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expenses occasioned by war, and the ordinary cost of the civil establishments of the country. For the latter, the needful funds were provided, partly from such crown. lands as were still unalienated, and partly from taxes which parliament voted for the purpose at the commencement of each reign. These were called the hereditary or C. L. revenues. During the reign of William III., the C. L. amounted to £680,000 annually. The branches of expenditure included under this head were the following: 1. The royal household; 2. The privy purse; 3. The royal palaces; 4. The salaries of the chancellor, judges, great officers of state, and ambassadors; 5. The incomes given to the other members of the royal family; 6. The secret-service money, pensions, and other irregular claims. The support of the army and navy was now provided for by an annual vote of the house of commons, and the interest of the national debt was never charged against the civil list. During queen Anne's reign, matters remained nearly on their former footing; but on the accession of George I., the C. L. was raised to £700,000 a year, and on that of George II., to £800,000. George III., notwithstanding that he had surrendered very large portions of the remaining hereditary revenue of England, accepted the last-mentioned sum. But it proved insufficient for the purpose. A large amount of debt was incurred, and in 1769 and 1777, parliament voted sums for his relief, amounting together to more than £1,000,000. [n 1777, the C. L. revenue was raised to £900,000, but further deficiencies to the extent of £270,000 had still to be supplied by extraordinary votes. In 1780, Mr. Burke succeeded in abolishing several useless offices, and reducing the expenditure. Notwithstanding these and other efforts in the same direction, it was found indispensable continually to augment the C. L. revenue. In 1804, it was raised to £960,000, and in 1812, to £1,080,000, besides annuities to members of the royal family, which were now paid out of the consolidated fund (q.v.) to the amount of £260,000. When George IV. succeeded to the throne, £255,000 of expenditure was transferred to other funds, and the C. L. was then fixed at £850,000 per annum. The crown enjoyed, in addition, the hereditary revenue of Scotland, amounting to about £110,000, and a separate C. L. was kept up for Ireland of £207,000. Against these large sums, however, were still placed many charges which belonged to the nation rather than the crown; and it was not till the 15th Nov., 1830, that sir Henry Parnell, afterwards lord Congleton, carried a motion for the appointment of a select committee for the purpose of separating the proper expenses of the crown from all other charges. The result of this measure was the act (1 Will. IV. c. 25) for the regulation of the civil list. The sum of £510,000 was now granted to his majesty, and exclusively devoted to the privy purse, the salaries and expenses of the household, secret-service money, and pensions. The separate list for Ireland was discontinued, and the Scotch hereditary revenues and other items were directed to be paid into the exchequer. The change was rather a new distribution, which enabled the country to look more closely into its expenditure, than a real reduction of the civil list.
On the accession of queen Victoria, the C. L., which had long been of the nature of a compact between the monarch and the parliament, and as such beyond the control of parliament during the life of the sovereign, was settled by 1 and 2 Vict. c. 2. The queen surrendered the hereditary revenues of the crown for life, in consideration of a yearly sum of £385,000, to be devoted solely to the support of her majesty's household, and the honor and dignity of the crown. The application of this sum to the particular branches of the queen's privy purse, the salaries and expenses of the household, the royal bounty, alms and special services, is intrusted to the lords of the treasury: and it is provided that if the C. L. charges in any one year shall exceed the total sum of £400,000, an account of the particulars of excess shall be laid before parliament in thirty days. Besides the above sum, £1200 a year is intrusted to her majesty for the payment of pensions, “to persons who have just claims on the royal beneficence, or who, by their personal services to the crown, by the performance of duties to the public, or by their useful discoveries in science, and attainments in literature and the arts, have merited the gracious consideration of their sovereign and the gratitude of their country.”
