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also the author of the two statues just mentioned. Amongst the seven wonders of the old world, was reckoned the gigantic C. of Rhodes, representing Phæbus, the national deity of the Rhodians. It is said to have been commenced by Chares, of Lindus, & famous pupil of Lysippus, and terminated by Laches. They formed it of metal, which was cast in separate pieces, a process which lasted for 12 years, and was completed 280 B.C. Its height is doubtful-some making it 90 ft.; others 90 and even 105 cubits. It cost 300 talents. Sixty years after its erection, it was thrown down by an earthquake. The Romans imitated the Greeks in the erection of these gigantic structures. The statue of Jupiter upon the capitol, made from the armor of the Samnites, was so large that it could be seen from the Alban hills. Then there was the bronze statue of Apollo, of which what is supposed to be the head is now in the capitol; a bronze statue of Augustus, in the forum; a C. of Nero, executed in marble, of the enormous height of 110 or 120 ft., from which the contiguous amphitheater is believed to have derived the name of “colosseum;" an equestrian statue of Domitian, in the center of the forum; and many others.

COLOSTRUM is the term applied to the first milk yielded after delivery. In differs very materially from ordinary milk, and generally appears as a turbid, yellowish, viscid fluid, similar to soap and water. When examined under the microscope, it is found to contain, in addition to the ordinary milk corpuscles (see Milk), peculiar conglomerations of very minute fat granules, which are hence known as C. corpuscles. The chief chemical difference between C. and milk is, that the former contains nearly three times more salts than the latter. It is probably this excess of salts that usually causes it to exert a purgative effect upon the new-born infant, and thus to remove the meconium (q.v.) which had accumulated in the fetal intestine.

COLQUITT, a co. in s.w. Georgia, on the Withlacoochee river; 600 sq.m.; pop. '80, 2,527—105 colored. The region is level, and the chief productions are agricultural. Co. seat, Moultrie.


COLQUHOUN, PATRICK, 1745–1820; a Scotch author, chief magistrate of Glasgow, and for years a police magistrate in London. His works are A Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis: A New System of Education for Laboring People; A Treatise on Indigence; and on the Population, Wealth, Power, and Resources of the British Empire.

COLSTON, EDWARD, 1639–1721; a native of Bristol, England, successful in trade in the West Indies and elsewhere, and the accumulator of a large fortune, much of which he gave to the establishment and support of charities, especially in founding and sustaining almshouses and schools. He was a strong tory and a high churchman, intolerant of dissent and dissenters. He was three years in parliament. .

COLT, SAMUEL, 1814-62; b. Hartford, Conn., where his father had a manufactory of silks and woolens. At the age of 16, Samuel ran off to sea and made a voyage to India, in the course of which he made a wooden model (said to be still in existence of a revolving pistol, the forerunner of the “Colt's revolver.” After the voyage, he applied himself to the study of chemistry, and lectured on that science in the United States and Canada. In 1835, he visited Europe and patented his invention in London and in Paris, and on his return secured American patents. In the same year, he founded the Patent Arms company for the manufacture of revolvers only. The scheme did not succeed, the revolver was not appreciated, and in 1842 the company became insolvent; no revolvers were made for five years; and none were to be had when gen. Taylor sent from Mexico for a supply. The government then ordered 1000 to be made, and this commission was the foundation of the inventor's wonderful success. In 1848 he removed to Hartford ; in 1855 a large armory was completed; and in 1856 the (olt patent fire-arms company was incorporated. In 1864 the armory was burned at a loss of over $1,200,000. Portions of the present building are leased to various corporations. C. was also the inventor of a submarine battery for harbor defense, and of a method of insulating submarine telegraph cables.

COLTON, CALEB CHARLES, 1780–1832; an English writer, a graduate of Cambridge, and a vicar. In consequence of his passion for gambling, he fled to the United States, but afterwards went to Paris, where he was correspondent for a London journal. He committed suicide through dread of a surgical operation which had become necessary to save his life. His works are Hypocrisy, a Satirical Poem; Napoleon, also a poem; Lines on the Conflagration of Moscou, and Lacon, or Many Things in Few Words. The Lacon enjoyed remarkable popularity. He edited a newspaper in Washington, advocating the election of Clay for president; and published Life and Times of Henry Clay; Public Economy for the United States; The Genius and Mission of Protestant Episcopal Churches in the United States, and edited Clay's speeches.

