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state of the mind, in which it is in a greater or less degree independent of the physical body. It presents many gradations from semi-consciousness to profound and death-like trance. However induced, the attending phenomena are similar. The condition of the physical body is that of the deepest sleep. A flame may be applied to it without producing a quiver of the nerves; the most pungent substances have no effect on the nostrils; pins or needles thrust into the most sensitive parts give no pain; surgi. cal operations may be made without sensation. Hearing, tasting, smelling, feeling, as well as seeing, are seemingly independent of the physical organs. The muscular sys tem is either relaxed or rigid; the circulation impeded in cases until the pulse becomes imperceptible; and respiration leaves no stain on a mirror held over the nostrils. In passing into the clairvoyant state the extremities become cold, the brain congested, the vital powers sink, a dreamy unconsciousness steals over the faculties. There is a sensation of sinking or floating. After a time the perceptions become intensified; we cannot say the senses, for they are of the body, which for the time is insensible. The mind sees without physical organs of vision, hears without organs of hearing, and feel. ing becomes a refined consciousness" which brings it en rapport with some intelligence not its own. “The more death-like the condition of the body, the more lucid the perceptions of spirit or mind, which for the time owes it no fealty." So far as clairvoyance depends on the unfolding of the spirit's perceptions, the extent of that unfold. ing marks the perfectness of the state, and the nature of that to which the spirit's per. ceptions are unfolded marks the value of the state. As a mere natural condition the state may be conceived of as the same, whether observed in "the Pythia or Delphic pracles, the vision of St. John, the trance of Mohammed, the epidemic catalepsy of religious revivals, or the illumination of Swedenborg or Davis.” In all cases, there may be the same general mode of disclosure; but temperament, education, and character give such bias and color as to deprive the mere natural state of all claim to infal. libility in teaching, and commonly of all value. A divine illumination, or any degree of value, can be proved in any particular case of clairvoyance, only by evidences aside from the mere state itself. The tendency of the clairvoyant is to make objective the subjective ideas which he has acquired by education or fixed by character; “if a Christian, to see visions of Christ; if a Moslem, of Mohammed; somewhat as dreams reflect the ideas of wakefulness.” Yet there is claimed to be “a profound condition which sets all these aside, in which the mind appears to be divested of all physical trammels, and to come in direct contact with the thought-atmosphere of the world-a condition in which time and space have no existence, and matter becomes transparent." It may be found difficult to prove or disprove the last assertion, as it is not evident what is intended by the “ thought-atmosphere of the world.” By whatever name called, this condition of clairvoyance or trance has been observed among many peoples and nations from the earliest times. How near or remote it has been from the prophetic power, or from the epidemic frenzy of religious or fanatical excitement, from mental ecstasy or epilepsy, it is not our province to determine, Theories, opinions, and judgments upon the causes, conditions, and results of clairvoyance are almost as various as the number of those who have studied its phenomena. The Latin author Apuleius, who wrote in the 2d c. A.D., in his Discourse on Magic very clearly refers to the practice of mesmerism or clairvoyance. He says: “And I am further of the opinion that the human mind may be lulled to sleep and so estranged from the body as to become oblivious of the present. being either summoned away from it by the agency of charms, or else enticed by the allurements of sweet odors; and that so all remembrance of what is done in the body having been banished for a time, it may be restored and brought back to its original nature, which no doubt is divine and immortal, and thus, being in a kind of trance, as it were, may presage future events."

CLALLAM, a co. situated in the n.w. section of Washington, lying along the strait of Juan de Fuca and the Pacific ocean; 1720 sq.m.; pop. '80, 638, besides Indians. The soil is fertile; chief business, agriculture. Co. seat, New Dungeness. In the co. and elsewhere in the region are the remnants of a tribe of Indians known as the Clallams, but calling themselves Nuskliyum. In 1870, they numbered about 600, but were rapidly diminishing. Their language is a dialect of the Selish.


CLAM, in heraldry, is a term for an escalop or cockleshell, and is supposed to indi. cate that the bearer has been a crusader, or has made long voyages by sea.

