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We have pleasure in observing in this little volume a form, and communicating to it the expression of passion good number of pieces from the Edinburgh Literary Jour- and intellect. It is chiefly in the two attributes of beaunal; we are glad, for the sake of our correspondents, to ty and individuality of character that we are struck with see their contributions so very frequently extracted else- the difference between art in its infancy, and art in an where. advanced state. Susceptibility to the impressions of the beautiful must, like all our capacities, be refined and habitual converse with its objects; and the same thing holds good in regard to the power of rendering form. The first attempts at representing the forms of external nature are rather rude hieroglyphical
The Literary Gleaner, No. I. January, 1830. Dumfries. strengthened by
THIS is the first Number of a work upon the plan of the" Cabinet," and other popular selections. The neat- indications, than imitations. A child draws a few strokes, ness and accuracy of the typography reflect much credit and calls them a house; a savage or an uneducated perupon the provincial press of Mr Palmer, who, we be- son makes a rude outline, in which we can trace some lieve, is the Editor. He appears also to have made a distant resemblance to the human form, and are hence judicious choice in the articles he has fixed on to com- led to infer that it was meant to represent a man. mence his labours with. They are "The Tall Major's knowledge acquired during a succession of generations Story," from that clever book, "Stories of Waterloo," must be accumulated in one person, before such truth in "Helen Irving, a Domestic Tale," from the "Winter's all the details of the human figure can be obtained, as Wreath,""The Convict Ship," by T. K. Hervey, we find in the Laocoon or the Venus. The union of a "The Loves of the Learned," by Mr Macnish, from one greater susceptibility to the beauty of objects, with a of the Annuals," A Manuscript found in a Mad-greater readiness in creating exact counterparts of the house," by the Author of "Pelham," from the "Lite- forms we see, is that part of art which can be taught. rary Souvenir,”—“ A Ballad about Love," by the Et- Passion must be inherent ;—a man must have naturally trick Shepherd, from the Literary Journal, and "The vivid and intense feeling, or he will never be able to comFirst and Last Dinner," by Mr Mudford, from Black- municate its expression to his works. Intellect is dewood's Magazine. veloped by a culture of its own, and must likewise be possessed by the artist if he would transfuse it into his creations. These combined powers form the perfect art
A Catechism of Arithmetic, for the use of Schools and Pri- ist; and in proportion as a man possesses them, in a vate Families. By James Whitelaw. Edinburgh. 1829. 12mo. Pp. 110.
greater or less degree will his works advance to or recede from, perfection. Let us for a moment apply this stand
THE author of this work says, he has often had to re-ard to the works of Mr Greenshields. gret the want of interest which children generally mani- In regard to the power they evince of reproducing the fest towards arithmetic as a study. "This he has been forms of external nature, though our praise must be very inclined to attribute to the dull mechanical manner in limited, still we consider that they stand greatly above which the different rules are too frequently presented to the works of Thom. The feet of two of the female them, without a single hint regarding either their prin- figures are really respectably executed. All the details, ciples or practical use." The system he now offers is however, are only hieroglyphically represented. The calculated, he thinks, to arrest the attention, strengthen wrinkles of the brow, the insertion of the nails, the cross the judgment, and bring into repeated exercise the reason-lines at the joints, the representation of the hair, are not ing powers of the youthful mind. accurate copies of what we see in nature, but strokes hollowed out by the stone-cutter to indicate that nature has assumed certain forms in these places which he has not been able to represent exactly. In like manner, the rounding of the faces is not that exact counterpart of nature which gives a look of reality to the productions of the true artist. There is a squareness about them, producing the impression that "this is an inert mass, fashioned into something approaching pretty nearly to the human form." A still more serious objection is the want of proportion in the parts, and the resting contented with finishing the extremities, while no attempt has been made to indicate those parts of the form which are covered by the clothes. We may also add, as another fault, the want of keeping in different parts of the same figure. The female in the soldier's arms, and the Balladsinger, are striking instances of the fact that no attention
THIS is a book we have not read, but we are told it is is paid to give form to the clothed trunk, an objection which pretty good. It is very fervent in defence of the Protes-applies, in a greater or less degree, to all the figures. The tant Ascendency.
female in the soldier's arms is likewise an instance of want of keeping in the parts. The face is (as far as it can be said to be any thing) that of a matron-the legs and thighs those of a very young girl-body it has none.