CIVIL SERVICE is a general name for all the duties rendered to and paid for by the state, other than those relating to naval and military matters. At the head of the British C. S., which numbers above 50,000 officials of all grades, are placed the officers of the royal household, under several departments. Then come the officers of the house of lords and the house of commons. Then a vast number of offices or departments, of which the following are the more important: Treasury, home office, foreign office, colonial office, India office, war office, admiralty, board of trade, post-office, customs, inland revenue (including stamps, taxes, and excise), exchequer and audit office, office of woods and forests, office of works and buildings, duchy of Lancaster, public record office, local government board, education department, civil service commission, registrargeneral's office, stationery office, ecclesiastical commission, charity commission, patent office, emigration office, Trinity house, heralds' college, law and equity courts, ecclesiastical and admiralty courts, prisons department, British museum, science and art department, diplomatic and consular corps. Several departments peculiar to Scotland and Ireland form distinct lists, not included in the above.
The heads of most of the departments are political officers, changing with the ministry. Others, such as the head of the exchequer and audit department, or the commis
sioners of customs and of inland revenue, are permanent officials. Excluding the judicial offices, and a few departments where special knowledge is required, the C. S. is open to the public generally, the principle of open competition being in force as regards most of the departments.
In former times appointments to the government offices were obtained mostly by favor; but now, merit and abilities are conditions superadded. By an order in council, dated May 21, 1855, the system was first placed on a new basis, and a commission was appointed to examine all candidates for the service. A candidate being nominated, the commissioners in due time notified that he must come up to be examined, and produce certificates of birth, health, and character. The heads of the several departments agree with the commissioners as to the extent and nature of the subjects on which candidates should be examined. The commissioners neither nominate nor appoint; they only examine, and notify the result of the examination.
By an order in council, dated 4th June, 1870, the regulations were altered, the rule of open and unrestricted competition being then introduced, qualified by some exceptions. In certain small and special offices, nomination with subsequent success at an examination remained the rule of entry. But for all the principal departments—tho foreign office being the only prominent exception--there is open competition, to which all British subjects of the required age and of good health and character, are admissible. For offices of the superior grade, the age is from 18 to 24, and in the lower division, the age is from 17 to 20. Boy clerks must be over 15 and under 17. Any successful candi. date remaining on the list without obtaining an appointment, is struck off at the age of 25. Boy clerks who at 19 fail to obtain appointments as man clerks are also struck off. The first open competition held was on 22d Feb., 1871, when 30 situations in the excise were competed for by a large number of candidates. A further change was made by the introduction of “writers"-a species of “ uncovenanted" clerks, who were paid by the hour, were dismissible at pleasure, and had no claim to pension. Writers were first introduced in Aug., 1870, and boy clerks” were sanctioned in July, 1870.
These various changes (tending in the opinion of the service to lower the status of the officers) and the increased cost of living resulted in great agitation throughout the C. S., and in the appointment of a commission under Dr. Lyon Playfair, to reconsider the whole system of C. S. organization and pay. Following on reports from this com. mission, considerable changes were made. The decision that the lower grade should have no claim to rise above £200 a year, or to obtain promotion into the higher grade, and the introduction of “duty-pay as a means of rewarding special responsibilities, may be named amongst the chief alterations. The Playfair commission reported against the employment of temporary writers; and that class of employés ceased to be appointed after the issue of the order in council of 12th Feb., 1876, though a small class of temporary “copyists” is still maintained. The granting of pensions to the C. S. is Dow regulated by acts passed in 1859 and 1871, the latter allowing the commutation of pensions for a slump sum when these have been granted on abolition or reorganization of office. The rate of pension is one sixtieth of pay for each year's service.
The more important departments of the C. S. will be found briefly described under their proper headings in this work. See EXAMINATIONS FOR THE PUBLIC SERVICE.
CIVIL SERVICE ESTIMATES include all expenses of the state not provided for in the army and navy estimates. As an example of these C. S. E., we will quote the amounts voted under their various heads for the financial year beginning April 1, 1884, and ending Mar. 31, 1885 : Public works and buildings.
£1,805,802 Salaries and expenses of public departments
2,409,134 Law and justice.
6,414.813 Education, science, and art.
4,860,433 Colonial and consular services..
688,812 Superannuation and allowances, and gratuities..
1,180,414 Miscellaneous and special.