CLAM, BEAR'S PAW, Hippopus maculatus, a bivalve mollusk of the South Seas, of the family tridacnida. The shell is described as “ perhaps the most beautiful of bivalves, whether in regard to form, texture, or color." It is therefore a favorite shell for ornamental purposes. It is transversely ovate, ventricose, ribbed, roughened with scaly inequalities, wbite, and spotted with red or purple.

CLAN (Gael. clann, Manx cloan, meaning "children," i.e., descendants of a common ancestor). This word became incorporated with the English language at least as early as the 17th c., to mean a body of men confederated together by common ancestry or any other tie, and in this sense it is used both by Milton and Dryden. It came to be applied almost exclusively to the several communities of the Scottish highlanders, as divided from each other topographically and by distinctive surnames. The word has sometimes been applied to those great Irish septs which at one time were a sort of separate states; but these, with their characteristic forms of internal government, were completely broken down by the power of the English predominance, before the word came into familiar use in the English language. In Scotland it was used in the 16th c. to designate the freebooters of the border as well as the Celtic tribes of the highlands; and there were two characteristics common to both-their predatory habits, and their distribution into communities, each with a common surname. In the act of the Scottish parliament of 1587, for instance, which requires landlords to find security for the con. duct of their tenants, it is provided that those“ who have their lands lying in far highlands or borders, they making residence themselves in the inlands, and their tenants and inhabitants of their lands being of clans, or dependars on chieftains or the cap. tains of the clans, whom the landlords are noways able to command, but only get their mails (or rents) of them, and no other service or obedience, shall noways be subject to this act but in manner following." Then follow provisions for enforcing the law directly on the chieftains or captains of those clans residing in territories where the owner of the soil-generally the merely nominal owner, in terms of some useless charter-had no control. It was always the policy of the old law of Scotland to require all the highland clans to have some respectable representative-a man of rank and substance, if possible—who should be security at court for their good conduct. Clans that could find no security were called “broken clans," and their members were outlaws, who might be hunted down like wild beasts. The Macgregors were a celebrated broken C., whom the law pursued for centuries with savage ingenuity. Among other inflictions their name was proscribed, and such members of the C. as endeavored to live by peaceful industry in the lowlands, adopted derivations from it; hence we have the names of Gregor, Gregory, and Gregorson or Grierson. The clans are never treated in the old Scots acts with any respect, or otherwise than as nests of thieves and cutthroats. The following passage in the act of 1581 (c. 112), which virtually authorizes any lowlander, injured by any member of a C., to take vengeance against all or any of his clansmen, contains a picturesque, though, for a legislative enactment, certainly a very highly colored account of the social condition of the highland clans in the 16th century. * The said clans of thieves for the most part are companies of wicked men, coupled in wickedness by occasion of their surnames or near dwellings together, or through keeping society in theft or receipt of theft, not subjected to the ordinar course of justice, nor to ony ane landlord that will make them answerable to the laws, but com. monly dwelling on sundry men's lands against the good-will of their landlords, wherethrough true men oppressed by them can have no remeid at the hands of their masters, but for their defense are oftentimes constrained to seek redress of their skaiths of the hail clan, or such of them as they happen to apprehend. Likewise the hail clan commonly bears feud for the hurt received by any member thereof, whether by execution of laws, or order of justice, or otherwise.” The highland clans are often carelessly spoken of as a feudal institution, but in reality their distinctive character cannot be better understood than by keeping in view some peculiarities which set them in complete contrast with the feudal institutions of Britain. All feudality has a relation to land, from the serf bound to the soil through the free vassal who possesses it, up to the superior or feudal lord, who commands services out of it. The descent to all rights connected with it is hereditary. Among the highlanders, on the other hand, the relation was patriarchal, and had no connection with the land, save as the common dwellingplace of the tribe. It often happened, as the acts above quoted explain, that the head of a C. and the owner, according to feudal law, of the estates occupied by it, were two different persons. Clans did not acknowledge the purely feudal hereditary principle, and would elevate to the chiefship a brother or an uncle, in preference to the son of a deceased chief. It is a curious illustration of this, that in the rebellion of 1715, the notorious lord Lovat, who had just returned from France, being acknowledged by the C. Fraser as their chief, drew them away from the rebel army, to which the proprietor of the Fraser estates had endeavored to attach them, and arrayed them on the government side.