So much of the individual figures ;-let us now speak of their arrangement. Any thing like an attempt to group them has only been made in two instances ;—one
We request attention while we endeavour to state cool-group consists of the Caird and the Fiddler-the other of ly and explicitly why we hold these graven images in the Veteran and his Doxy. The rest of the figures are all utter abhorrence. We know that what we are about to hewn out singly, and placed on square slabs, to be arsay will be called by some the cant of criticism. We do ranged according to the pleasure of the possessor. The not think it so; and it is perhaps worth while asking, outline which circumscribes the figures of the Caird and whether there be not such a thing as a cant of contented the Fiddler is pleasing enough. The attitude of the Caird ignorance, more despicable still? is bad-he seems falling forward upon the spectator. The The art of sculpture addresses itself to the taste; it is grouping of the Soldier and his fair one has nothing to the embodying of what is beautiful and characteristic in recommend it. She lies in his arms, and he holds her as
The Polar Star of Entertainment and Popular Science, and Universal Repertorium of General Literature. For the Quarter ending at Christmas, 1829. Vol. II. London. H. Flower. 1830. 8vo. Pp. 421.
THIS is the best selection extant from the Reviews, Magazines, Journals, and new publications of the day.
An Apology for the Established Church in Ireland; being an attempt to prove that its present state is more pure than in any period since the Reformation By the Rev. Henry Newland, B. D. Vicar of Bannon. Dublin. William Curry, Jun. & Co. 1829. Pp. 264.
SCULPTURE-MR GREENSHIELDS' JOLLY
stiff and lifelessly as we have seen two jointed dolls, wooden leg and the clouted shoe, are most elaborately and when placed in a similar position by the ingenuity of a obtrusively finished. Nay, even in this, the artist has child. overshot his mark. The patches are all carefully and Passion is the recently sewed on, the straps of the soldier's knapsack are fresh from the hands of the saddler, and the letters on the same are carefully finished after the most approved gravestone fashion. Battle and blast have left no dints here. The wardrobe of the whole squad is that of a set of gentlefolk who have sewed together some remnants to play at make-believe beggars.
Against Mr Greenshields personally we hope we need
Lastly, a word or two of expression. only expression which the subject admits of, and that of no very elevated character. Passion, when properly brought out, expresses itself not in the features alone, but in every muscle of the frame. There is a tension, or relaxation, of the whole man, when under its influence. Apply this test to these figures. Look at the Caird. He frowns most ominously. So far good; but look at the rest of his frame. That extended leg is not stretched scarcely say, that we have no ill-will. We know him to like one propelling its master to a deed of death ;-it drags be an acute, candid, and sensible man, and we think he lamely after its fellow. The Fiddler, on his part, crouches has a good deal of natural cleverness, though he is not like a man who has good-naturedly placed himself in that much of an artist. We should have left him to reap the attitude, to show the artist the relative position of the profits of the public gullibility without saying a word limbs certainly not like one shrinking in bulk beneath against him, but that we conceive the outrageous puffery the withering frown of a brawny ruffian. Where is the which has lately been bestowed on works of this calibre, jovialty of the Hieland Carline? She stands most dig- demands that at least a quiet protest should be entered in nifiedly upright, with a calm, self-possessed countenance. the name of good taste and good sense. How lifeless the embrace of the couple opposite! Compare one and all of them with their counterparts in Cruikshank's Points of Humour. There the smack of the armless hero quivers to the toe of his "toosie drab :" there the greasy personages of the Ballad-singer and his two Deborahs glisten with the oil of gladness. Here, on the contrary, every thing is cold and wooden. What is the end and aim of these observations? Sim-cant on the subject. Cant is a substitution of hollow ply this that, viewed as works of art, these statues can words, which uniformly betrays a real want of the