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considerable progress among them. The organization of there was, through the advance of arts in the northern their government was much more complete than among and more elevated regions, and through the natural fethe wandering tribes. Social intercourse and luxury cundity in that part which enjoyed a tropical climate, a had in some degree refined their manners. In short, dense population. Some resistance was offered by differthey stood in the same relation to the nomadic tribes of ent bodies of the inhabitants at his first landing, which the north, that Babylon and Nineveh may be conceived afforded the Spaniards opportunities of earning victories, to have stood to the wanderers of the deserts in their vi- more valuable as impressing the enemy with the power rinity. Intellectual culture was, however, yet in its in- and discipline of the strangers, than on account of any fancy; and their religion-which differed not in its spirit, immediate important result. Two of the disaffected cabut solely in the stronger affiliation of its priesthood, and ciques sought the alliance of the Spaniards; and the proin the more gorgeous and imposing character of its out tection which Cortes afforded them against the envoys ward solemnities, from that of the forest warriors-ham- sent by Montezuma to receive the wonted tribute, as well pered, by its gross and cruel superstitions, the education as the strict impartiality he evinced in settling some disof their moral sense. Their theology stood amid their putes between them and the neighbouring tribes, spread infant refinements like an iceberg wafted from the frozen at once the reputation of his power and his justice. Haregions, and spreading an unwonted chill through the sum-ving thus conciliated the inhabitants of the coast, and mer of some sunny isle on which it has stranded. having at the same time quelled a mutiny among his
Not long previous to the landing of the Spaniards, the soldiers, and induced them to dismantle their ships, thus King of Mexico had succeeded in reducing the other tribes cutting off from the timorous all prospect of retreat, he residing on the lake to the state of feudatories. This prepared to advance at once upon the capital, which was formed the nucleus of an empire which soon spread its 180 miles distant. conquering arms as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. To He left behind him a slender garrison, in a fort he had what extent its domination had extended in other direc- erected shortly after his landing, and took with him a small tions, is uncertain. The more distant tribes, which were reinforcement of friendly Indians, more in the character thus brought under the sway of the king, were less ac of hostages than auxiliaries. Ascending the high tablecustomed to the restraints of regular government, and land of interior Mexico, the army had to undergo a sudden were with difficulty kept from reverting to their rude in- change from the fervour of the torrid zone, to the ice and dependence. They were held in check by governors from snow of a northern winter, to which succeeded a mild Mexico, backed by a considerable force; and, for greater and genial climate. The Hascalans, a confederacy of assurance, a system of posts was established, by means of warlike and independent republics, placed in a disquietwhich, constant and speedy information was received in ing proximity to the Mexican capital, opposed the prothe capital of all that happened in the outskirts of the gress of Cortes, instead of receiving him, as had been anempire.
ticipated, in a friendly manner. They were forced, how. Montezuma, whom the Spaniards found in possession of ever, to succumb by a series of hard-won victories, in the throne, was naturally brave and sagacious, but a which almost every Spanish soldier was wounded. Cortes spoiled child of fortune. Accustomed to despotic power, began his march from the coast on the 16th of August he could neither anticipate opposition to his wishes, nor and entered Hascala on the 23d of September. meet it calmly and sagaciously when it came. The quiet His next march was upon Cholula, a populous and decision with which Cortes persisted to advance towards wealthy town, subject to Montezuma. He was accomthe capital, joined to the strange appearance and inexpli- panied by a large auxiliary force of Hascalans. At the cable powers of the Spaniards, seemed to bear out the request of the Cholulans, the forces of Hascala encamped dark forebodings of prophecy, and gave to Montezuma's before the town, while Cortes and his followers were resuperstitious fears a form and magnitude that totally un ceived within its walls. The pretext for this arrangesettled his mind. From the moment the landing of the ment was anxiety on the part of the rulers, lest the old strangers was announced to him, till that on which he enmities between the two Indian tribes should be fatally received his death-wound, he did not make one reflected rekindled by their being brought into contact. and judicious effort to employ the immense force that appeared, however, that more inimical purposes were hidwas at his disposal. Had Guatimazin possessed the su den beneath this plausible exterior. Cortes received inpreme power from the first, and displayed the same ener formation of a plot to overwhelm his followers, by a sudgy and talent which he brought to bear upon the termi- den rising of the townsmen, to whose support a body of nation of the struggle, the result might have been very men were advancing from Mexico.