CLAN MACDUFF', LAW OF, was a privilege of immunity for homicide anciently enjoyed by those who could claim kindred with Macduff, earl of Fife, within the ninth degree. Macduff's cross stood on the march or boundary between Fife and Strathearn, above Newburgh; and any homicide possessed of the right of clanship who could reach it, and who gave nine kye (cows) and a colpindash (or young cow), was free of the slaughter committed by him. (Bell's Dictionary.)

CLANDES'TINE MARRIAGE. A marriage contracted without the due observance of ecclesiastical ceremonies, even where concealment was not the chief or only object of the parties, is generally called a clandestine marriage. But, in Scotland, a distinction is made between marriages which are clandestine, and those which are simply irregular. All marriages which are not celebrated by a clergyman after proclamation of bans are irregular, and such of these irregular marriages as are entered into before a person professing to act as a religious celebrator, without being a minister of religion, are clandestine, and expose the parties, the celebrator, and witnesses to certain penalties. These penalties may be recovered before justices of the peace, on complaint by the fiscal; and the proceeding is not without some advantage to the parties, as the conviction is received as evidence of the marriage. In the eye of the law, clandestine and irregular marriages in Scotland are as valid as those in the face of the church, provided they be of such a kind as to establish the consent of the parties to become man and wife in point of fact. But, notwithstanding the existence of this rule of the civil law, marriages in Scotland, in any other form than in facie ecclesiæ, are practically of very rare occurrence. Persons convicted before a magistrate of an irregular marriage are required to register such marriage, and the magistrate is bound to give notice of the conviction to the registrar; and if the irregular marriage is established in a competent court, the clerk of the court is given notice (17 and 18 Vict. c. 80). To put a stop to Englishmen crossing the border, merely in order to celebrate irregular marriages, it was enacted by 19 and 20 Vict. c. 96, “that after the 31st Dec. 1856, no irregular marriage shall be valid in Scotland, unless one of the parties has lived in Scotland for the 21 days next preceding the marriage, or has his or her usual residence there at the time.” It is further enacted, that the parties to such a marriage may apply within three months, jointly, to the sheriff or sheriff-substitute of the county, för a warrant to register it. Upon proof that one of them had lived for 21 days, or usually resided in Scotland, and that they have contracted marriage, the sheriff is to grant a warrant to the registrar of the parish to record the marriage. A certified copy of the entry, signed by the registrar, which he must give for 58., is declared to be evidence of a valid marriage.

*CLANDESTINE MORTGAGE, in England, is a second mortgage of lands, already mortgaged for a valuable consideration, the first mortgage being concealed, or not discovered in writing to the second mortgagee. It is provided by 4 and 5 Will. and Mary. c. 16, that in such circumstances the mortgager, or person so mortgaging his lands, shall have no relief, or equity of redemption, against the second mortgagee. See Supp., page 882

CLAP, ROGER, 1609-91; a native of Devonshire, England; one of the founders of Dorchester, Mass. He held several prominent positions, but is known chiefly by his memoirs of leading men of New England.

CLAP, Thomas, 1703-67; a minister settled at Windham, Conn., in 1727, and in 1739 elected president of Yale college, holding the chair for 27 years, and doing great service to the institution. Through his efforts a college building and chapel were erected. He published a history of the college, and intended to write a history of Connecticut, but his materials were lost or carried away during the raid upon New Haven by the British under gen. Tryon.

CLAPARÉDE. JEAN Louis RENÉ ANTOINE EDOUARD, 1832–70; a Swiss naturalist, who studied medicine and natural science at Berlin. He devoted himself especially to the study of echinoderms, infusoria, and rhizopods, in which he was joint laborer with J. Müller, Ehrenberg, and Lachmann, In 1857, he became professor of comparative anatomy in the Geneva academy, and subsequently visited England and the Hebrides. For the benefit of his health, he resided for some time in Naples, where he published an important work on the annelidæ of the gulf. He bequeathed his library to Geneva, his native city.

