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honor. The 18th day of the second moon is kept sacred by the Chinese as the anni. versary of his death.
The system of C. is, rightly considered, the most faithful expression of the Chinese mind, although it is neither the oldest of the extant Chinese religions, nor that which can claim the greatest number of adherents. We have termed it a religion, but it ought rather to be regarded as a system of social and political life built upon a slight foundation of philosophy. It contains no trace of a personal God. There are, indeed, a number of allusions to a certain heavenly agency or power, Shang-te, whose outward emblem is Tien, or the visible firmament; but this Shang-te, in the opinion of the most enlightened Chinese scholars, is nothing more than a verbal personification of “the ever-present law and order and intelligence, which seem to breathe amid the wonderful activities of physical creation, in the measured circuit of the seasons, in the alternation of light and darkness, in the ebb and flow of tides, and in the harmonious and majestic revolutions of the heavenly bodies.” Sometimes, indeed, C. uses language that might seem to imply more than this. In one of the sacred books, Shang-te is depicted as possessing a high measure of intelligence, and exercising some degree of moral govern. ment; he punishes the evil, rewards the good, and is honored with sacrifice. Iinmedi. ately after, however, we are informed that his retinue consists of six Tsong, the moun. tains, the rivers, and the spirits generally. Elsewhere, the people are enjoined “to con. tribute with all their power to the worship of Shang-te, of celebrated mountains, of great rivers, and of the ‘shin' (spirits) of the four quarters." Hence we are forced to the conclusion, that C. no more believed Shang-te to be a personal being, than he believed the mountains to be such; and that in describing this power as possessed of intelligence, and as exercising a moral government, he simply spoke in a pictorial and symbolic way of the laws that govern all things. Perhaps, too, a dim consciousness of a mysterious inexplicable life pervading the phenomena and operating through the laws of naturea feeling probably absent from no human soul--influenced C. to use words which his understanding would not have interpreted in a very literal manner. His highest conception of God, therefore, only reminds one of the anima mundi of the classical philosophy; and even this conception is not always present. More than once, his language indicates doubt as to the existence of this great abstraction, and he occasionally “reprimanded his disciples for prying into matters unconnected with their duties and lying far beyond their depth.” In fact, from metaphysics and theology he equally shrank. The idea of a creation out of nothing by an infinite and eternal person, to the end that the glory of his perfections might be seen and felt through the magnificence of material symbols by those intelligences whom in his beneficent condescension he had deigned to create, is utterly unknown to Confucius. He looked on the universe rather as a stupendous, self-sustaining mechanism. He thought that all things existed from eternity, and were subject to a flux and reflux, in obedience to initial laws impressed upon them, how and why, we know not, by some stern necessity. Thus, chaining to the earth, as it were, “those thoughts that wander through eternity;" crushing, in fact, every spiritual tendency of human nature, by repudiating all speculation, and well-nigh all philosophic investigation of every kind, C. strove to direct the attention of men to the duties of social and political life. “I teach you nothing,” he says, “but what you might learn yourselves-viz., the observance of the three fundamental laws of relation between sovereign and subject, father and child, husband and wife; and the five capital virtues-universal charity, impartial justice, conformity to ceremonies and established usages, rectitude of heart and mind, and pure sincerity.” This, in fact, contains the whole doctrine of C.; and it was unquestionably well suited to the prosaic, practical, and conservative mind of the Chinese. It was by the strict and faithful performance of appointed duties, and by the cultivation of proper feelings and sentiments, that C. believed wisdom or knowledge could alone be obtained. He seems to have entertained no doubt that the great virtues of charity, justice, and sincerity might be developed without the help of any spiritual or religious faith, by a species of mechanical discipline. They were natural to the mind, he thought, just as their opposites were unnatural. Here, again, we find a striking example of that easily satisfied unphilosophic materialism which characterized C., and has since leavened the Chinese nation so thoroughly. He virtually says: “Just as I am forced to accept the phenomena of the universe as facts, though I can give no explanation of their origin, so am I forced to accept the phenomena of the human mind as facts, though I can give no explanation of their origin.” C. finds evil and good, wisdom and folly, in the hearts of men. He cannot help making this distinction; some things are bad, others good; such is the oracular utterance of his conscience, which he terms “ the light of intelligence.” He does not, however, advance a step further, and make this moral conviction the basis of a religion. His “good” has no connection with any God. It exists; we are forced to recognize it as such; that is all we can know. Cultivate it. Those great laws of nature about which we know nothing except that they are realities, are on its side. Do not foster what you know to be mean and unworthy, for “ he who offends against heaven has no one to whom he can pray.” “Imperial heaven will only assist virtue.” From this stand-point, C. taught 8 simple and comprehensive rule of life, both private and public. First, let every man govern himself according to the sacred maxims; then his family according to the same; and finally, let him render to the emperor, who is the father of his people,
such filial obedience as he demands of his own children, and worship him with the same veneration as he does his own ancestors; for thus will domestic peace, social order, and the safety of the commonwealth be preserved. To further this end (and in accordance with his belief that by instruction in the sacred precepts everything desirable could be accomplished), C. inculcated the necessity of universal education, and, in consequence, schools are diffused throughout the length and breadth of the empire, penetrating even to the remotest villages, where the maxims of the philosopher are taught, whose influence is thus perpetuated from generation to generation.