The rising was predifferent.
vented by the earlier motions of Cortes, who, as his proThis was the condition of the empire invaded by Cortes, ceedings had been hitherto characterised by lenity, resolved with a view to subject it to the Spanish sway--not upon now to strike terror into the Indians, by showing that he any previous knowledge and estimate of its strength and could also at times be severe. When the Cholulan rulers weakness, or with any adequate preparation ; but at the appeared in his presence, he let them know that he was head of a handful of men, whom he led forward to ha informed of their projects, reproached them with their zards and exploits, of the peculiar nature of which he had treachery, and directed a simultaneous attack upon the not the most distant anticipation. Even after he had town to be commenced by the Hascalans from without, planged himself among the Mexicans, he was long un and his countrymen from within. The Cholulans deprovided with any adequate means of communication fended themselves with the fury of despair. Every priwith them. His conversations with the natives were vate building, and even the temples, were resorted to as carried on through the medium of a female slave, and a so many fortresses. At last, calling to mind an old suSpaniard, who, having been shipwrecked on one of the perstition, that the razing of their principal temple would islands, had picked up a smattering of the language there cause the springs upon which the town was built to overspoken.
flow, they flew to dismantle its walls, hoping thereby to Cortes landed on the mainland in March, 1519. He involve themselves and their invaders in one common dewas at the head of a body of five hundred and eight sol-struction. The expected miracle failed to follow, and the diers, and one hundred and nine mariners and mechanics. superstitious awe for the Spaniards, which this circumAmong the soldiers were sixteen horsemen, thirty musket-stance inspired, struck down more enemies than their eers, and thirty-two crossbow-men; the rest being armed
The victory being now complete, the wretched with swords and spears. The artillery consisted of ten brass remains of the Cholulans were spared. field-pieces and four falconets. This was the whole force On the 29th of September Cortes advanced upon Mexico, with which he undertook the sabjection of an empire and, meeting with no opposition, he entered it on the 18th already well disciplined and organized, and in which I of October. He was received by Montezuma in person,
upon a friendly and familiar footing tbat astonished the terprising man. The fear was natural, and we blame i Mexicans. His situation was now critical in the extreme. with more hesitation than Don Trueba ; though we agre His small body of troops were in a manner swallowed up with him, that the measures which it instigated were fre in an extensive and populous city, from which the egress quently tarnished by a narrow and low-minded policy was difficult, and might easily be rendered impossible. We do not include in this class, however, the establish He had no chain of posts (the paucity of his forces not ment of an Audiencia for managing the civil affairs of th admitting of such a drain) by which his retreat to the vice-royalty, against which our author so bitterly in coast might be secured. The Mexicans, though friendly veighs; for we consider this to have been the institution and submissive at first, were beginning to be familiarized which, more than any other, has kept alive a glimmeriu with their invaders. After some months, Montezuma of the old Spanish spirit in Mexico. threw out broad hints that their stay had been sufficiently The remnant of Cortes's life, with the exception of hi prolonged. About the same time, the Spanish general discovery of California, and his gallaut but useless expe received intelligence, that, by orders from the court, hos- dition to the Honduras, was wasted in empty and fruit tilities had been commenced between the Mexican go- less court intrigues. Of his youth we know little, exvernors upon the coast, and the garrison he had left be- cept some stray anecdotes, which indicate a voluptuou hind. His desperate situation called for as desperate and daring temperament—a vehement, but rather tickle
He seized the emperor, and conducted him to disposition. The conquest of Mexico is his history. Не the Spanish quarters, as a hostage for the peaceable con plunged into that gigantic undertaking, impelled by the duct of his subjects. The captive monarch disavowed the adventurous spirit of his age, without any previous invesconduct of his general, and the latter being ordered to re- tigation of the nature of his task, or the adequacy of his pair to court, was publicly executed by the Spaniards, as powers. Once engaged in it, he went on without falhaving infringed the peace against the wishes of his mas tering. He had nothing to rely upon but his own innate