CLAP-NET, a kind of ground-net much used by the bird-catchers of the s. of Eng. land, who supply the London market. It consists of two equal parts or sides, each about twelve yards long, by two yards and a half wide, and each having a slight frame. These are placed parallel to one another, fully four yards apart, and by an ingenious contrivance, the pulling of a string is made to close them upon one another, so as to cover the oblong space between them. Call-birds, either in small cages, or fixed by braces, are placed about the net to decoy wild birds to the spot.

CLAPP, THEODORE, 1792–1866; a native of Massachusetts, graduated at Yale in 1814, studied theology at Andover, and in 1822, became pastor of the first Presbyterian church in New Orleans. In 1834, he became a Unitarian, and organized a church which included a large portion of his Presbyterian charge. He was highly esteemed for his faithfulness to duty in seasons of yellow fever, having labored unceasingly through 20 of these epidemics. His only published work is Autobiographical Sketches and Recollections.

CLAPPERTON, Hugh, one of those British travelers that led the way in exploring the interior of Africa, was b. at Annan, in the co. of Dumfries, Scotland, in 1788. At the age of 17, he went to sea; and being impressed into a man-of-war, he distinguished himself by his services, and was appointed to the rank of lieutenant. In 1817, he returned to England on half-pay. Having become acquainted in Edinburgh with Dr. Oudney, who was about to proceed to Bornu as British consul, the thoughts of C. were directed to Africa; and government appointed him and lieut. Denham to accompany Oudney in an exploring expedition into the interior of that continent. After a short stay at Tripoli, they started in Feb., 1822, for Bornu, where Denham separated from his companions, in order to carry his researches southward. C. proceeded westward, accompanied by Oudney, who died by the way. He still pushed on alone as far as Sakkatu, but not being allowed to proceed further westward, he retraced his steps, and, in company with Denham, returned to England in 1825. The journey had done much for the knowledge of Africa, but the great geographical problem of the course of the Niger was still much to the same position. To solve it, if possible, C.--the rank of commander having been conferred upon him-started again in Aug., 1825, in company with capt. Pearce, R.N., Mr. Dickson, and Dr. Morrison. He had also Richard Lander as his confidential serv. ant. They commenced their exploration into the interior from the bight of Benin. His companions died early on the journey, but C. and his faithful attendant, Lander, reached Sakkatu. Detained here by the sultan, Bello, the vexation joined to the hardships of the journey so affected his health, that he died at Chungary, near Sakkatu, April 13, 1827. C. was the first European that penetrated from the Bight of Benin into the interior of Africa, and followed the course of the Niger for a great way. Though without scientific education, he was an intelligent and unprejudiced observer, and made important additions to geographical knowledge.- Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa in the years 1822–23–24, by Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney (Lond. 1826); Journal of a Second Expedition into the Interior of Africa, etc. (Lond. 1829); Records of Clapperton's Last Expedition to Africa, by Richard Lander (Lond. 1830).

CLAQUE (from Fr. claquer, “ to clap the hands,” or “applaud”) is the name given to a contrivance for securing the success of a public performance or production, by bestowing upon it preconcerted applause, and thus giving the public, who are not in the secret, a false notion of the impression it has made. This artifice first came into operation in theaters and concert-rooms, and arose from friendly or party motives; but it is to be feared that it has spread into other departments of public life, not excepting even parliaments,

It was in Paris that it was first regularly organized and turned into a trade. One Sauton, in 1820, established an office for the insurance of dramatic success (Assurance des Succès Dramatiques), and was thus the organizer of the Parisian “claque." The directors or managers of a theater send an order to the office for whatever number of “claqers " they think necessary. If the success of a piece seems doubtful, as many sometimes as from 300 to 500 of these people are furnished with gratis tickets, and are often instructed at the rehearsals at what particular places they are specially to applaud. How minutely the art is organized, may be seen from the exact division of functions among the several claquers. The “commissar" is bound to learn the play by heart, and call the attention of the audience about him to the various beauties of the piece; the "rieur". must laugh at every jest; the “ pleureur" (weeper) has to manifest his sensibility at the moving passages. This last part is generally assigned to women, in whom the frequent use of the handkerchief seems most natural. The “chatouilleur"(tickler), on the other hand, endeavors, by distributing bonbons, snuff, theater-bills, etc., and by lively conversation, to keep his neighbors in good-humor; and lastly, the “bisseur" calls encore ! with the utmost enthusiasm, at the conclusion of the specified pieces of music.