Confucianism appeals to“ practical” men. It lauds the present world; rather doubts, than otherwise, the existence of a future one; and calls upon all to cultivate such virtues as are seemly in citizens-industry, modesty, sobriety, gravity, decorum, and thoughtfulness. It also counsels men to take part in whatever religious services have been established from of old. “There may be some meaning in them, and they may affect your welfare in a way you do not know of. As for the genii and spirits, sacrifice to them: I have nothing to tell regarding them, whether they exist or not; but their worship is part of an august and awful ceremonial, which a wise man will not neglect or despise.” Confucianism, in consequence, almost immediately after the death of its author, became the religion of the state, to which it has proved an admirable ally; its theory of government being nothing less than a paternal despotism. The entire literary class in China are also followers of C., and, in fact, for many ages the literature of China has consisted exclusively of commentaries on the five canonical books which C. professed to merely abridge, and of four others, which were composed partly by himself and partly by his disciples, and which, together with the former, constitute the nine Chinese classics.
The five canonical books are the Yih-king-originally a cosmological essay, now, curiously enough, regarded as a treatise on ethics; the Shu-king-a history of the deliberations between the emperors Yaou and Shun, and other personages, called by C. the ancient kings, and for whose maxims and actions he had the highest veneration; the Shi-king-a book of sacred songs, consisting of 311 poems, the best of which every well-educated Chinaman gets by heart; the Le-king-the book of rites, the foundation of Chinese manners, prescribing, as it does, the ceremonies to be observed in all the relationships of life, and the great cause of the unchangeableness and artificiality of Chinese habits; and the Chun-tsien-a bistory by C. of his own times, and those which immediately preceded him. The first of the Four Books” is the Ta-hëo, or “Great Study," a political work, in which every kind of government, from the domestic to the imperial, is shown to be essentially the same-viz., parental; the second is Chung-yung, or “the Invariable in the Mean," a book devoted to teaching men what is “the due medium," or the golden mean, to observe in their conduct; the third is the Tun-yu, or “ Philosophical Dialogues,” containing the recorded conversations of C., and the best book for obtaining a correct knowledge of his character; and the fourth is the Hi-tse, written by Meng-tse, or Mencius, who died 317 B.C., and who was by far the greatest of the early Confucians. The main object of this work is to inculcate philanthropic government.
It is proper to observe, in conclusion, that in the course of centuries the defects of the system of C. made themselves felt even to the unspiritual Chinese mind; and the necessity of “speaking out far more plainly, not on matters of finance, economy, and etiquette, but on the nature of the world and its inhabitants, and the true relation of the seen and temporal to the absolute and the all-embracing, was recognized. The philosopher who guided this great movement to a prosperous close was Tehu-he (d. 1200 A.D.), is termed by European scholars the Chinese Aristotle, and regarded by all the governing class in China as “the prince of science.” His innumerable works are laboriously studied by the higher literary class, and are considered the standard of metaphysical or religious orthodoxy, but the mass of ordinary Confucians never pass beyond the ceremonial ethics of their master.
For further information regarding Confucius, see CHINESE EMPIRE ; Legge's Life and Teachings of C. (1867); Douglas's Confucianism and Taouiom (1880).
CONGAREE RIVER, in South Carolina, formed by the junction of the Broad and the Saluda about the middle of the state. After a course of 50 m. it unites with the Wateree, after which the two are called the Santee. The Congaree is therefore only 50 m. long. It is navigable for steamboats.
CONGÉ D'ÉLIRE (Norman-French), the name given in England to the king's warrant or permission to a dean and chapter to proceed to the election of a bishop to a vacant see. Since the passing of the statute 25 Henry VIII. c. 20, the C. d'É. has always been accompanied by a letter-missive from the king, mentioning the person to be elected by name, so that in reality it is a nomination by the crown. If the dean and chapter delay the election beyond twelve days, the nomination is effected by letters-patent from the crown; if they delay beyond twenty days, or elect another than the person named, they incur the penalties of a præmunire, i.e., loss of civil rights, forfeiture of their goods, and imprisonment during the royal pleasure.-Stephen's Commentaries, vol. iii. p. 8.
CONGEN'ITAL DISEASES are such diseases as are acquired during the period of pregnancy. They are hereditary and non-hereditary. Among those which are hereditary are syphilis and some chronic skin diseases ; and they may be inherited from either parent. Among the non-hereditary are congenital hernia and hydrocephalus.