COLTON, CALVIN, LL.D., 1789-1857; b. Mass.; graduated at Yale, and studied theology at Andover. He was ordained in 1815, and took charge of a Presbyterian church in Batavia, N. Y., but his voice failed, and he left preaching for work as a newspaper correspondent, writing letters from England. On his return he published Four Years in Great Britain. About 1835, he took orders in the Episcopal church, and published Thoughts on the Religious State of the Country, and Reasons for Preferring

Episcopacy. He soon returned to secular literary work, and wrote a series of whig arguments called the Junius Papers.

COLTON, WALTER, 1797-1851; b. Vt. ; graduate of Yale and Andover, and professor of moral philosophy and belles-lettres at Middletown, Conn. He was for many years à chaplain in the navy, and while in the service he gathered materials for Ship and Shore in Madeira, Lisbon, and the Mediterranean; Visit to Athens and Constantinople; Land and Lee in the Bosporus and Ægean; and Notes on France and Italy. He was on the Pacific station at the beginning of the war with Mexico, and in 1846 acted as alcalde of Monterey. He built the first school-house and started the first news. paper in California, and a letter of his to a Philadelphia newspaper made the first public announcement in the United States of the discovery of gold at Sutter's Fort. Some years later he returned to Philadelphia, and published Deck and Port, and Three Years in California.


COL'UBER, a genus of serpents which, as defined by Linnæus, included an extremely miscellaneous assemblage of species, venomous and not venomous, agreeing only in the character of having a double row of plates on the under side of the tail. The venomous species are now excluded, not only from the genus C., but from the family colubridæ, of which it is the type. The serpents of this family are very numerous: it includes, indeed, about one half of all the known serpents in the world. Their geographic distribution is very wide, although they chiefly abound in the tropics. Some of them are terrestrial, and some arboreal in their habits, the latter chiefly natives of the tropical parts of Asia and America. A few are inhabitants of fresh waters, and feed on fish. They are active in the pursuit of their prey, some of them feeding chiefly on small birds and quadrupeds, some on insects. They do not kill their prey by constriction, like the boas. Some of them are singularly and brilliantly colored. A few, particularly of the arboreal species, are remarkable for their extremely lengthened form. None of them grow to a very large size. To this family belong the common ringed snake (natrix tor. quata) of England, the only British species. To the genus C. belong the black snake (4.v.) of America, and the serpent of Æsculapius (C. Esculapii), figured by the ancients as an attribute of their god of medicine. It is of a brownish color, and attains the length of 4 or 5 feet. It is found in the center and s. of Europe, is easily tamed, and exhibits the greatest gentleness of manners.

COLUBRI'NA, one of the sub-orders of serpents, distinguished from the viperina by being oviparous, and by a different arrangement of teeth and maxillary bones. The C. includes more than half the known species of snakes.


COLUM'BA, SAINT (called also St. COLUM-CILLE and ST. COLM), one of the greatest names in the early ecclesiastical history of the British isles, was born (it is believed, at Gartan, in the county of Donegal) in the n. of Ireland, on the 7th of Dec., 521. His father, Fedhlimidh, of the powerful tribe of the Cinel Conaill, was a kinsman of more than one chief or prince then-reigning in Ireland and in the w. of Scotland; and his mother, Eithne, was also of royal descent. To this distinguished parentage, no doubt, he owed some measure of his great influence upon the minds of his countrymen.