The following incident, which found its way into the newspapers on the occasion of the death of the famous French actress, Mademoiselle Rachel, shows the ludicrous seriousness with which the members of the C. view their singular profession: Mademoiselle Rachel had just created a new character in a modern piece, and during the first evening, was loudly applauded. The next, however, she thought her reception by no means so warm, and she complained of it, adding that the C, did not do its duty. It turned out that the head of the C. had been ill, and that his place that evening had been supplied by a confrère from another theater. This individual, on hearing of the complaint that had been made, wrote to mademoiselle as follows: "MADEMOISELLE—I can. not remain under the obloquy of a reproach from such lips as yours! The following is an authentic statement of what really took place: At the first representation, I led the attack in person not less than 33 times. We had three acclamations, four hilarities, two thrilling movements, four renewals of applause, and two indefinite explosions. In fact, to such an extent did we carry our applause, that the occupants of the stalls were scandalized, and cried out, 'A la porte !' My men were positively extenuated with fatigue, and even intimated to me that they could not again go through such an evening. Seeing such to be the case, I applied for the manuscript, and after having profoundly studied the piece, I was obliged to make up my mind for the second representation to certain curtailments in the service of my men. I, however, applied them only to MM. - , and if the ad interim office I hold affords me the opportunity, I will make them ample amends. In such a situation as that which I have just depicted, I have only to request you to believe firmly in my profound admiration and respectful zeal; and I venture to entreat you to have some consideration for the difficulties which environ me.”

The allegation that in London theatrical artists and managers are obliged to endeavor to insure success by means of a similar institution, is strenuously denied. Although no public offices of the kind have yet been established in Germany, the artifice is extensively practiced, to the perversion of the public judgment and the detriment of art.

CLARAC, CHARLES OTHON FRÉDÉRIC JEAN BAPTISTE, Count, 1777-1847; a native of Paris, an artist and antiquary. He superintended the excavations at Pompeii, of which he gives an account in Fouilles faites à Pompeii. He was for a time a meniber of the French embassy in Brazil, and on returning to Paris, was made keeper of the museum of antiquities in the Louvre, of which museum he published a catalogue. Others of his

works are Manuel de lHistorie de l'Art chez les Anciens, and Musée de Sculpture Antique et Moderne.

CLARE, a co. in central Michigan, on the head-waters of Muskegon river, reached by the Flint and Pere Marquette railroad; 650 sq.m.; pop. '80, 4,187. It is mostly covered with forests. Co. seat, Farwell.

