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also distinguished by six towers, and by a canal or euripus, formed by Julius Cæsar, to protect the spectators more effectually during the conflicts of wild beasts.
The C. was especially adapted for races, an amusement of which the Romans were passionately fond." The length of a race was seven circuits round the spina, and 25 races were run in each day. The number of chariots was usually four. The charioteers adopted different colors, representing the four seasons. Bets and party-spirit ran high, and the victor received a substantial pecuniary reward at the end of the race. The athletic exercises, such as boxing and wrestling, which sometimes terminated fatally, were probably exhibited in the large open space between the carceres and the spina. The ludus Troję was a mock-conflict between young men on horseback. A regular battle was sometimes represented (Dugna equestris et pedestris). By the formation of canals and the introduction oi vessels, a naumachia, or sea-tight, was occasionally exhibited; but, under the empire, this species of exhibition, as well as the venatio, was gradually transferred to the amphitheater (q.v.). In providing for the venatio, or hunting of wild beasts, vast sums of money were expended. Animals were procured from every available part of the Roman empire, including Africa and Asia. The exhibition not only afforded an opportunity for the display of private munificence or ostentation, but attained the importance of a political engine, which none who aspired to popularity ventured to overlook. When Pompey opened his new theater, he is said to have given public exhibitions in the C. for five days, during which 500 lions and 20 elephants were destroyed.
In modern times, the C. stands but as the shadow of a name. It is about the same size as the modern theater, and is employed principally for the exhibition of feats of horsemanship and for acrobatic displays.
CIÄRENCES'TER, or CICESTER, a parliamentary borough in Gloucestershire, on the Churn, an upper branch of the Thames, and on the Thames and Severn canal, 17 m. 8.e. of Gloucester. It has four chief streets, and the appearance of opulence, though it has but little trade. A complete agricultural college was founded here in 1846 on a farm of 600 acres. Pop. '81, 8431. C. returns one member of parliament. C. was the Roman Corinium-Ceaster, at the junction of five Roman roads, and has traces of ancient walls 2 m. in circuit. Roman relics have been found here, as coins, urns, baths. Canute held a council here in 1020 to expel Ethelwolf. Rupert stormed C. in 1642 and 1643, and it was afterwards given up to Essex.
CIRIL'LO, DOMENICO, 1734-99; a Neapolitan naturalist who accompanied lady Walpole to France and England, and became a fellow of the royal society, enjoying there and on the continent the friendship of Buffon, Diderot, D'Alembert, and other learned men. When the French established government in Naples in 1799, C. was chosen a representative, and became president of the legislative commission. After the re-establishment of the royal government, he was sentenced to death, but was offered his life if he would ask for mercy. This he refused to do, and suffered death. He wrote works on botany and entomology.
CIRRHOP'ODA, or CIRRIP'EDA (Gr. or Lat. cirrhus-footed), the animals which formed the genus lepas of Linnæus, ranked by him among the multivalve testacea, and by subsequent naturalists very generally regarded as an order of mollusks, until, in consequence of recent discoveries, a place has been assigned them among the articulata, either as a distinct class of that great division of the animal kingdom, or as a sub-class of crustacea. Barnacles (q.v.) and balani or acorn-shells (see BALANUS) are the most familiar examples of C.; but many species are now known, all exhibiting much general similarity to these, all marine, and all in their mature state permanently attached to objects of various kinds, as rocks, sea-weeds, shells, etc. Some are found imbedded in corals, others in the thick skin of whales, some in the flesh of sharks. They are distributed over the whole world; the species, however, are not numerous anywhere; those species which adhere to fixed bodies are in general much more limited in their geographic range than those which attach themselves to floating objects or to vertebrate animals. They are generally divided into two orders, pedunculated and sessile, those of the former order being supported on a flexible stalk, which is wanting in the latter. Barnacles are pedunculated C., and balani are sessile.