powers. By them he conciliated the affections of the solThe immediate danger was thus averted; but at this diery, to whom he was more a companion than a leader ; critical moment Cortes was called to defend himself he defeated the intrigues of his hostile countrymen ; he against his countrymen as well as the Indians. The go- conciliated and rendered subservient the Indian tribes who vernor of Cuba, who had placed in his hands the means were disaffected to Montezuma; and he overcame, by of conquering Mexico, became jealous of the independent superior skill and bravery, all who opposed him in war. command to which Cortes openly aspired, and dispatched He had a limited acquaintance with the nature of the Narvaez, with a strong body of troops, to reduce him to country, and could with difficulty hold intercourse with obedience. Cortes, as soon as he heard of their landing, its natives; yet these obstacles he overcame. He was naassembled his forces, and, leaving a slender garrison under turally lenient; yet he could nerve himself to actions Alvarado in Mexico, le marched against Narvaez. By which struck terror into the hearts of his adversaries, a judicious mixture of intrigue and open force, he obtain- by showing he could become, on occasion, as savage as ed an almost bloodless victory over this commander, and themselves. As to the right of conquest which he exeradded his soldiers to those already under his own com cised, it was, whatever we may think of it, the only right mand. Scarcely was this victory achieved, when he was then recognised on that vast continent; and he was a obliged to hasten back to Mexico, where his garrison was milder and more civilized conqueror than any who hail hard pressed. The state in which he found matters in preceded him. Whether his mode of introducing Christhat capital was such as to render a retreat necessary ; tianity were the best, experience entitles us to doubt ; but and this movement was executed on the 1st of July, 1520, this is an experience which mankind have acquired since with considerable loss. A painful and dangerous march, his day; and, at all events, even though he did not succheered, however, by a brilliant victory over an immense ceed in inculcating its principles, he overthrew the bloody Mexican army, brought them in eight days to Ilascala, superstition which previously existed, and this was of itwhere he halted, in order to mature his schemes for the self a benefit to humanity. One only spot rests on his tinal subjugation of Mexico.
memory--the treatment of the unfortunate Guatimazin; He again advanced against that city on the 28th of and that was forced upon him by his exasperated soldiery, December. He had now under his command eighty-six It was a weakness to yield, particularly in one who, in horsemen and eight hundred infantry. His artillery con general, stood so firm ; but it is easy for those who review sisted of three large iron cannons, and fifteen small field such transactions at a distance, to say what would have pieces. He was well supplied with powder and other been a leader's most dignified demeanour. On the whole ammunition, as well for his fire-arms as for his cross- it cannot be denied that Cortes was a great man; and, bows. The wood work of twelve brigantines had been taking into consideration the circumstances in which he constructed at Hascala, their sails and cordage brought was placed, we hesitate not to add, a good man, and a from the coast, in order to the vessels being put together benefactor to his kind. and launched on the Lake of Mexico. He commenced Don Trueba has composed his biography in a just and his operations by investing and taking the various cities manly spirit. His facts have been carefully investigated ; of inferior force situated upon the lake and in the sur and though we may sometimes dissent from his inferences, rounding country which might have co-operated with the they are never such as can lessen our respect for his tacapital. Having finished these preliminary proceedings, lents. His style is spirited, and, for a foreigner, wou. he invested Mexico, with the aid of his brigantines, both by derfully correct. land and water. The city was taken, after a protracted siege of seventy-five days, in the course of which the most stubborn bravery was exhibited on both sides, the utmost
Faith's Telescope ; or, Views of Time and Eternity ; with efforts of their different arts of war exerted, and the greater
other Poems. Edinburgh. Oliver & Boyd. 1830. part of the city levelled with the ground.