feelonly be considered as entitled to rank beside the producing it aspires to ape. We allude to some nonsense which we tions of a rude and early period. Mr Greenshields is a occasionally hear spoken about naked figures. There is noself-taught artist, and this is a sufficient apology, as far thing indecent in a necessarily naked figure ;-indecency as regards him, for the fact, that these works, although consists in wanton attitudes, and the associations thereby we find in them here and there a happy hit, are worth suggested. Where such things are, the thickest drapery nothing as a whole; but what excuse is there for that cannot confer decency. There is nothing indecent in the spirit of humbug, which seeks to bring them forward as Venus de Medici, the Apollo, the Gladiator, or in our objects of public admiration? A self-taught genius, strug-friend Macdonald's Ajax. The impression which the gling without external aid, and against depressing cir- contemplation of such works leaves upon the mind is, the cumstances, is a noble object; but to produce without pure feeling of different kinds of beauty. The uncontuition, in an age when instruction may so easily be ob-scious modesty of the one, the sublimity of the other, the tained, works which are nothing when compared with power and daring of the two last, are impressions that what might be produced with tuition, is a most pitiful elevate every free mind above low sensual considerations. ambition. We are afraid that it, moreover, results from If we could attribute indecency to a work of art, we would the remarks we have made, that Mr Greenshields has say that there is more in the completely clothed Soldier not shown (in these statues, at least) that native energy and his Doxy, than in all the nudities we have enumeof feeling, from which we might augur great things of rated. We say, "if we could attribute indecency to a him, if subjected to proper training.* work of art," because the feelings and reflections awakened
In conclusion, and apropos of these statues, we shall take this opportunity of saying a few words upon a subject connected with the moralityof sculpture. We hope that it may never be our lot to utter a syllable that can jar, in the slightest degree, on the feeling of the most precise. But it is just because we are conscious of our respect for true decorum, that we feel ourselves entitled to expose all
It will be observed that we have considered this matter in all rightly cultivated minds, by the contemplation of on the footing most favourable to the artist, without en-art, are very different from those which our pseudo moquiring into the competency of the art of sculpture to re-ralists would guard against. He who can gaze on the present such subjects as he has chosen. We shall not at Venus, or the Apollo, we will even say the Leda, and feel present discuss the question, whether sculpture is capable himself alive only to such associations, may rest assured of representing the low humorous. We only know, that that taste, one of our highest capacities, is yet dormant no successful attempt of the kind has yet come under our within him—that his mental culture is yet in its infancy. notice. Rags, weather-beaten and haggard countenances, and mutilated limbs, are not in themselves amusing, but painful or disgusting, unless as contrasting with something else. In Burns's poetry, we are rapt by the glow of intense passion and high excitement. All the disagreeable concomitants are forgotten, or, if remembered, it is merely to raise a smile at their contrast with the mirth of the moment. We enter into the merriment heart and soul, but the dirt and cold harm us not. So in Cruikshank. The grotesque countenances of the personale, the expression of feeling in their figures, is elaborately brought out; while their rags are barely indicated by a few hasty scratches. In Greenshields' statues, the very reverse is the case. The feeling is feebly and inadequately indicated, while the worn-out beavers and bonnets, the ungartered hose and ragged garments, the
It is but fair, however, to state, that we understand he executed these figures upon commission; and that, at the earnest recommendation of Lord Elgin, and others of his more judicious patrons, he is anxious to commence immediately something more classical and dignified.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIeties of
Monday, 4th January. PROFESSOR HOPE in the Chair.
