many years a conspicuous figure in New York city. His madness was never violent, nor of easy detection by strangers. It was a boundless egotism rather than lunacy. He believed himself to be a great poet, and wrote a few good lines amidst an ocean of trash. Some of his conceits were noticeable, however, and such a striking figure as this, “Night drew her mantle o'er her breast, and pinned it with a star,''is easily remembered. Personally, he was excessively formal and polite, and free from bad habits. Though always in the depths of poverty, he played the gentleman to the last. His death was peculiarly sad. He was arrested one night by a watchman, who did not know him, as a destitute vagrant, and locked in a cell. In the morning he was found dead, drowned by an overflow of water caused by neglecting to shut off the faucet.

CLARKE, MARY VICTORIA COWDEN, b. 1809; daughter of Vincent Novello, and sister of Clara Novello, the vocalist. She was the pupil and associate of Mary Lamb, and was familiar with the literary men and women of half a century ago. At the age of 19 she was married to Charles Cowden Clarke, and soon afterwards began the great work of her life, the Concordance to Shakespeare. This book cost her 16 years of almost uninterrupted labor. It was published in London in 1846. She afterwards published The Adventures of Kit Bam, Mariner; The Girlhood of Shakespeare's Heroines; The Iron Cousin; World-noted Women; Portia, and other Stories of the Early Days of Shakespeare's Heroines, etc.

CLARKE, Dr. SAMUEL, an eminent philosopher and theologian, was b. at Norwich, Oct. 11, 1676, and educated at Cambridge. The system of Descartes at that time held almost universal sway; but this failing to satisfy his mind, he adopted the views of his contemporary and friend, Newton. Along with philosophy, he pursued the study of theology and philology. He was some time chaplain to the bishop of Norwich, a promoter of science; he afterwards became chaplain to queen Anne, and in 1709, rector of St. James's. By his work on the Trinity (1712), in which he denied that that doctrine was held by the early church, he brought himself into considerable trouble. The con. vocation of bishops, who wished to avoid controversy, contented themselves with

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