8vo. Pp. 184. Cortes having thus finally subverted the Mexican GENERALLY speaking, we are no admirers of religious power, showed that he was able to organize a new empire, poems. They swarm at the present day to an enormous as well as to overturn an old one. He rebuilt and and most illicit extent. They must be put down; and beautified the capital; he took in and annexed to his
go we shall take an early opportunity of giving a few of vernment, one by one, the surrounding provinces; and he them so decided and overwhelming a castigation, that established courts of justice and an efficient police. He not a consumptive young man or woman in the three experienced many checks, however, from the Spanish kingdoms will again dare to perpetrate their feeble and court, which saw with anxiety so valuable and so dis- familiar blasphemies in the outraged ear of correct feeling tant an acquisition in the bands of one ambitious and en and sound judgment. We have a rhymer or two in our
AX ADDRESS TO LORD BYROX.
ere for whom we are at this moment singeing the ends of Lectures on English Poetry, and other Literary Remains of our tavse, the nippiness whereof they shall yet know upon the most sensitive parts of their evangelical bodies.
the late Henry Neele, Author of the Romance of History, At present, however, we waive this discussion, for the
gic. London. Smith, Elder, & Co. 1830. 8vo. volume before us is from the pen of a lady, and has been The present volume has certain indisputable claims on published principally with the view of promoting a cha our critical leniency. Being a posthumous work, it naritable object of interest.
turally contains many imperfections, both in design and Our fair friend, who seems to be of a decidedly reli- execution, which the careful revision of the author him. gious caste, presents us with a poem in blank verse, and self could have alone diminished or removed. In every in two parts, concerning Time and Eternity; and to this production submitted to the public ordeal under such dislonger effort is added another poem, entitled “ Redemp- advantages, we have principally to ascertain whether it tion," and a considerable number of miscellaneous pieces. really contains indications of the germ of genius, though The volume, taken as a whole, is decidedly above par, imperfectly matured. The posthumous publication of and indicates a reflective and well-cultivated mind, as works distinguished by such merit is not more an act of well as a considerable fervency of poetical feeling. From friendship tban of justice; and the individual, undertaking the first poem, we shall take, as a favourable specimen of the task, has alike the gratification of endeavouring to the style of the authoress, the following extract, which, confer an honourable distinction on those to whom it is although upon a subject that has occupied the pens of a worthily due, and of adding another item to the varied thousand puny whipsters, is nevertheless vigorous, and treasures of literature and science. We therefore will. rather striking :
ingly acknowledge an obligation to the editor of the volume now before us. He has collected all the unpublished MSS. and miscellaneous periodical contributions of one
whose genius was as conspicuous as his fate was melan“ Poet of Passion ! -Poet, whose ocean miod,
choly. Deep, vast, magnificent, but, tempest-rock'd,
In the introduction to the volume, we are presented Awfully heaving, struggling, restless, dark,
with an able and feelingly-written sketch of the author's Seems as by some internal earthquake moved, And half unfolds chasms, terrific, dangerous.
life and writings. From it we learn that Henry Neele Pilgrim! whose song mysteriously charms,
was born in London, on the 29th January, 1798,—that, Whether through Eastern groves it murmuring flow,
upon leaving school, he was articled to an attorney, and Or, rushing like thine own Velino's cataract,
subsequently commenced business as a solicitor,—that, in With wild, resistless bound, from line to line,
January, 1817, he made his first appearance as an author, Carrieth impetuously the spirit on;
by publishing a volume of Lyrical Poems, composed after Or the tired eye, sated with majesty
the model of the ill-fated Collins,-and that he continued By some mild Iris of domestic thought, Refresheth.-0! master of that lyre,
to pursue his literary labours until the 7th February, 1828, Whose varied harmonies, thrilling each string
when he committed suicide. Of answering sympathy in nature's scale,
The principal part of the present volume is occupied Binds us with spells of breathless interest,
with Lectures on English Poetry, from the reign of Ed. To gaze on that new spectacle, a mighty mind,
ward I. to the time of Cowper, delivered in the Russel Grappling for ever with its potent self,
Institution, in 1827. In the Introductory Lecture, a For erer foil'd, yet noble in defeat.
graphic description is given of the various revolutions in Poet of Spain, of Greece, of Italy !