£17,397,102 *CIVIL SERVICE REFORM, in the United States, was partially introduced in the customs and some other offices in 1877 and the years following, but up to this time (1889) it has made no great progress. The general principles of the system are the same as in England, involving the separation of officials from all absorbing political partisan. ship, and, in general, the retention of capable and deserving civil officers through suc. cessive changes of administration. It involves also the promotion of worthy public servants as vacancies may occur. It lays the foundation for all this in conferring offices, not as reward for partisan services, but on strict competitive examination as to character, capacity, and education. By many it is pronounced both impracticable and undesirable; by others, a fine ideal not likely to be realized; and by others, an indispensable practical reform. See Supp., page 881.
CI'VITA CASTELLA'NA, a t. of central Italy, about 30 m. n.e. of Rome. It is a place of 4,000 inhabitants, picturesquely situated on a plateau of volcanic tufa above the Rio Maggiore; has an old cathedral, and a citadel, now used as a prison. It is, however, chiefly remarkable on account of the vast number of its Etruscan remains. It occupies the site of the ancient Falerium Vetus, one of the 12 cities of the Etruscan league; and Falerii Novi, of which also there are many remains, stood about 4 m. to the n. of Civita Castellana,
CIVITA DI PEN'NÉ, a t. of s. Italy, in the province of Teramo, situated on a commanding hill about 20 m. s. e. of Teramo. It is an ancient place, having, under the name of Pinna, been the chief city of the Vestini; and some remains are still found here. The modern town, though containing some fine edifices, including the cathedral, is in general badly built. C. di P. is noted for its manufactory of silk-flowers. Pop. 4,800.
CIVITANOVA, a t. of central Italy, province of Macerata, 12 m. w. of the town of Macerata. Pop., including the port, 8,583. It stands not far from the Adriatic, and has a fine harbor, much frequented. Its lands produce vines, olives, and pasturage. It is an industrial and commercial city.
CIVITA SAN-AN'GELO, a t. of s. Italy, in the province of Teramo, situated near the Adriatic, about 25 m. s.e. of Teramo. It has a pop. of 3,000, and an active trade.
CI'VITA VECCHIA, an Italian city in the province of Rome, is situated on the Mediterranean, in lat. 42° 4' n., long. 11° 45' e. Its ancient name was Centum Cellæ. The harbor of C. V. is one of the best in Italy, and was constructed by the emperor Trajan; the town, indeed, owed its origin entirely to the port of this emperor, and hence it was also known as Portus Trajani. The harbor is formed by two artificial moles projecting into the sea, while a third constructed between the two serves to protect the harbor from the heavy sea; upon this third and outward mole there is a good light-house, some 80 ft. above the level of the sea. Within the port there is a small dock and arsenal. The town of C. V. is small, and has no buildings of any note except a large church in the principal street. The streets are ill paved and narrow, and the inhabitants poor. Pop. about 10,500. It is a free port, and is regularly visited by steam-packets from Marseilles, Leghorn, Naples, Genoa, Messina, and Malta; while the majority of travelers visiting Rome land here. It is famous among the modern Italians for its oysters, which are extremely small, but delicious to the taste.
CIVITEL'LA DEL TRONTO, a t. of s. Italy, in the province of Teramo, 10 m. n. of Teramo. It is situated on a rock, is fortified and defended by a strong castle. C. del T. is historically interesting as the place where, in 1053, Robert Guiscard and his Normans gained a complete victory over the forces of pope Leo IX, and the emperor Henry III. of Germany; and also for the siege it sustained in 1557 against the French and papal army under the duke of Guise, who was finally forced to retreat.
CLACKAMAS, a co. in n.w. Oregon, w. of the Cascade mountains, drained by the Clackamas and Willamette rivers, and intersected by the Oregon and California railroad. Seven hundred sq.m.; pop. '80, 9,260. It is heavily timbered and has a fertile soil. The chief productions are agricultural. Co. seat, Clackamas.