CONGER, or CONGER-EEL, Conger, a genus of marine fishes of the eel family (muronido), having the tail more elongated and pointed than the fresh-water cels, the dorsal fin commencing much nearer the head, and the teeth of the upper jaw, although slender, placed so close together as to form a cutting edge. The species are not aumerous. The only British species, C. vulgaris, sometimes attains a length of 5 or 6 ft.
CONGER, OMAR D. See page 888.
CONGESTION may be defined to be “excess of blood in the vessels of a part, with diminished motion of that blood.” The chief causes of congestion may be classed under the two heads of (1) congestion from venous obstruction, and (2) congestion from want of tone in the vessels.
1. Congestion from venous obstruction is easily illustrated by tying up the arm, as is done before opening a vein, when the veins are compressed more than the arteries. If the ligature is kept on for a sufficient time, the veins swell, the fingers become red, and then livid, and the whole limb is swollen. Cold applied to the surface of the body acts similarly on it, and contracts the veins more rapidly than the arteries, which lie deeper; and the purple color of the hands and face after exposure to cold shows the con. gested state of the capillaries. “Congestions," says Dr. C. J. B. Williams, “are caused in external organs by an obstruction of the veins leading from them. Thus, congestion of the brain may be produced by a tight cravat or by a tumor pressing on the jugular veins. Efforts of straining, coughing, holding the breath, and asthmatic paroxysms which impede the flow of blood through the lungs, cause congestion in various parts Tubercles in the lungs cause congestion of that organ. Obstruction to the transit of blood through the liver causes congestion in the abdomen, hemorrhoids, etc.”
2. Congestion from want of tone in the vessels includes a numerous class of cases. In atony of the vessels generally, as in extreme debility, certain fevers, etc., there is general congestion of the parenchymatous organs—the lungs, liver, etc.—and the blood gravitates to the lowest parts, giving rise to what is termed hypostatic congestion of the posterior parts of the lungs, the skin of the back, etc. In other cases, the weakness is local, as when the feet swell after long standing, in consequence of over-distention of the veins. Similarly, a continued stooping posture may occasion headache, giddiness, and the other symptoms of congestion of the brain. Congestive affections of this kind are often mistaken for inflammation, and instead of being treated by tonics, are treated by depletion, which, although affording temporary relief, increases the evil.
Another cause of congestion is over-excitement of the vessels, and this often occurs at an early stage of inflammation, or as a result of that process.
We must pass over the symptoms and effects of congestion, because they vary very much according to the organ affected, and shall conclude with a few words on the general remedies for congestion. First in order, we must notice such as remove the cause, as the loosening of a ligature, or the removal of a tumor compressing veins, elevation of the head in affected brain, and the recumbent position in congestion of the hemorrhoidal or uterine vessels. Pressure, by supporting the weak vessels, and friction, by increasing the onward movement of the blood in the veins, are often of great use. Astrin. gents, such as solutions of alum, sulphate of zinc, tannin, oak-bark, etc., may be applied with advantage locally to certain parts, as the eye, throat, rectum, etc.; and stimulants may be similarly used, as a capsicum gargle to a relaxed sore-throat. Medicines of these classes may also be given internally. Thus, the principal action of bark, quinine, and arsenic in the cure of ague is supposed to lie in their reducing the great visceral conges tion that is always present. The American witch hazel (q.v.) when administered internally seems to have the power of diminishing the size of dilated veins, and is sometimes useful in varicose veins, hemorrhoids, etc. Various remedies are supposed to have a special power of removing the congestion of certain organs : thus, mercurials are recommended for congestion of the liver ; digitalis and cantharides for congestion of the kidneys ; and squills, benzoin, and the balsams for bronchial congestion.
CON GLETON, a market t. in Cheshire, picturesquely situated in a deep valley, on the Dane, 33 m. e. of Chester. It has salt works, manufactures of silk, and neighboring coal mines. Pop. 1881, 1116.
1881 1116. CON'GLETON. HENRY BROOKE PARNELL, Lord, 1776-1842 ; son of John Parnell, chancellor of the Irish exchequer, and a descendant of Parnell the poet. For 35 years he represented Queen's co., Ireland, and Dundee, Scotland, in the English parliament. In 1841 he was made baron Congleton. He is the author of the Principles of Currency and Exchange ; The Penal Laws against Irish Catholics, etc.
CONGLOM'ERATE, or PLUM-PUDDING STONE, a rock consisting of round, water-worn pebbles, compacted together into stone. These pebbles consist of portions of bard rock, frequently of quartz. They can sometimes be traced to their parent rock. Their rub. bing and polishing must have been a work of considerable time, but their deposition in the beds in which they occur has been performed speedily, the materials having been brought together by a strong current. They are united together by a silicious, calcare