Present,-Professors Russell and Ballingall; Drs Knox
The lama, the only beast of burden possessed by the ancient Peruvians, is, of course, known by name, at least, to all our readers. Its natural history is neither very full nor satisfactory. Blumenbach classes it along with the camel, (an arrangement which seems to us to receive confirmation from Dr Knox's researches,) and enumerates two kinds:The lama which has a pectoral projection, and its back bald (if the expression is admissible);-the vicuna, which has no projec tion, and is covered with wool. The stomach examined by Dr Knox belonged to an animal of the latter species; the stuffed skin of which is either in the College Museum, or in the house of the College Janitor. We have ourselves examined the stomach in question, and
The more immediate subject of discussion was prefaced abomasus. Baron Cuvier and Sir Everard Home were by some remarks on the vague habits of reasoning in which agreed that the lama had only four stomachs; but they difthe prosecutors of natural history occasionally indulge, and fered in their description of them. The Baron admitted the narrow inductions upon which they build their theo- the existence of the paunch, the reservoir, and the two last ries. Much error had arisen, and been perpetuated, by a receptacles, denying the existence of the reticulum. Sir simple process. A man of distinguished reputation had Everard, on the other hand, admitted the existence of the hazarded a conjecture; another, imperfectly acquainted with three first, but maintained that the space occupied in the the matter, had repeated it more decidedly in the form of an camel by the echinus and the abomasus was supplied in the assertion; and a third, entirely ignorant of the matter, had lama by a single stomach. The truth was, that the former, propagated the opinion as an ascertained fact. The anato- having only examined the stomach of a fœtus, had overmist ascertained, by painful and minute observation, the looked the very small space in the superficies of the stomach, structure of organs, and he inferred from their appearance, which had the same structure with the reticulum in rumitaken in connexion with what he could learn of the na-nants. The latter, because the contraction marking the sepature of the animal's residence, its manner of life, and, in ration between the echinus and the abomasus in the lama short, from its natural history, the use to which the organ was not so decided as in the camel, had overlooked the entire was destined. But the anatomist never would infer from diversity of their structure, which showed them to be as an inspection of one isolated organ, the structure and habits materially different in the one as the other. of the whole animal. He would not infer from a piece of The essayist observed in conclusion, that he had, in comhide or bone, the figure and habits of the creature to which pliance with the common use of naturalists, spoken as if it had belonged. Much less would he, because he found there were in reality quadruple and quintuple stomachs. a few fossil bones resembling, in some degree, those of the He was, however, decidedly of opinion, that the impressions hyæna, assume, without further data, that they had belonged conveyed by such language were erroneous. Although the to an animal of homogeneous structure and habits. His form of the stomach might vary in different animals, and whole experience taught him to beware of such hasty gene- although, from this circumstance, as well as from diversified ralization. In the science of abstract form, we could infer, structure of the surface in different parts, peculiar stages of without danger, that if certain parts of figures correspond- the process of digestion might be more easily referable to a ed, the whole would do so in like manner; but we were not certain locality in some creatures than in others; yet, in all, yet sufficiently acquainted with all the possible combina- the stomach was one organ, and discharged one definite tions of form in organic structures, to admit of such a pro-function.
cess of reasoning. Far less were we entitled to limit to the No member offered any remarks upon this communicanarrow range of our experience, the purposes of an Infinite tion, and the Society adjourned. Being.
The Essayist proceeded to observe, that he had been led to make these general remarks, by having seen the dangerous tendency of such superficial and inaccurate inductions in the statement made by Sir E. Home, respecting the structure of the stomach of the lama, as compared to that of the MISS JARMAN and the Pantomime have been drawing camel. The Baronet had affirmed, that the stomach of the former differed materially in structure from that of the lat exceedingly good houses to the Theatre for the last ten ter; but he had been led into this error, by overlooking the days. Miss Jarman has been playing principally in genfact, that the organs of the young seldom display the com- teel comedy, and with a degree of talent sufficient to put plete structure of the adult animal, The history of the the blind admirers of Miss Foote, Miss Ellen Tree, Miss theories respecting the stomach of the camel itself, was a cu- Love, Madame Vestris, et hoc genus omne, to the blush. rious specimen of that process of reasoning he had been re- She takes her benefit next