the history of English Poetry. The author devotes the Sinile as thou wilt, and scorn the ungifted lay, The narneless verse that ventures on the word,
second and remaining Lectures to the consideration, first, I pity thee. - Yes! though applauding Fame,
of Epic and Narrative Poetry; secondly, of Dramatic Though conscious genius, intellectual force,
Poetry ; thirdly, of Descriptive and Didactic Poetry, inPerception rich of nature's glowing charms,
cluding Pastoral and Satire ; and, fourthly, of Lyrical Attic research and kindling classic taste,
and Miscellaneous Poetry. In taking a detailed review Adorn thine history; though talents thine,
of the merits of different writers, his remarks seem to Which, like the towering cedar, will resist
be altogether untinged by prejudice. He has, on no ocOpinion's tempest through the lapse of years,
casion, allowed enthusiasm for the beauties of an author The humble plant (unnoticed and unknown, Save by the partial few that foster it)
to render him indifferent to positive defects, Pitying looks up to thee!-hast thou not still to learn lates his decision of each particular performance by its That precept, blended with its sweet reward,
own intrinsic excellence, without reference to the general ' Acquaint thyself with God, and be at peace ?'
celebrity of the writer. Every page of his Lectures teems Thou bast drunk deep of Helicon-thy foot
with clear and discriminative analysis—with high poeti. Hath clinb'd Parnassus, and the nether air,
cal feeling-with laborious research, and bold, impassionWhere clouds of enry tloat, proudly o’erlook'd Rerelling in fragrance, thou bast stood aloft
ed diction. In his investigation, indeed, of the abstract Upon the seldorn-mounted steep of Fame,
principles of the Ars Poetica, we meet with none of those Fearless of future,-wreathing thy young brow
ingenious speculations which so peculiarly characterise With deathless blossoms, which the breath of Time the writings of Kames. But in the digest of its practical Expands, not blasts; not fades, but renovates :
rules, and in prescribing the standard of taste by which Would that a stream, Bæotia cannot yield,
these are to be intiuencel, we are presented with abunWould that a mount, Greece never parallel'd,
dant evidence of the author's intimate acquaintance with Could win thee now! Would that thy feet
his subject. It is true, that the standard of taste in Might climb the hill of Mercy, Zion's Hill, And thy lips taste the springs of Calvary!
poetry, like the standard of taste on other subjects, is Oh, that my voice could reach thee; that one word,
faint and ill-defined. A composition which one man Blest from above with soul-constraining force,
admires for its unadorned simplicity, may, to another, Might fall persuasive on thy spirit !_PRAY!"
appear altogether devoid of merit--while a poem, in P. 41-4.
which a third critic discovers traces of vigorous thought, We can afford room for no other quotation, but are
may, to a fourth, seem to overstep the narrow Rubicon
which separates the sublime from the absurd. But still happy to be able to say in conclusion, that “ Faith's Te- there are certain inherent and deterininate qualities which lescope” is calculated to reflect credit on any lady who distinguish all genuine poetry; and it is in dissecting and thus, for the first time, comes before the public.
explaining these qualities, that our author's critical acumen more peculiarly appears. In the course of this scrutipy, he invariably preserves a marked distinction between
wbat may be deemed the metaphysical school of poetry, galee at Home.” All this portion of the work is writof which Donne was the founder, and that more truly in ten with a great deal of graphic power and strong feeling. tellectual school, the adherents of which have uniformly The effect, however, produced by the whole, could not derived their brightest imaginings from the works of na- be preserved in any detached extract. We therefore ture, and from all that there invites the eye, gratifies the prefer selecting a quotation from a previous part of the sense, and gladdens and elevates the soul. To compare volume, on a subject of very general interest : poetry fashioned after the latter model, with that which, however pleasing in conception, and beautiful in deve
THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GOING TO INDIA. lopement, has nothing of the truth of human nature in
« « Life in India' is, however, fairly to be estimated as its con position, is to compare a lay figure with a statue.
found in the different avocations that it presents, the civil The one may adequately represent the mere drapery of and military services of the Honourable Company, and the the poet's fancy, and the phantastical forms and folds in cerned, the first of these holds out the great prizes of the
mere adventurer. So far as rank and consequence are conaccordance with which he is pleased to arrange it; while | Honourable Company, and is the great object of ambition. the other seems imbued with the spirit of life, and bears These prizes are necessarily limited to a few lucky sons of the faithful impress of nature on every feature, and on fortune; and they are therefore the higher esteemed. With every limb.
a writership in his pocket, the child of the first inan in Eng. With the tales and poems which constitute the remain- land, even at this day, fancies his fortune made; looks to a ing portion of the volume, we have had equal reason to
short and merry Life in India,'—a long and wealthy one be pleased. In some of the former, indeed, the plots are genteel-looking boy; somewhat slightly built in general,
in England. Out he comes, always what I should call a neither very probable, nor very interesting. But even in for encountering any of the rude blasts of the world, and these, there are several detached scenes sketched with con having a goodly smattering of his mother's drawing-room siderable power.