He studied first at Moville, at the head of Strangford Lough, under St. Finnian, by whom he was ordained a deacon; and afterwards under another St. Finnian, at Clonard, where he was ordained a priest. Among his fellow-disciples, he is supposed to have had St. Comgall, St. Ciaran, and St. Cainnech; and so conspicuous was his youthful devotion, even in that saintly company, that he received the name by which he is perhaps stils best known in Ireland-"Colum-cille," or “Columba of the Church." " In 546, when no more than twenty-five, he founded Derry, and six or seven years after. wards, Durrow. the greatest of all his Irish monasteries. He seems now to have embroiled himself in the civil strifes of his country; and the belief that he instigated the bloody battle of Cooldrevny, in 561, led to his excommunication by an Irish ecclesiastical synod. The justice of the sentence was challenged by ecclesiastics of rank, but it was probably among the causes which determined him to leave Ireland,

It was in 563, when in his 42d year, that, accompanied by twelve disciples, he set sail for the little island of Hy or Ioua, as it was then called-now better known as Iona (q.v.), or I Colum-cille-of which he obtained a grant, as well from the king of the Picts as from his kinsman the king of the Scots. Having planted a monastery herebuilt, it would seem, chiefly of wattles-he set himself to the great work of his life, the conversion of the Pictish tribes beyond the Grampians. The Picts dwelling to the s. of that mountain barrier had been converted by St. Ninian of Whithern, in the 5th c.; and the Scots who peopled the western shores and islands of Scotland, were either Christians before they passed over from Ireland, or were afterwards converted by Irish missionaries. St. c. now brought the Picts of the n. to the true faith; but, unfortunately, very little is known of the way in which he accomplished his task, Bede speaks simply of his " proaching and example." Adamnan, extolling his gift of miracles, tells how the gates of the Pictish king's fort burst open at his approach, and how, as he chanted the 45th Psalm, his voice was preternaturally strengthened, so as to be heard like a thunder-peal above the din and clamor by which the Pictish magicians tried to silence his evening prayer under the walls of the Pictish palace. We get an. other glimpse of his missionary footsteps froin the Book of Deer, a Celtic MS. of the 11th or 12th c., lately discovered at Cambridge. It records how “Colum-cille and Drostan, the son of Cosreg, his disciple, came from Hy, as God had shown them, to Aberdour" (a beautiful little bay among the huge cliffs which fringe the coast of Buchan, as the n.e. district of Aberdeenshire is still called); how “Bede, a Pict, was then high-steward of Buchan, and gave them that town in freedom for evermore;” how " they came after that to another town, and it was pleasing to Colum-cille, for that it .was full of God's grace; and he asked of the high-steward, Bede, that he would give it to him, but he gave it not; and, behold, a son of his took an illness, and he was all but dead, and the high-steward went to entreat the clerics that they would make prayer for his son, that health might come to him; and he gave in offering to them from cloch-inTiprat to Cloch-Pette-mic-Garnait; and they made the prayer, and health came to him.” In some such way as this, St. C. and his disciples seem to have traversed the Pictish mainland, the Western islands, and the Orkneys, establishing humble monasteries, whose inmates ministered to the religious wants of the people. The parenthouse of Iona exercised supremacy not only over all these monasteries, but over all the monasteries which St. C. had built in Ireland, and over those which were founded by his disciples in the northern provinces of England when they converted the Angles and the Saxons. Thirty-four years appear to have been spent by St. C. in raising up and perfecting his ecclesiastical system in Scotland. But the labor did not so wholly engross him, but that he found time for repeated voyages to Ireland, and for a visit to Glasgow, where St. Kentigern or Mungo was restoring Christianity among the Welsh or British tribes of Cumbria and Strathclyde. The health of St. C. seems to have begun to fail in 593, but his life was prolonged till he reached his 77th year, when he breathed his last as he knelt before the altar of his church in Iona, a little after midnight, between the 8th and 9th of June, 597. He was buried within the precinct of his monastery, and his bones, which were afterwards enshrined—the stone pillow on which he slept, his books, his pastoral staff, and other things which he had loved or used, were long held in great veneration. No composition certainly known to be his has been preserved; but there have been attributed to him three Latin hymns of some merit, a short monastic (or rather heremitical) rule in Celtic, and several Celtic poems, among which is a collection of his prophecies.