The resemblance of C. to mollusks consists chiefly in their external appearance. In the more important parts of their organization, however, the C, resemble crustaceans rather than mollusks. The gills, when these exist, occupy the same relative position as in crustaceans; but the aération of the blood is supposed to be also effected in the cirrhi, as the limbs or organs have been generally called, of which there are six pair on each side, and which may be described as long tapering arms, each composed of many joints and ciliated or fringed with stiff hairs. The cirrhi nearest the mouth are shortest, and all of them together form a sort of net for the capture of minute animals, being incessantly thrown out by the cirrhopod from a lateral opening of its sac, and drawn in again in such a manner as to convey any prey which they may have caught to the mouth. Almost all the C. are hermaphrodite; but in a few genera the sexes are distinct, and these exhibit an anomaly of a very remarkable kind, the males being not only very small in comparison with the females, and more short-lived, but, in their mature state, parasitio on the females, or attached to them as they are to other objects; whilst in some the still more remarkable anomaly appears of what have been called complemental males, attached
in this way to hermaphrodites. The eggs of C. are hatched before being finally set free from the body of the parent. The young possess the power of locomotion, swimming freely in the water, and are furnished with eyes, which disappear after they have permanently fixed themselves, by instinctive choice, in situations adapted to their kind. They have also shells, quite different from those of their mature state. The shelly cov. erings of the C. are all formed according to a certain type, but with many variations, and they differ extremely in the number of pieces or valves of which they consist, some, as the common barnacles, having only five valves, and others having additional small pieces arranged in whorls, and exceeding 100 in number. In most of the C., the shelly covering is very complete; in some, it is almost rudimentary.
The most important discoveries concerning the structure and metamorphoses of the C., determining their place in the animal kingdom, were made by Mr. J. V. Thompson, For the most extended examination of species, and for an admirable monograph, published by the Ray society, the scientific world is indebted to Mr. Darwin.
CIR'RHUS, CIR'RUB (Lat. a curl, or lock of hair), or TENDRIL, in botany, a leaf altered into a slender spiral, which, by twisting around such objects as it comes in contact with, attaches the plant to them, and enables it to climb, when otherwise, through the weak ness of its stem, it must have been prostrate. There are many varieties of C., as it is merely an elongation of the midrib°of a pinnate leaf-an altered terminal leaflet, or becomes compound by the alteration of several leaflets, or occupies altogether the place of a simple or compound leaf, and is accordingly either simple or branching. Examples of different kinds may be seen in the pea, vetch, vine, passion-flower, etc.—The term C. is also employed in zoology, to designate any curled filament, and has been applied, but not quite aptly, to the curiously modified feet of the cirrhopoda.
CIRRUS. See CLOUDS.
CIRTA, an ancient city of Numidia, Africa, in the country of the Massyli, regarded as the strongest position in Numidia. It was the center of all the Roman military roads. It was restored by Constantine, and the modern town now bears his name.
CIS, a Latin preposition meaning, "on this side,” which is often prefixed to names of rivers and mountains to form adjectives; Cisalpine, Cispadane, "on this side of the Alps,” “of the Po." As most of these words are of Roman origin, Rome is considered the point of departure.
CISAL'PINE REPUBLIC. After the battle of Lodi, in May, 1796, gen. Bonaparte pro. ceeded to organize two states-one on the s. of the Po, the Cispadane republic, and one on the n., the Transpadane. These two, however, were in 1797 united into one under the title of the C. R., which embraced Lombardy, Mantua, Bergamo, Brescia, Cremona, Verona, and Rovigo, the duchy of Modena, the principality of Massa and Car rara, and the three legations of Bologna, Ferrara, and the Romagna. The republic had a territory of more than 16,000 sq.m., and a population of 34 millions. Milan was the seat of the government or directory, and the place of meeting of the legislative assembly, which was composed of a senate of 80 members, and a great council of 160. The army consisted of 20,000 French troops, paid by the republic. A more intimate connection was formed in 1798 between the new republic and France, by an alliance offensive and defensive, and a treaty of commerce. The republic was dissolved for a time in 1799 by the victories of the Russians and Austrians, but was restored by Bonaparte, after the victory of Marengo, with some modifications of constitution and increase of territory. In 1802, it took the name of the Italian republic, and chose Bonaparte for its president. A deputation from the republic in 1805 conferred on the emperor Napoleon the title of king of Italy; after which it formed the kingdom of Italy till 1814.