The dialogue, in general, is animated, hanging about him. His manners- I speak of the general and the different personages are vividly and characteristi race of young writers always please me; there is somecally grouped. We also discover a few specimens of a
thing very English about him, by which I do not mean lively, though somewhat quaint humour, tending to re
very rough, but a happy mixture of that independence of lieve the morbid sensibility which almost universally per- lish character. When these embryo rulers are collected to
mind and amenity of manners, which constitute the true Engvades our author's productions. Grace and tenderness gether, before merging from the Buildings, there is, no doubt, are the most prominent attractions of his poetry, which to be seen also not a few of an Englishman's peculiar faults is also distinguished for purity of style and melody of and weaknesses; but these are such rare aves over the Serrhythm. He has generally been successful alike in the vices'in general, that there is nothing I enjoy more than an selection and management of his imagery--while his de evening in the Buildings. seriptions of scenery, though seldom introduced, are al
“ Once out of them, once banished to a country station,
where Englishmen are scattered some hundred miles disways distinct and striking. Indeed, the more we reflect
tant from each other; or where, if they congregate, it is on on the varied talents which this posthumous volume ex the artificial graduated scale of judge, magistrate, collector, hibits, the more do we regret the sudden overthrow of registrar, assistant ditto, doctor,--and all that is English is those hopes which were so justly entertained of Neele's found to be on the wane. By the time the writer comes back future eminence. The genius unfolded, even at the early to the Presidency a judge, or something as great, or greater, age of nineteen, in the publication of his Lyrical Poetry, he has been converted into the most anomalous of all human may well rank him with Chatterton and Kirke White beings. There is still something English about him, it is To the latter, indeed, (whose talents, in our opinion, have not a European, bearing of consequence. He seems to ex
true ;-he is generally proud enough; but it is an Asiatie, been much overrated, in consequence of the merit of his pect that all that are in his way should hurry out of it, that writings being constantly associated with the amiability the path may be left for him alone. Ile has been so long of his disposition,) we think Neele decidedly superior in accustomed to measure his own humanity by the standard every respect; and though he could not cope with the of a conquered and degraded race around him, that he fan“ marvellous boy" in the splendour of his endowments, cies he has risen proportionably above every other class of yet there was a remarkable resemblance in the gloomy mankind with whom he may afterwards chance to come in
contact, as above his Omlahs and his Chobedars; and his temperament of their minds, and in their sad and prema
own countrymen are but Hindoos in his estimation, howture demise. Each fell the victim of his own over
ever much they may transcend him in every thing like inwrought imagination :
telligence, honour, and common sense.
“ If those at home, who are so ambitious of sending out
a son in the service of the Honourable Company, would That with the rich weight of its golden fruitage look at the few who live to return to their native country, Is bent down to the dust.”
and remark the change that has come over them, I cannot help thinking, that they would feel less anxious about procuring a writership or a cadetship for Master Edward and
Master Tom. I was long ago a sojourner in Old England, The Bengalee; or, Sketches of Society and Manners in and had an opportunity of comparing some old folks who had
the East. London. Smith, Elder, & Co. 1829. started from school together,--the one to rough it through 8vo. Pp. 466.