CLACKMAN'NAN, the co. t. of Clackmannanshire, in the s. part of the co., on the Devon, near its confluence with the Forth, 9 m. e. of Stirling. It lies on ground rising 190 ft. above the rich carse-land of the plain of the Forth, which is also rich in coal, iron, and limestone. C. was formerly a royal burgh, and is mentioned as such in the acts of parliament of James V. in 1540 and 1543. From a bull of pope Celestine III., dated 1195, it appears that at this early date the church and its chapels, together with 40 acres of land, belonged to the abbey of Cambuskenneth. In 1330, king David Bruce resided at Clackmannan. In 1358-59, king David II. confirmed to sir Robert de Bruce the castle and barony of C., with the lands of Kennet and others; and from that period to the present, the Bruces have been proprietors in this parish. Pop. '81, 1,503.
CLACKMAN'NANSHIRE, the smallest co. of Scotland, bounded n. and w. by Perthshire and the Ochil hills; e. by Perthshire and Fifeshire; s. by the Forth, separating it from Stirlingshire. Its greatest dimensions are 10 by 8 m.; area, 48 sq. miles. Pop. '81, 25,680. It chiefly consists of the valley of the North Devon, gently declining from the green Ochil hills to the Forth. The Ochils consist of trap, especially amygdaloid, clay. stone, porphyry, and greenstone, and rise in Bencleugh (more properly, Benclach), 2,352 ft., and Dunmyat, or Demyat, 1345. A ridge of high ground, with inferior soil, often resting on clay, runs w. through the middle of c., between the very fertile alluvial lands resting on the coal-measures in the s., and the North Devon valley in the n., where the soil is loamy, and rests on gravel, and also on the coal-measures, which extend to the base of the Ochils. The chief minerals are ironstone, sandstone, greenstone, coal, limestone, silver, copper, antimony. The chief rivers are the North Devon, rising in the s. of Perthshire, and the Black Devon, rising in the s.w. of Fifeshire; both run w. across C. into the Forth. The river Forth is navigable for vessels of 500 tons up to Alloa, at which port ships of 700 tons register have been built. The chief crops are wheat, barley, and oats. The number of acres in C., under all kinds of crops, bare fallow, and grass, in 1876, was 15,884; under corn crops, 5,840; under green crops, 1535; clover, sanfoin, and grasses in rotation, 3,279; permanent pasture and meadow land, 4,914. The “ Hillfoots” have long been celebrated for their woolen manufactures,
chiefly in tartan shawls and plaids, and have become favorably known in the production of tweeds. The district is likewise famed for its ale, there being seven breweries in the county. There are also extensive distilleries. There are manufactures of green glass bottles, earthenware, bricks, and tiles; also timber trade and ship-building. The chief exports are iron and coal. The columnar greenstone of abbey Craig, near Stirling, has come into use for grinding flour, which it does nearly as well as the French buhrstones. C. contains four parishes. The chief towns are Clackmannan, the co. town; Alloa, the most important place; and Dollar, noted for its endowed educational establishment. C., with Kinross-shire, returns one member to parliament; but the co. occupies the anomalous position of having parishes within its circumference politically-Alva in Stirlingshire, and Tulliallan and Culross in Perthshire—which it does not embrace judicially. In C. have been found Roman stone coffins, sepulchral vases, and old Roman coins. The marquis of Montrose, in 1645, burned castle Campbell, now a noble ruin situated on a wild but easily accessible eminence, on the brow of a hill immediately behind Dollar. In C., George Meikle constructed, in 1787, the first effective thrashing-machine in Scotland.
CLA'DIUM (Gr. clados, a branch or twig), a genus of plants of the natural order cyperaceæ, of which one species, C. mariscus, is a native of Britain, particularly common in the bogs and fens of Cambridgeshire, where hundreds of acres are almost entirely covered with it. It is 3 to 5 ft. high, with a rounded leafy stem, the keel and margins of the leaves rough and almost prickly: It is consequently hurtful to cattle. It is used for thatching, and in Cambridgeshire also for lighting fires. The English name twig-rush has been given to it, but is only of recent invention.