CISLEITHANIA, or CISLEITHAN AUSTRIA, a name applied to that portion of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy which is represented in the Reichsrath of Vienna. It has about one half the area and four sevenths of the population of the monarchy, and embraces the crown lands once belonging to the German confederation, Dalmatia, Buckowma, and Galicia.
CISPADANE RE UBLIC. See CISALPINE REPUBLIC.
CIS'PLATINE REPUBLIC, the name of the republic of Uruguay, 1829–31. It had previously belonged to Brazil and had the name of the Cisplatine province.
CIS'RHENANE REPUBLIC, the name chosen in 1797 for the proposed confederation of the German towns w. of the Rhine. As the whole region was soon afterwards transferred to France, the name never came into use.
CISSAM'PELOS (Gr. ivy-vine), a genus of plants of the natural order menispermacere, of which some of the species possess valuable medicinal properties; particularly C. pareira, a native of the West Indies and warm parts of America, the root of which was formerly thought to be that called pareira brava. The plant is called velvet leaf in the West Indies, from the peculiar and beautiful appearance of the leaves. It is a climbing shrub, with roundish-triangular leaves, racemes of small yellow flowers, and small hairy scarlet berries. The root appears in commerce in pieces of 2 or 3 ft. long, varying from the thickness of the finger to that of the arm, tough, but so porous that air can be blown from end to end of it. It has a sweetish, afterwards nauseous taste; is used as a tonic
and diuretic, appears to exercise a specific influence over the mucous membrane of the urinary passages, and is administered with advantage in chronic inflammation of the bladder. It was formerly supposed to possess great lithontriptic powers, which it was even hoped would put an end to all necessity for lithotomy. It is supposed that the roots of other plants of the same order are often fraudulently mingled with it; but those of several species of C., both American and East Indian, appear to possess pretty nearly the same properties. An alkaloid, called cissampelin, exists in this root, and gives it its properties.
CISSEY, ERNEST LOUIS OCTAVE COURTOT DE, b. 1812; in 1835, he served under gen. Trezel in Algeria, and in 1854 in the Crimea, rising to brig::gen, after the battle of Inkerman. He also served in the war with Germany. In 1871,
he was elected to the national assembly, and the same year he led the second corps against the Paris com.
He was appointed minister of war in 1871, and served, except in the period of the De Broglie cabinet, until 1876, when he resigned. He d. 1882. CISʻSOID OF DIOCLÉS, a curve first employed by Diocles the mathematician, whose
name it bears, for the purpose of solving two celebrated problems in geometry-viz., the trisection of a plane angle, and the construction of two geometrical means between two given straight lines. Let AB (see fig.) be the diameter of any given circle, and PQ, pq, any two ordinates at equal distances from the centre 0. Then if we draw a straight line through A and either of the points q, Q, and produce it till it cuts the other ordinate, produced if necessary, the point of intersection, M, or m, will, in its different positions, trace out a curve called a cissoid. The circle AB is called the generating circle, and the diameter AB is called the axis of the curve. It is clear from the figure that the cissoid must consist of two infinite symmetrical branches, AE and AE', having a cusp point at A. The straight line GB, tangent at B to the generating circle, is a common asymptote to these branches. Taking A as origin, and AB = a and a line at right angle to it, through A, as
2018 axes of co-ordinates, the equation to the cissoid is yo
(a The curve may be constructed mechanically. The area of the space included between the two branches and their asymptote, is equal to three times the area of the generating circle. If, instead of a circle, we employed any other curve as the generating curve, the curve generated in the same way as the C. of D., is called cissoidal. The word cissoid comes from the Greek cissos, ivy, and eidos, form.