· Lise at Home,' the other to plod his weary way through
Life in India.' Comparison there was none between the This work will be read with interest and advantage manliness, contentedness, and good-humour of the homeby all those who have either been in India, or who take bred Englishman, and the hauteur, restlessness, and disconan interest in its affairs. It is from the pen of Captain tented demeanour of the old Koee-Hy. Unhappy and disH. B. Henderson, who is on the staff of the Bengal pleased at every turn he took, the old Indian found every army. The contents , which are of a miscellaneous his happiness ;-while the honest English squire swore
corner sharp enough to ruffle his temper and destroy kind, are not all of equal inerit; but there is a suffi
a big oath at the hinderance, brushed past it, and thought cient preponderance of talent and information in the vo.
no more of it. I make all manner of allowance for lume to entitle it to an extensive circulation. We con- the bile and bad liver, which reward the toils ot' a 'Life sider the prose as a good deal superior to the poetry, al- in India;' but these natural evils would be surmounted, though “ The Cadet,” which extends to two long cantos, were it only possible to avoid the moral contamination aricontains many spirited and excellent stanzas. In the sing from cohabiting with a race, between whom and an prose department, we are, on the whole, most pleased Englishman there is no sympathy; and I am borne out in with those chapters which describe an Indian's return
my theory, if it please the reader to call it so, by the fact,
that this moral contamination is found to exist most unhome after spending thirty of the best years of his life so equivocally, and to the greatest extent, among those who far from his native country. They are entitled, “ Lea- have been most withdrawn from European society, and who ving India”—“ An Indiaman"_“ Death on Shipboard” have spent the greater part of their life in India, amidst the
" St Helena"-" Approaching Ilome"_" The Ben. / native population,
“ Like a tree,
* Let me, however, take a view of military · Life in breach of the commandment which forbids us “to take India.' A fair-haired young lad has escaped from school
the name of the Lord in vain!” He finds great fault and its confinement, at the early age of sixteen, and, after the annoyances of a four months' voyage, has reported him
with making children commit to memory the Assembly's self at the Town- Major's office in Fort William. He puts Catechism, and triumphantly answers the plea that it is a on his searlet uniform, and looks round, on passing every good compendium of divinity, which children may advan. sentry, for homage and salutation to his new military cha- tageously carry with them into the world, by the indigraeter. The tirst few weeks are but a series of disappointed nant exclamation-"Condense the infinite and living truth hopes, and comfortless, pleasureless attempts at Indian en of God, indeed, and shut up the spirit of the Eternal in joyment. He makes himself sick in essaying to smoke a braid hookah; and then barely survives a pucka fever, in ha- make their little boys and girls say their prayers, on the
a nut-shell !” He also finds great fault with parents who ving tried his new double-barrelled gun, which he bought on credit at an exorbitant sum, and with which he toiled ground that, if it be not a spontaneous act of the child for hours under a burning sun, in the vain hope of hitting a itself, such prayers are an insult to the Deity. Why does few snippets or sandlarks. He has a relation perhaps in he not extend his censure to the parent who corrects his the Buildings, and madly attempts to rival him in extrava son for open profligacy, since, unless the young man's gance; and though the soldier's means do not go beyond a second-hand buggy for his driving, and an undersized stud from theft, swearing, and debauchery, is, according to our
change of life be his own voluntary act, his abstaining galloway for the saddle, yet his humble endeavours have German moralist, an insult upon his Maker ? plimged him into debts, which hang upon his Indian career for years, and make him miserable for ever.
Let not our readers suppose, however, that Dr Biber - He joins his corps,-- he has become a man now,—wan- is either a weak reasoner, or a blind enthusiast. His ders about in the morning without his cravat or jacket, knowledge of the subject of which he treats is far from smokes cheroots by whole bundles,--drinks brandy-paunee, superficial. Many of his remarks on the prevailing syscurses his own foily for more faults than one, and lingers tems of education in France, in Germany, and in our own through the early and best years of his manhood in tasteless country, are extremely pertinent; and his strictures upon dislike of the little regimental duty that falls to his share, the refinements of Lancaster, Bell, and the patrons of the and in gloomy despondency amidst the blighted prospects of his youth. From his brothers and young relations in Eu- | Infant Schools, are often judicious. * He is indeed—no rope he seldom hears, and their letters would be but worm unusual case with theorists-much more successful in dewood to him. They have toils there, it is true; one is at tecting and exposing faults in the existing systems, than college, another at a desk in a merchant's office, a few are happy in his attempt to recommend a new one. fagging for professions, or existing on subaltern's fare in Dr Biber confesses that he is not very sanguine in his country quarters: but are they not at home ?-ay, and in expectations with regard to his scheme of Christian edu. that word, Home, lies all the earthly happiness which an exiled soldier sighs for, and hourly pines in vain.