The strength of St. C.'s character appears to have been in its earnestness. There is no reason to think that he was reputed either wiser or more learned than the better class of the ecclesiastics of his age. But the same enthusiastic temper which won for him in boyhood the name of Columba of the Church," continued to animate him throughout life. The length and frequency of his fasts and vigils are spoken of as nearly incredible. With this asceticism he combined unwearied industry; no hour passed without his allotted duty of prayer, or reading, or transcribing, or other work. As the prevailing austerity of his disposition was often lighted up by gleams of tenderness and kindness, so it appears to have been clouded at times by anger and revenge. “But whatever sort of person he was himself," wrote Bede, in allusion probably to these infirmities, “this we know of him for certain, that he left after him successors eminent for their strict continence, divine love, and exact discipline; men who follow, indeed, doubtful cycles in their computation of the great festival (i.e. Easter], because, in that far out of the world abode of theirs, none had ever communicated to them the synodal decrees relating to the paschal observance, but yet, withal, men diligently observing those works of piety and chastity, and those only; which they were able to learn from the writings of the prophets, evangelists, and apostles.

The ecclesiastical system of St. c. was in so far peculiar that, in the words of Bede, Iona “had always for its ruler a presbyter abbot, to whose jurisdiction both the entire province, and the bishops themselves also, contrary to the usual order of things, must own subjection, after the example of that first teacher of theirs, who was no bishop, but a presbyter and monk.”. The jurisdiction usually reserved to the episcopate was thus transferred to the abbatial office; little more being left to the bishop than the right of ordination, and a certain measure of precedence in the celebration of divine service. St. C. himself, as well as his followers generally, till the year 716, kept Easter on a different day, and shaved their heads after another fashion, than obtained in other parts of western Christendom. But, with these exceptions, their creed and rites appear to have been substantially the same.

The life of Sť. c. was written by two of his successors in the abbacy of Iona-Cui. mine Ailbe (657-669), and St. Adamnan (679–704). The first of these lives is incorporated in the second, which is altogether one of the most valuable works now extant on the early ecclesiastical history of Scotland and Ireland. It has gone through many editions; the last, and incomparably the best-a book, indeed, beyond praise-being that of William Reeves, D.D., printed at Dublin in 1857, for the Bannatyne club and the Irish archeological and Celtic society, and included in the series of Historians of Scotland, published by Edmonston and Douglas. Besides his Vita Sancti Columbæ, Adamnan wrote De Locis Sanctis, an interesting account of Jerusalem and its neighborhood, from the information of a French bishop, who, in returning from the Holy Land, was driven

among the western isles of Scotland. This tract has been more than once printed, and its chief passages were transcribed by Bede in his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum. We learn from it that waxed tablets for writing were in use among the disciples of St. C. in lona at the close of the 7th century.

COL'UMBAN, or COLUMBAN'US, SAINT, one of the most learned and eloquent of the many missionaries whom Ireland sent forth to the continent during the dark ages, was b. in Leinster about the year 545. Having studied under St. Comgall, in the great monastery of Bangor, in Ulster, he passed over to France, in his 45th year, accompanied by twelve companions, and founded the monasteries of Annegray, Luxeuil, and FonItaine. His adherence to the Irish rule for calculating Easter involved him in contro. versy with the French bishops about 602; and a few years later, the courage with which he rebuked the vices of the Burgundian court, led to his expulsion from France. Passing through Switzerland into Lombardy, he founded, in 612, the famous monastery of Robbio, in the Apennines, where he died on the 21st Nov., 615. His life, written within a century after his death, by Jonas, one of his successors in the abbacy of Bobbio, has been repeatedly printed. The writings of St. C., which are wholly in Latin, consist of a rule for the government of his monastery, a few poems, several letters on ecclesiasti. cal affairs, and 16 short sermons. His monastic rule has been printed more than once; but the most complete edition of his works is in Fleming's Collectanea Sacra, published at Louvaine in 1667, and now of such rarity that a copy of it sells for about £35. Of the sermons of St. C., M. Guizot remarks, that “the flights of imagination, the pious transports, the rigorous application of principles, the warfare declared against all vain or bypocritical compromise, give to the words of the preacher that passionate authority . which may not always and surely reform the soul of his hearers, but which dominates over them, and, for some time at least, exercises paramount sway over their conduct and their life." The town of San Colombano, in Lombardy, takes its name from the Irish monk, as the town and canton of St. Gall (q.v.), in Switzerland, perpetuate the vame of the most favored of his disciples.