CIS'SUS. See VITACEÆ.
CISTER'CIANS, a religious order, taking its name from the parent monastery of Citeaux (Cistercium), near Dijon, which G' was founded in 1098 by the Benedictine abbot, Robert of
Molême. Through the influence chiefly of St. Bernard of
Clairvaux, who became a monk of Citeaux in 1113, the order, Cissoid.
within little more than a century after its foundation, was in
possession of more than 1800 abbeys in France, Germany, Eng. land, Ireland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The C. were distinguished from the order of Clugny by their severer rule and stricter poverty, avoiding any splendor in their churches, even gold and silver crosses; by being submissive to the jurisdiction of the bishops, at least till after the death of St. Bernard; by not meddling with the cure of souls; by wearing a white robe with a black scapulary; and by their peculiar form of government, which was introduced by Innocent III., in 1215, into all the monastic orders. In France, the members of this order called themselves Bernardines, in honor of St. Bernard. Among the fraternities emanating from the C., the most remarkable were the Barefooted monks or Feuillans, and the nuns of Port Royal in France, the Recollets or or reformed Cistercian nuns in Spain, and the Trappists. The number of Cistercian abbeys in England, in the reign of Henry VIII., was 75, besides 26 Cistercian nunneries. In Scotland, there were 11 abbeys, and 7 nunneries. Among the English abbeys were Woburn, Tintern, Furness, Fountains, Kirkstall, and Rievaux; among the Scottish, Melrose, Dundrennan, Kinloss, Glenluce, Culross, Deer, Balmerino, and Sweetheart or New Abbey. The chief French abbeys, les quatre premières filles de Citeaux, as they were called, were La Ferté, Pontigny, Clairvaux, and Morimond. Riches and indolence brought this powerful order, as well as others, into decay. Even before the reformation, many of their convents had ceased to exist. The French revolution reduced the C. to a few convents in Spain, Poland, Austria, and Saxony..
CISTERN, a tank for holding water. In places where the supply of water is intermittent, or where rain-water is used, every house requires a C. or water-butt. Cisterns are much used for the supply of steam-engine boilers, at railway-stations. They are
variously constructed-many of cast or wrought iron, of deal lined with lead or zinc, or of impervious pavement or slate slabs, in which last two cases the sides and bottom are grooved, and cemented together with white-lead putty, or some other cohesive substance, to prevent leakage; and the sides, if the dimensions be at all large, are frequently bound together by means of wrought-iron rods; but very large C.'s are generally made cylin. drical, so that the pressure acting at all points equally from the center, the strain comes longitudinally on the outside, and tie-rods can be dispensed with, which is an advantage, as the holes for the tie-rods are apt to be a cause of leakage. See WATER SUPPLY.
CIS'TUS (Gr.), or Rock-Rose, a genus of exogenous plants, which gives its name to the natural order cistaceæ; an order allied to crucifera and capparideæ, and containing about 200 known species of shrubs and herbaceous plants, chiefly natives of the s. of Europe and n. of Africa. The flowers have generally five petals, very delicate; the stamens are numerous, the style simple, the fruit a capsule. Many species of this order are more or less resinous; and from the twigs of some species of cistus, natives of the s. of Europe and the Levant, particularly C. Creticus, C. Cyprius, and C. ladaniferus, the resinous substance called ladanum is obtained, which is used as a stimulant, chiefly in plasters, but has become obsolete in British medical practice. Many species of cistus are much cultivated for the beauty of their flowers, which are red, white, lilac, yellow, or frequently of two colors, and are common'in gardens and green-houses. Most of the larger kinds require in Britain some protection in winter. The only plant of the order which extends to Scotland is helianthemum vulgare, the yellow flowers of which are a frequent ornament of dry hill-slopes.