CLADRAS'TIS, a small leguminous tree, resembling the common locust, having a yellow bark with cathartic properties. It is variously called yellow wood, yellow ash, yellow locust, and fustic.
CLAFLIN, WILLIAM. See page 882.
CLAGGETT, THOMAS JOHN, D.D., 1743–1816; a native of Maryland, ordained in England, and the first Protestant Episcopal bishop consecrated on this side of the Atlantic. In 1800, he was chaplain to the U. S. senate, and in 1808, he became rector of Trinity church, Marlborough, Ma.
CLAIBORNE, a parish in n.w. Louisiana, on the Arkansas border; 1200 sq.m.; pop. '80, 18,858–10,314 colored. It has an undulating surface partly covered with timber. The chief productions are cotton, corn, wool, and sweet potatoes. Co. seat. Homer.
CLAIBORNE, a cc. in s.w. Mississippi, on the Mississippi and the Big Black rivers; 740 sq.m.; pop.'80, 16,768—12,858 colored. The surface is uneven, and the soil is fertile, producing corn, potatoes, cotton, etc. Co. seat, Port Gibson.
CLAIBORNE, a co. in n.e. Tennessee, on the Kentucky border, bounded s. by Clinch river; 350 sq.m.; pop. '80, 13,373—780 colored. It has a rough mountainous surface, but fertile soil, with mines of lead, zinc, and iron. The chief productions are agricultural. Co. seat, Tazewell. The lumber product, '85, was valued at $1,000,000.
CLAIM, in English law, is a challenge of interest in anything that is in the possession of another, or at least out of a man's own possession. Claims are either verbal or by action, and relate either to lands or to goods and chattels; their object being generally to preserve a title which otherwise would be in danger of being lost.
CLAIM OF LIBERTY is a suit or petition to the queen in the court of exchequer, to have liberties and franchises confirmed there by the attorney-general (Tomiins' Law Dic.).
CLAIMS, COURT OF, in the United States, created by act of congress, Feb. 24, 1855, and consisted of three judges appointed by the president and senate, to hold office dur. ing good behavior, and to have jurisdiction to hear and determine all claims founded upon any act of congress, or on any regulation of any executive department, or upon any contract, express or implied, with the government of the United States; and all claims which might be referred to it by either house of congress. The United States were represented before it by a solicitor and assistant-solicitor appointed by the president; the solicitor being authorized to appoint a deputy, and the compensation of all members of the court was fixed by law. The court had no power to render a judg. ment which it could not execute, but reported to congress the cases upon which it had finally acted, the material facts which it found established by the evidence, with its opinion in the case, and reasons therefor, or what was equivalent to an opinion in the return of a judgment as to the rights of the parties upon the facts proved or admitted in the case. By another act, Mar. 3, 1863, two additional judges were to be appointed by the president, and a chief-justice from the whole number of judges (five). The court was also authorized to take jurisdiction of all set-offs, counter-claims, claims for damages, liquidated or unliquidated, or other demands whatsoever on the part of the government against any person making claim against the government in said court. If the judgment of the court be in favor of the government, it shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the proper district or circuit court of the United States, and shall ipso facto become and be a judgment of such district or circuit court, and shall be enforced the same as other judgments. If the judgment be in favor of the claimant, the sum thereby
found due to the claimant shall be paid out of any general appropriation made by law for the payment of private claims, on presentation to the secretary of the treasury of a duly certified copy of such judgment. In cases where the amount in controversy exceeds $3,000, an appeal may be taken to the supreme court of the United States at any time within 90 days after judgment. Where the judgment or decree may affect a constitutional question, or furnish a precedent affecting a class of cases, the United States may take an appeal without regard to the amount in controversy. Claims must be filed within six years after the claim accrues, except in cases of disability. The court is required to hold one session annually, commencing on the first Monday in Oct. Members of congress are prohibited from practicing in the court. At the instance of the solicitor of the United States, any claimant may be required to testify on oath. The jurisdiction of the court is not to extend to any claim growing out of any treaty with foreign nations or Indian tribes, unless such claim was pending in said court Dec. 1, 1862; nor shall the jurisdiction of the court extend to any claim against the United States for the destruction, appropriation, or damage of any property by the army or navy engaged in the suppression of the rebellion, from the commencement to the close thereof. Proceedings originate in the court by petition filed; and testimony used in the hearing and determination of claims is taken by commissioners who are appointed for the purpose by the court.