COLUMBA'RIUM (Lat.), a dove-cote or pigeon-house. When used in the singular, C. also signified a particular kind of sepulchral chamber used by the Romans to receive the ashes of bodies which had been burned. The name was derived from the chamber being surrounded by small niches or holes resembling the holes in a dove-cote (columbaria) in which the urns (ollæ) were deposited. Tombs of this description were chiefly used by great families for depositing the ashes of their slaves and dependents. Several of them are still to be seen at Rome. One, quite perfect (figured in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities), was discovered at the Villa Rufini, about 2 m. beyond the Porta Pia, in 1822. In each niche were two urns, with the names of the persons whose ashes they contained inscribed over them.

COLUMBIA, a name long applied to the region to the w. of the Rocky mountains, comprehending the present state of Oregon, the territory of Washington, and British Columbia.


COLUMBIA, a co. in s.w. Arkansas, on the Louisiana border ; 860 sq.m. ; pop. 1880, 14,087—5499 colored. Has a level and fertile soil, producing corn, cotton, etc. Co. seat, Magnolia.

COLUMBIA, a co. in n.e. Florida, on the Georgia border, bounded by the Suwannee and the Santa Fé rivers ; 864 sq.m. ; pop. 1880, 9589–4769 colored. Surface level and soil sandy ; productions mainly agricultural. Co. seat, Lake City.

COLUMBIA, a co. in e. Georgia, on the Savannah river and the South Carolina border, traversed by the Georgia railroad ; 290 sq.m. ; pop. 1880, 10,465—7440 colored. The surface is uneven ; productions, agricultural. Co. seat, Appling.

COLUMBIA, a co. in s.e. New York, e, of the Hudson river, on the border of Massachusetts, traversed by the New York Central and Hudson river, Boston and Albany, and the Hartford and Connecticut Western railroads ; 620 sq.m.; pop. 1880, 47,925. The surface is varied, and the soil productive. There are warm springs at New Lebanon. The chief productions are rye, corn, oats, buckwheat, potatoes, hay, butter, wool, hops, and orchard fruits. Co. seat, Hudson.

COLUMBIA, a co. in n.w. Oregon, bounded e. and n. by the Columbia river, which separates it from Washington ; area, about 720 sq.m.; pop. 1880, 2042. Coal and iron are found. Co. seat, St. Helen.

COLUMBIA, a co. in e, Pennsylvania, intersected by the Lackawanna and Bloomsburgh and the Catawissa railroads, and the North Branch canal ; 375 sq.m. ; pop. 1880, 32,408. Spurs of the Alleghany range make the surface hilly and mountainous, but the valleys are fertile. Iron ore and limestone are abundant. Productions chiefly agricultural. Co. seat, Bloomsburgh.

COLUMBIA : co., Washington. See page 887.

COLUMBIA, a co. in s. Wisconsin, intersected by the Wisconsin river, and crossed by the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul, and Wisconsin Central railroads ; 751 sq.m.;

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pop. 1880, 28,065. The surface is rolling or hilly, and the soil fertile, producing the usual farming crops. Co, seat, Portage.

COLUMBIA, a village, the co. seat of Boone co., Mo., 115 m. w.n.w. of St. Louis, on a branch of the North Missouri railroad ; pop. 1870, 2336—798 colored. The village is the seat of the state university. Pop. 1880, 3326.

COLUMBIA, Ohio. See page 887.

COLUMBIA, a city in Lancaster co., Penn. ; on the Susquehanna, at the terminus of the e. division of the state canal, 80 m. w. of Philadelphia. It is the terminus of the Reading and Columbia branch of the Philadelphia and Reading railroad, and also is intersected by one division and two branches of the Pennsylvania railroad. Wrightsville, on the w. bank of the river, is connected by one of the longest bridges in the U. S. The place was founded in 1726 by English Quakers from Chester co., and was for many years called Wright's Ferry. 'In 1798 it was proposed to locate the capital of the U. S. here, and the measure failed of adoption by only one vote. In June, 1863, the original bridge was burned to prevent the confederate troops from marching on Philadelphia. The town is important as a market for lumber floated down the river. Its manufactures include boilers and engines, railroad iron, machinery, refined oil, flour, sawed lumber, malt liquors, etc. There are 3 banks, a public library, and a young ladies' seminary, and seyeral newspapers are published. Pop. 1870, 2236 ; 1888 (est.), 9500.