CIT ADEL (from the Italian cittadillo, "a little city ") is a fort of four or five bastions, in or near a town. · A C. serves two purposes: it enables the garrison of a town to keep the inhabitants in subjection; and, in case of a siege, it forms a place of retreat for the defenders, and enables them to hold out after the rest of the town has been captured. A C. must fully command the fortifications of the city, and have a large space round it clear of buildings.
CITATION, the act of calling a party into court to answer to an action, to give evidence, or to perform some other judicial act. Being derived from the civil law, the term C. is known in England chiefly or exclusively in the ecclesiastical courts. But it is in frequent use in the legal systems both of France and Scotland. In Scotland, a C. is done in the court of session by an officer of court, or by a messenger-at-arms (q.v.), under authority either of a summons passing the signet (q.v.), or under a warrant by the court. In inferior courts, no summons, complaint, or decree is now validly served by affixing it to the door of the house, except where the defender has left, and his address is unknown; and no witness is necessary to the service except in poinding, sequestrating, or charging (34 and 35 Vict. c. 42).
Where the party, though amenable to the court, is not resident in Scotland, he must be cited edictally, by a copy of the C. being left at the office of the keeper of edictal citations (see EDICTAL CITATION), by whom lists of such citations are printed and published. Formerly, this C. was effected by a proclamation at the market-cross of Edinburgh, and the pier and shore of Leith.
In criminal cases, the party cannot appear voluntarily in court: he must be cited, and can plead any omission in form, which cannot be obviated even by consent. This form of C. is regulated by 9 Geo. IV. c. 29, commonly called sir William Rae's act. A full and correct copy of the libel, or charge against him, must be served on the panel, or accused, with a list of witnesses, and of the assize, or jury. A notice, intimating the day of compearance, must be marked on the copy of the libel, and subscribed by the officer and a witness. This C. must proceed on a warrant issuing from the court before which the accused is to be tried. It may be executed either by a macer (q v.), a messenger-at-arms (q.v.), or a sheriff-officer (q.v.) of the county within which the C. is made (11 and 12 Vict. c. 79, s. 6). If the panel can be found personally, the C. must be delivered to him, but if not, it must be left at his dwelling-place with his wife or servants; or if access cannot be obtained, the officer must affix a copy to the principal door of the house (1555. c. 33).
CITATION FOR INTERRUPTING PRESCRIPTION.–Either the positive or negative prescription may be interrupted by citation in an action. See PRESCRIPTION.
CITEAUX, or CISTEAUX, a village in the department of Cote d'Or, France, 12 m. from Dijon. It is celebrated for the great abbey founded in 1098, which became the headquarters of the Cistercian order. The buildings are now occupied as a juvenile reformatory. The place became famous for the wines made under the care of the abbots, the celebrated Clos Vougeot having been raised on lands belonging to the abbey.
CITHAERON, MOUNT. See ELATEA. *CITIZEN (Fr. citoyen, Lat. civis). Aristotle defines a C. to be one to whom belongs the right of taking part both in the deliberative, or legislative, and in the judicial proceedings of the community of which he is a member (Politics, iii. 1). A C., therefore, can exist only in a free state. Between a C. and a subject there is this distinction, that whilst the latter merely is governed, the former also governs; and thus, though every C. is a subject, many subjects are not citizens. In this, which was also the sense
attached to the term by the Romans, when used in its highest meaning—that, viz., of the civis optimo jure—it has passed to the modern world, gradually coming to be so understood everywhere. In the heroic ages of Greece, the idea of citizenship was but imperfectly understood. The members of the council and assembly were mere advisers of the kings, who, as god-descended, were regarded as monarchs in the strict sense. But something of the C. character even then attached to the immediate followers of the chief, when regarded in opposition to slaves and strangers; and it was from them that the dominant class sprang, which everywhere overthrew the monarchies, and established the small self-governing states—the democracies, or rather aristocracies, of Greece. At first, the rights of citizenship in Athens and other Greek communities were readily attained by those who were not born to them; but at a later period, when the organization of Greek civic life had reached a high degree of perfection, admission to the roll of citizens was procured with great difficulty. In Sparta, indeed, according to Herod. otus, so sparing were they of their national privileges, that there were only two instances of their conferring them in their full measure on strangers. The Periæci, or strangers by origin, who shared the Spartan territory, though not on equal terms with the Spartans, were probably, as regarded political rights, pretty much in the same position with the Roman plebeians. In Rome, there were perfect and less perfect citizens, whose respective positions are thus described by Savigny in his History of the Roman Law in the Middle Ages: “In the free republic, there were two classes of Roman citi. zens—one that had, and another that had not, a share in the sovereign power. That which peculiarly distinguished the higher class, was the right to vote in a tribe, and the capacity of enjoying magistracy.”. All the private rights of citizenship (the jus connuvir and jus commercii) belonged to the citizens of the lower class, but.the public rights of voting in a tribe, and of enjoying the honors of the magistracy (sufregium et honores), were denied them. Under these two classes, again, there were two others—the Latini and the Peregrini.