CLARE, a maritime co. in the province of Munster, Ireland, bounded n. by Galway and Galway bay; e. and s. by the Shannon, and its expansion lough Derg, separating it from Tipperary, Limerick, and Kerry; w. by the Atlantic. It lies between lat. 52 32' and 53° s n., and long. 8° 25' and 9° 58' west. It is seventh in size of the Irish counties; length, 67 m.; greatest breadth, 38; average, 21; area, 1294 sq.m.-more than a half being arable, and a hundredth in wood. The surface is mostly hilly, with some mountains, bog, marsh, and rugged pasture. There is an undulating plain in the center, from n. to south. On the e., lie the Inchiquin, Siieve Baughta, and Slieve Barnagh mountains, the highest being 1758 ft., with rich pastures between. The mountains on the w. rise in Mt. Callan to 1282 feet. In the s., along the rivers, are rich loamy pastures called corcasses. The coast-line is 140 m, along the sea, and 80 along the Shannon estuary. The sea-line is high and rocky, in parts precipitous, with many isles and fantastic detached rocks. For 5 m. at Moher, the coast rises 400 ft. nearly perpendicular, and at another point 587 feet. The chief rivers are the Shannon (q.v.), and the Fergus, running s. 27 m. through the middle plain, and by an estuary 5 m. broad. The county has about 100 small lakes. Carboniferous limestone is a prevailing formation in the county. The s.w. third of the county forms part of the Munster coal-field, with beds of ironstone, and thin seams of coal and culm. C. has mines of lead, copper pyrites, and manganese; slate and flag quarries; a black marble quarry near Ennis; and many chalybeate springs. The soils are warm and friable on lime. stone, deep rich loam on the Shannon, and cold and wet, with bogs and much timber on the coal tracts. Part of the limestone district is flooded in winter, but affords rich pasture in the summer, when the water dries up. In some places, spring-water is very scarce, and water can only be procured from the neighboring corcasses. The climate is moist and mild, but with frequent violent gales from the Atlantic. In 1880, 141,303 acres were under crops, the chief crops being oats, potatoes, wheat, barley, and turnips. The chief trade is in grain and provisions. Fine sheep and cattle are reared ou the pastures. Fish are caught on the rivers in the native wicker-boats. The chief manufactures are coarse linens, hosiery, flannels, and friezes. C. is divided into 11 baronies, 80 parishes, and seven poor-law unions, with parts of three others. The chief towns are Ennis (the county town), Kilrush, Ennistymon, and Killaloe. Pop. in '41, 286.394; in '51, 212,428; in '71, 147,864, of whom 144,440 were Roman Catholics, 3,027 Protestant Episcopalians, 220 Presbyterians, and the rest of other denominations. In 1891, C. had 32,130 pupils on the rolls of the national schools. It returns three members to parliament, two for the county, and one for Ennis. C. has many cromlechs, raths, remains of abbeys, and old castles or towers, and several round towers, one at Kilrush being 120 ft. high. C., till the time of Elizabeth, was called Thomond. An adventurer called Clare gave it its present name. Pop, '81, 141,457.

CLARE, John, 1793-1864; known as the Northamptonshire Peasant Poet, the son of a farm laborer. He was taken from school at the age of 7, and set to watch. ing geese and sheep; at 12 he worked on a farm, paying for such education as he could get in earnings from his meager wages. He tried to get a place in a lawyer's office, but failed; studied algebra; fell in love; became a pot-boy in a public-house; was apprenticed to a gardener; ran away; enlisted in the militia; lived among the gypsies; worked as a lime-burner, and at the age of 25 was compelled to seek parish relief. Two years after, he published Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery,' and in the following year his Village Minstrel and other Poems. He became famous, was patronized and flattered, and overrun with curious visitors, fell into dangerous habits, and died a madman in a lunatic asylum.

CLARE COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, founded 1326, under the name of University hall, by Richard Badew, was burned in 1338, and rebuilt and endowed by Elizabeth, countess of Clare. Chaucer calls this college “Solere" ball. It has a master, 8 senior and 10 junior fellows. The 18 fellowships are open to gentlemen of the degree B. A. or a bigher, without restriction as to marriage. The master is elected by the senior and junior fellows. The buildings, which are in the renaissance style, are amongst the most pleasing in the university. Richard III., pretending himself to be descended from the foundress, claimed the patronage of this hail. The chapel was built in 1535, previ. ous to which an aisle of St. Edward's church, where the masters and fellows were anciently interred, was used for the purpose.

CLARE ISLAND, an island of Ireland, belonging to the county of Mayo, situated in the Atlantic, at the entrance of Clew bay. It has a length of 41 m., with a breadth of 2 miles. On its n.e. extremity, there is a light-house at an elevation of 487 ft. above the sea. Lat. 53° 49' 30" n., long. 9° 55' 30" w.

CLAREMONT, a t. in Sullivan co., N. H., on the Connecticut river, and the southern division of the Vermont Central railroad; 48 m. n.w. of Concord; pop. '80;

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