Saturday, when, for the credit probating. It was known that this animal bad the power of the taste of Edinburgh, we anticipate one of the best of subsisting a long time without water; it had been as-houses of the season. It is to us very incomprehensible sumed that it possessed a power of retaining water in its stomach; and an organ being found, on dissection, seem- that Miss Jarman should have been allowed to quit Loningly adapted for such a purpose, it had been taken for don; but seeing that we have had the good fortune to granted that it was so intended. The difficulty was en- secure her services here, it would be worse than ungratetirely overlooked, which arose from the fact, that we knew ful if we did not avail ourselves of the approaching opporof no muscular and vital, or, as anatomists term it, mucous tunity of showing our sense of their value. We have alsurface, with which a fluid could remain any length of time ready said, and we again repeat, that we question whein contact, without being absorbed. The belief, that the ther there is an actress equally talented on the British receptacles in the stomach of the camel could retain water for a length of time unabsorbed, rested on very slender data. stage. There were only three instances recorded. One was narraThe happy family circles which have been visiting the ted by Bruce, who must be considered (the Essayist re- Theatre of late, it has done our heart much good to see; gretted to say) an indifferent authority. Another was an and impressed as we are with the conviction that no experiment, conducted rather in a coarse manner, at the amusement could be more innocent or rational, we have College of Surgeons in London. A camel had been pur-read with sincere pleasure the lively and pithy remarks chased in a dying condition. It had been forced to drink on the subject which appeared in the last number of a considerable quantity of water, (a portion had even been
poured down its throat,) and had been immediately after Blackwood's Magazine. They occur in the review of a killed, by inserting a poniard into the crevice between the poem called "The Age," which the critic informs us is cranium and the first of the vertebræ. It was kept in an the production of a London tailor. In the course of his erect attitude after death by means of suspension, was open-poem, the said tailor thus speaks of the Theatre:ed in the course of two hours, and a considerable quantity of water found in the stomach.
The camel was one of those animals which had, in the common language of naturalists, five stomachs. From the esophagus the food passed into the paunch; thence into a second receptacle, which, from its consisting almost entirely of those vessels in which the water was supposed to be retained, had been denominated the reservoir; thence into what corresponded to the second stomach (reticulum) of ruminating animals; beyond these lay the echinus and the
found it to coincide exactly with the description given in the very able paper of which our abstract can convey but a feeble idea. It is but justice to the memory of a meritorious individual to add, that Dr Knox took occasion to bestow a high and merited enconium on Daubenton, the assistant of Buffon, whose accurate dissection of the camel's stomach has been so unaccountably passed over in silence by
• Sir E. has examined only the very young lama.
"Among them, the most prominent appears,
"Stop, Snip. Do you mean that, you tythe, for a description of our Edinburgh Theatre? If you do, down with your trowsers, and take a taste of the knout. Look at the pit, you vulgar fraction. A more decent set of people never sat in a church. 'Haunt of harlots,' indeed! How dare
Lights up its torch, and wide illumines heaven.
God of our fathers!" thus the prophet cries,—
Thou, mighty Lord, at whose supreme command
you, you nine-pin, to calumniate the citizens, the citizens' One spot of brightness in the gloom profound
Ten times the pestilence came down from thee,
"Or look at the boxes. Ultimate resource of all the
Then o'er the clamorous sea he stretch'd his hand, And o'er old Ocean swept his potent wand;— wanton, profligate, and vile!' What do you mean, you mis- The waves, loud-roaring, knew the awful sigu, creant? Why, that beautiful young bride is yet in her ho- The prophet-priest, the Almighty voice divine; neymoon, and the angel on her right hand is to be married Back from their gulfs indignantly they roll'd; on Thursday to that handsome hussar, whose irresistibles The briny deeps their cavern-glooms unfold; you yourself made, and they do you infinite credit. A hun-Lo! on a sudden, to the astonish'd sight dred, fair and innocent as she, are all shedding such tears as angels weep for
The realms long lock'd in darkness wake to light;
The gentle lady married to the Moor,' so gently personified by the gentle Miss Jarman.
'Fling him ower-fling him ower!'
Such is the cry of all the gods in the gallery, and Snip plays spin at half-price from heaven, and loses his life for sixpence."
To this highly original defence of our acted drama, it is unnecessary at present to add a syllable; but if any one north of the Tweed ever dares to question the morality of our stage, let him remember the tailor, and look for a similar castigation at the hands of Old Cerberus.
THE PASSAGE OF THE RED SEA.
By the Author of "The Opening of the Sixth Seal."