cation, until some great change shall have taken place in ** But he has outlived his brethren in the subaltern ranks the sentiments and order of society; and in this, we think, around him; has followed hosts upon hosts to the scattered he is quite right: but we are less willing to agree with him tombs of our up-country cantonments; he is a field-officer when he expresses his conviction, that we are at present now, and with the attainment of higher rank before him. on the eve of such a change. It is our most sincere and What boots the rank or increasing pay? He is a martyr serious opinion, in spite of the distempered dreams of poto a broken constitution, and his yellow and wasted cheek, litical economists, millennarians, radical reformers, and all the sunken and gleamless eye, give token not only of win the host of quacks who follow, accompany, or precede the thered health, but accumulating care! He is alone in the world; his native country has long ceased to hold out “march of intellect,” that England is very like what it charms for him; he is unknown there, and the circle of his was two hundred years ago, of course, somewhat more friends have either ceased to exist or care for the expatriated enlightened, more civilized, more religious, and consesoldier in the East! Is this a gloomy picture? The Ben- quently more flourishing and happy, but following out galee could point out many who might sit for it, and who, the same sort of systems it has always pursued, under ere they give their bones to moulder beneath the sun of which society, we believe, will continue for a few ages Hinloostan, would feelingly bear testimony to the truth of its description ;-yet this is Life in India!""_P. 215-22. longer to advance in the paths of scientific discovery and
This is a melancholy picture, but we fear it is too true moral improvement. With regard to education, we are a one. To the diversified lucubrations of the Bengalee not ashamed to own, unpopular as our sentiments may be, himself, we refer such of our readers as wish farther in that we are attached to the old system ; we mean the geformation upon this and a variety of other matters con- neral principles which have been acknowledged, and the nected with India.
general mode in which, with trifling differences, education has been conducted in all civilized countries, since the dawn of science down to our own times. The fashion of
the present day, however, is, we fear, against us; it seems Christian Education, in a Course of Lectures delivered in
to be the general opinion now, that the ferula of the peda. London, in Spring 1829. By E. Biber, Ph. Dr. Lon- gogue should be laid aside,--that the pastry-cook and toydon. Effingham Wilson. 8vo. Pp. 287.
man should be put in requisition, to make the young This treatise on education is written with considerable urchin love literature for its own sake,--and, under the elegance; and were the merits of a system to be decided no-punishment system of old maiden aunts, and of such solely on the ground of abstract propriety, without refer- mothers as are too foolish to distinguish between loving ence to its practicability, that which Dr Biber recom
their children and spoiling them by over-indulgence, the mends would be altogether unexceptionable. His grand wisdom of Solomon and the experience of three thousand position is, that education ought to be conducted exclu- years are equally despised. sively on Christian principles,--that divine truth should
We are far from saying, and we are far from thinking, constitute, not the object, but the subject and ground-work, that a system is necessarily good because it is old ; but of education,—and, in short, if we understand him right, neither is it bad only because it is old ; and it is necessary be appears to think that it ought to be the care of parents to keep in mind this latter truth, more especially at preand teachers, not so much to instruct children in their duty, sent, when novelty is so eagerly sought after, and so and to prepare them for effectually discharging it, as to readily admitted as an evidence of liberality and an enwatch over the influence of religion in their hearts. He larged understanding. The old system of education, as it larnents the time which, in most schools, is occupied with is pursued at our country schools, is no doubt imperfect spelling and arithinetiche objects to rewards, as encou
and liable to some objections--what human institution is raging children to act from improper motives,—he objects not ?--but it is founded on experience and good sense. It to the Bible being used as a text-book for children, and insists, somewhat tinreasonably, in our humble opinion, putting the question"What things are necessary for subsistence,"
• Dr Biber once visited a charity school in England, and, upon that spelling the name of the Almighty is an evident I was answered by the little girls, " Beer, cheese, cakes, and pattics.