Roman citizenship was acquired most commonly by birth, but for this, it was requi. site that both father and mother should be citizens. If a C. married a Latina, or a Peregrina, even believing her to be a C., the children begotten of the marriage followed the status of the mother. But latterly, it was permitted, by a decree of the senate, to the parents to prove their mistake, and thus to raise both the mother and her children to ihe rank of citizens. In earlier times, the citizenship could be conferred on a stranger only by means of a lex—i.e., by a vote of the people assembled either in one or other of the Comitia (q.v.). It was conferred at a single sweep on the whole of the Latinii and Socii. In the case of some of the provinces, both in Italy and Gaul, the Latinitas was given as a step to the Civitas, the former being converted into the latter in the case of any one who had exercised a magistracy in his own state or city.
When the imperial power was established, the public rights which formed the chief characteristic of the full Roman citizenship, became little more than empty names; and the only value which thenceforth attached to it consisted in the private rights which it conferred. Such as it was, the constitution of Caracalla extended it to the whole Roman world, the distinctions between Cives and Peregrini and Latini being preserved only in the case of certain individuals, such as freedmen and their children. Even this distinction was abolished by the legislation of Justinian, the only divisions of persons henceforth being into subjects and slaves. A fuller account of this interesting subject will be found in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
In its modern use, the term C. is applied in Great Britain to a dweller in a town, and this either in the general sense of an inhabitant, or in the narrower and stricter sense of one who enjoys its privileges and franchises. In France, it denotes any one who is born in the country, or naturalized in it ; and in America, it is used in the same sense, but, so long as slavery was an institution there, slaves were not included in the title. In this latter acceptation, it is equivalent to the term subject in England. Sec Supp., page 881.
CITRIC ACID, C.H.0,, is a powerful tribasic acid, which crystallizes in large transparent colorless prisms. These crystals are readily soluble in water and alcohol, but are in. soluble in ether. The crystals contain two molecules of water of crystallization (not expressed in the above formulæ), which are expelled at a temperature of 212° F. (100° C.). Citric acid has a strongly acid taste and reaction, and displaces carbonic acid from the carbonates. Its watery solution quickly becomes moldy on exposure to the air, and the acid is then found to be converted into acetic acid. When heated to about 350° F. (176° C.), vapor of acetone and carbonic oxide are given off, and a residue of aconitic acid (C6H,06), an acid occurring in the leaves and roots of monkshood and other species of aconite, is left; and when fused with potash, it assimilates the elements of water, and is decomposed into oxalic and acetic acids, as shown in the equation.
C.H.0, + H,0 = C,H,O, + 2C,H,O,. These reactions illustrate the changes which organic acids naturally undergo in the vegetable kingdom. It is to the presence of C. A. that a great many fruits owe their agreeable acidity. It occurs in a free state either alone or associated with malic and tar.