Silent they stood upon the sands-for fear
The righteous ruler of the chosen race,
To heaven uplifts his hope-enkindled face;
Backward they went indignantly-with roar
They rush-they run-the host, the chosen race,
But now the trial of the true is done,
And down heaven's steep swift wheels the setting sun:
And one vast waste of waves is seen alone,
From him, our chief of men who shone, E'en from great Frederic's liberal throne, No honours came, no fostering ray! The German hence may proudly tell, While higher heaves his bosom's swell, Himself shaped out his glorious way!
The deed is done ;-the impious monarch dies, And to his death-groans far the shore replies.
This mark the race redeem'd, the sacred sons
Send up symphonious rapture to the sky;
MY DYING FRIEND.
By S. C. Hall, Editor of the Amulet, and of the British
WE understand that the Reverend Dr Andrew Thomson has in the press a volume of Discourses on the Row Heresy, at present prevailing in the West Country.
Mr Banister has in the press, an Inquiry into the best means of preventing the Destruction of the Aborigines, usually incident upon the settling of New Colonies.
Mr Barker is about to publish, in this country, an edition of Dr Webster's Dictionary of the English Language, containing thirty thousand more words than Johnson's Dictionary.
Mr William Ball has in the press, a Poem, entitled "Creation." The author of "Free Trade and Colonization of India," has a work on the Monopolies of the East India Company, nearly ready. Valence, the Dreamer, a Poem, by John Phillips, is announced. Scripture Sketches, with other Poems, by the Reverend T. Greenwood, are in the press.
Mount Sinai, a Poem, by a gentleman of the Middle Temple, illustrated by the pencil of Martin, will very shortly appear.
An interesting musical work is about to appear, entitled Peninsular Melodies, containing the most beautiful national airs of Spain and Portugal, including the various measures of the Bolera, Fandango, Sequidilla, and Modinha. The work is projected by Captain G. L. Hodges, who personally collected many of the melodies in the Peninsula. The poetry is from the pen of Mrs Hemans and Mrs Norton, with contributions from other distinguished sources. The melodies are harmonized by Don M. de Ledesma.
A charge delivered to the Clergy, at the Visitation made to the Cathedral Church at Calcutta, Nov. 20, 1828, by the late Right Rev. J. T. James, D.D., Lord Bishop of Calcutta; with a Memoir of the time the Bishop lived in India, gathered from his Letters and Memoranda, by E. James, M. A., will shortly appear.
The new Historical Romance, entitled Danley, by the author of Richlieu, is laid in the time of Henry the Eighth, so fertile in magnificence, chivalrous adventure, and sudden political and religious changes. The celebrated festivities of the "Field of the Cloth of Gold," form a conspicuous feature of the story.
The forthcoming Life and Correspondence of Sir T. Munro, the late Governor of Madras, will comprehend a History of India during the last forty-five years. The work also contains numerous private letters, official correspondence, and minutes and papers upon the opening of the trade, the system of internal government, and other questions relative to the general management of British India.
MOORE'S LIFE OF BYRON.-This work, which may now be shortly The author has expected, is said to be very impartially written. avoided personal feelings as much as possible, and made the noble poet, as far as letters and other documents would allow him, tell his own story. Wherever Mr Moore has, of necessity, alluded to his Lordship's contemporaries, he has, we understand, endeavoured to do so, without any of those literary prejudices that would seem to be provoked by the subject. If this be so, and we have no reason to doubt it, the work will be a valuable commentary upon the imperfect and contradictory testimony respecting Lord Byron, which has been hitherto laid before the public.
GODWIN'S NEW NOVEL.-Godwin has written another novel, entitled, " Cloudesley." This was hardly to be expected from the venerable author of Caleb Williams; if it possess the merit of St Leon, it will be welcome to his admirers. We had begun to believe that he was done with the world of letters, and that he had sank into the retreat of age to move no more upon the bustling scene.
THE VOCAL CABINET.-This is a work now publishing in Numbers, in Aberdeen, and consists of a Selection of Standard Songs, set to music, with accompaniments for the piano-forte, arranged expressly for the Cabinet. It is to be completed in 12 Numbers, each of which will contain eight pages, and four or five songs. It is prettily executed, and the songs seem well selected.
A second edition has been called for of Mr Canning's celebrated Speeches, with the Memoirs of his Life, by R. Therry, Esq.