CLAIR, St., a river of North America, being that part of the St. Lawrence, in its largest sense, which carries into lake St. Clair the waters of lake Huron. It is 30 m. long, and half a mile broad, and easily navigable, its depth being 50 feet. Lake St. Clair measures 30 m. in length by 12 in average width, and communicates at its s.w. end with lake Erie by means of the Detroit.
CLAIRAC, a t. of France, in the department of Lot-et-Garonne, situated on the Lot, about 16 m. n.w. of Agen. It has flour and paper mills, and a considerable trade. c. is chiefly interesting, however, as the first place in the s. of France that embraced the doctrines of the reformation, which it did in 1527, on the example of its abbot, Gerard Rouselle. It was the scene of frequent contests between Roman Catholics and Huguenots. Pop. '81, 3,000.
CLAIRAUT, ALEXIS CLAUDE, an eminent French mathematician, was b. at Paris, May.7, 1713. He early exhibited a most remarkable aptitude for mathematics, and was considered worthy of admission to the academy of sciences, while as yet he was only 18 years of age. C. wrote a great number of scientific papers, but his fame now rests principally upon his Figure of the Earth, in which he proinulgated the theorem, that the variation of gravity on the surface of the earth, regarded as an elliptic spheroid, was altogether independent of the law of density, the opposite opinion having been previously held; on his explanation of the motion of the lunar apogee, a point left unexplained by Newton; and on his computation of the time of the return of. Halley's comet." He died at Paris, May 17, 1765.
CLAIRE, ST., or Santa Clara, was b. in 1193, of a rich and noble family of Assisi, in the duchy of Spoletto. Attracted by the eloquence and piety of St. Francis of Assisi, she abandoned the pleasures of social life, in which she had previously indulged, and betook herself to solitude, prayer, and mystic meditation. Her imagination, excited by religious emotions, deceived her into the belief that she was in more direct communication with God than her fellow-mortals; and taking her own desires for divine intimations, she founded an order of nuns in 1212, and after obtaining a great reputation for sanctity, died at Assisi, Aug. 11, 1253. Two years afterwards, she was canonized by Alexander IV.
CLAIRE, ST., NUNS OF THE ORDER OF, a religious order founded by St. Claire, with the counsel and help of St. Francis of Assisi, in 1212. At first, the núns observed the rule of St. Benedict, but in 1224 the austerity of this rule was mitigated by St. Francis, and again modified by Urban IV. in 1264. Those who follow the rule as modified by Urban, are called Urbanists; the other and austerer portion of the sisterhood, Damian. ists. The order rapidly increased; and convents are numerous to the present day in Italy, France, Belgium, Bavaria, Asia, and America. The nuns devote themselves chiefly to the education of the young.
CLAIRVAUX, a village in the department of Aube, about 10 m. above Bar-surAube, on the left bank of the river, is remarkable as the site of the once famous Cistercian abbey (Clara Vallis), founded in 1114 by St. Bernard, who presided over it till his death in 1153, when he was buried in the church. Besides the original buildings, a new and splendid convent was afterwards erected, and a church which was reckoned a masterpiece of architecture, but was destroyed at the restoration. There was shown in the convent a monster cask, called Št. Bernard,” which contained 800 tuns. The abbey, which had at one time a revenue of 120,000 livres, was sup: pressed at the revolution, and the extensive buildings are now used as a workhouse and house of correction.
CLAIRVOYANCE. See SOMNAMBULISM.
CLAIRVOY'ANCE, as explained by Mr. Hudson Tuttle-whose language is here in part adopted, but with some decided modifications—"must be regarded as a peculiar