COLUMBIA, the capital of South Carolina, in Richland co., on the e. side of Congaree river, near the junction of the Broad and Saluda rivers, 137 m. n.w. of Charleston, and reached by three railroads ; pop. 1880, 10,036-5698 colored. The river is navigable to this point. The city is handsomely laid out, and the surrounding views are very fine. There is a fine park, and the streets are well shaded. The state house, built of granite, occupies a commanding situation near the center of the city. The executive mansion and the city hall are also attractive buildings. The city is well sup. plied with water and gas, and has a very considerable manufacturing industry, owing to its abundant water-power, to the extensive forests in its vicinity, which supply its many saw-mills, and to the granite and clay found in or near the city limits. There are oil, cotton, sash and door factories, foundries, etc. ; 2 national and several savings banks. Among educational and other institutions are South Carolina university, founded in 1804, Smyth theological seminary (Presbyterian), a Methodist college for women, and the state normal school. The state insane asylum and penitentiary are located here. In the n.w. suburbs are the fair grounds of the S. C. agricultural and mechanical soc. In response to a demand for a more central place of government than Charleston, the legis. lature, in 1786, ordered C. to be laid out, and in Jan., 1790, met there for the first time. At an early date, the navigation of the river was improved by the construction of canals around the falls. During the war of the rebellion, the old state house and its library of 25,000 volumes, a convent, several churches, the railroad depot, and a vast quantity of cotton were burned, but the city rapidly recovered its prosperity.

COLUMBIA, a city in Maury co., Tenn., on Duck river, 38 m. s.w. of Nashville, on the Nashville and Decatur, Duck river narrow gauge, and Nashville and Florence railroads. It is the co. seat, and has 2 seminaries for young ladies, 2 national banks, 1 other bank, and manufactures of flour, furniture, carriages, ice, pumps, cotton, etc. Several newspapers are published. Pop. 1870, 2550 ; 1888, 5000.

COLUMBIA, BRITISH, since 1871 a province of the Dominion of Canada, is divided into two parts - the mainland, commonly called British C. ; and Vancouver's island (q.v.). These were formerly independent colonies, but were united in 1866. The total area of the province is estimated at 356,000 sq.m. As Vancouver's island is separately treated, the present article, as far as possible, will confine itself to an account of the mainland, which is situated in lat. 49° to 60° n., long. 114° to 138° w., and measures over 420 m. in breadth by 300 in length, its total area being estimated officially at 340,000 sq. miles. Its northern limit, as settled by act of Parliament in 1858, follows the Simpson river to the Pacific ocean on the w., and the Finlay, an affluent of the Peace, to the Rocky mountains on the east. Running parallel with the chain on the e. border, which itself rises, in Mt. Brown, to a height of 16,000 ft., two ranges divide the width of the country into three sections of drainage. In the e, are head-waters, which find opposite outlets in the estuaries of the Columbia and of the Mackenzie ; through the entire middle and part of the e., the Fraser maintains a southerly course, till, at fort Hope, it is bent sharply to the right by a mountain barrier, so as to enter the gulf of Georgia barely within the international boundary :* and lastly, across the w., a series of streams, generally meeting long and narrow inlets of the ocean, and terminating in the Skeena, which, with its upland reservoir, Babine lake, of 100 m. in length, is but little inferior to the Fraser itself. The principal harbors are Burrard inlet, on the gulf of Georgia, a few miles from New Westminster, and the chief port for the lumber trade : Howe sound, n. of Burrard inlet; Bute inlet, still further n. ; Millbank sound, which will

* The decision of the German emperor (21st Oct., 1872) on the San Juan Boundary Question affirmed the accuracy of the American interpretation of the treaty of 1846, in virtue of which the boundary of the United States runs through the Haro channel, and the San Juan archipelago, lying between Vancouver's island and the mainland nd commanding the outlet to the Pacific, is assigned to the latter


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