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Hill's (Dr) Practice in the Judicatories of the Church of Scotland 979
393 Hughes' (Rev. T. S.) Divines of the Church of England
85 Irvine (P.) on the Law of Entail
356 Jones, Memoirs of Rear Admiral Paul
Memorandum Book, the Edinburgh
Muir's (Dr) Sermons
296 Newland's (Rev. H.) Apology for the Established Church of
89 Parnell (Sir H.) on Financial Reform
8 Pinnock's Catechisms
274 Polar Star, Vol. II.
154 Ramsay's (Rev. E. B.) Sermon on the Death of Bishop Sandford 117
31 Remarks on Moore's Life of Byron
176 Review, the Christian
TO OUR READERS.
in 1768. The captain and mate of the vessel in which Is commencing the Third Volume of the EDINBURGH LITERARY he took his passage, however, both died during the voyJor BSAL, we feel ourselves called upon to acknowledge the extra age of a fever, upon which he assumed the command, and ordinary success which has all along rewarded our labours. The brought the vessel safely into port. The owners aphopes which we entertained at the outset, arising partly from per pointed him, for this piece of service, master and superceiving the evident desideratum in this country of a purely literary cargo, in which situation he continued till the ship was weekly periodical, and partly from the very extensive literary con.
sold in the year 1771. His course of life for the next nexions which we enjoyed, have been much more than fulfilled. So deady and extensive is the patronage we have received, that we now
four years cannot be so accurately traced. At one time feel entitled to consider ourselves the weekly literary periodical of he was in command of a West India ship sailing from the Seoiland, the more especially as any opposition which may have been port of London. He seems also to have carried on comattempted has proved so entirely abortive.
mercial speculations on his own account in Grenada and For the future, we have to promise that we shall not only go on as Tobago. ' In 1773 we find him in Virginia, arranging we have begun, but that, vires acquirens eundo, we shall intro- the affairs of his brother, who had died intestate. In 1775 dure into our Third Volume many improvements and novelties, which will at once esince the increased nature of our resources, and he was living inactively in America. His habits of buafford a perpetually fresh fund of amusement, and, we hope, infor-siness must have been good, for though he began the world mation, to the reading public. We had at one time intended to spe with nothing, we find him possessed, at the time he emcify a few of these improvements : but, on second thoughts, we think barked in the American service, of nearly £1200 in Engit better to show, than to say, what we can do. We therefore refer land, besides considerable property in the island of Tobago. our readers to the contents of the LITERARY JOURNAL for the next
The fair profits of the West India trade at that period are six months, and if they do not find our Third Volume still more en. titled to their favour than either of its predecessors, we shall most
sufficient to account for this wealth, without the suspimagnanimously absolve them from all obligations to continue to cion of any more lax undertakings than intercourse with subscribe for the Fourth.
the Spanish main. His nautical skill must, in like manner, have been increased by his experience in commanding
a ship of considerable burden. Paul's, too, was a well LITERARY CRITICISM.
cultivated mind; besides his merely professional studies,
which subsequent events showed him to have pursued to Memoirs of Rear-Admiral Paul Jones, Chevalier of the good purpose, his letters evince a mastery of expression Military Order of Merit, and of the Russian Order of On the whole, his ardent and persevering disposition, ta
which could only be acquired by considerable practice. St Anne, Hc.gc. Now first compiled from his original ken in conjunction with the school of active life through journals and correspondence; including an account of his serrices under Prince Potemkin, prepared for publica- which he had passed, justify the confidence reposod in him tion by himself. Two vols. post '8vo. Pp. 331, 341. by the leaders of the American Revolution.
The second period of his history commences in his Edinburgh. Oliver and Boyd. 1830.
He had his choice to be made first-lieuteThe history of Paul Jones is now, for the first time, nant of a frigate, or captain of a sloop of war, and preferpresented to the public in an authentic and satisfactory red the former. In this post he had for a while no other forma. The book is written in a candid and generous spi- opportunity of showing his zeal and energy, than what rit, and we are inclined to look upon it as a valuable ad- was afforded by the necessity of keeping a strict look-out dition to biography.
to prevent desertion while the fleet was frozen in during John Paul Jones was born in July 1747, near Arbig- the winter. The American arms were first tried at sea land, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright. His father was in the affair of the Glasgow, oft Block Island. For their the son of a mail-gardener in Leith ; and was himself em behaviour on this occasion, two of the American captains ployed by Mr Craik of Arbigland, one of the earliest and were immediately after brought to a court-martial; but most judicious improvers of agriculture in the south of the inferior officers were declared to have done their duty. Scotland. Arbigland is situated at the embouchure of In 1777, Jones was appointed by Congress to the comthe With into the Solway, and a great proportion of the mand of a squadron of five vessels, destined for the attack surrounding inhabitants are engaged either in the fishery of Pensacola. This projected expedition came to nought, or the coasting trade. Young Paul showed early a de- through the jealousy of the commander-in-chief; and cided predilection for the sea, and was bound apprentice, shortly after, Jones was dispatched to France on board in his twelfth year, to a respectable Whitehaven mer the Ranger, with instructions to the American Commischant trading to Virginia, where he had a brother in sioners at Paris to procure him a good vessel, and emthriving circumstances, in whose house he resided as long ploy him in Europe, should any thing offer there likely ** the vessel remained in port. His master's affairs be- to prove conducive to the interests of the republic. After coming embarrassed, his indentures were given up to him, magnificent promises, with tardy and petty performance, and at a very early age he was appointed third mate of Jones was sent with the Ranger to cruise off the coasts the King George, a Whitehaven vessel employed in the of Britain. In this expedition he took several merchant slave trade. In his nineteenth year, he went as chief vessels, effected a landing at Whitehaven and St Mary's mate into the Two Friends, a Jamaica vessel engaged Isle, encountered and took the Drake ship of war, and in the same traffic. He quitted it, according to the returned to Brest, in May, 1778, after exciting the apprestatement of his relations, from disgust at its enormities, hensions of the whole British coast, and obtaining a num
ber of prisoners, which obliged England to agree to an ex- ring, but nothing more. The jealousies and heart-burnchange. A long interval of inaction followed, during | ings of the commander prevented any thing of importance which Jones was busy attempting to spur on the tardy from being effected. He was recalled to St Petersburg, French ministry to make some exertion. At last, on tho where the cabals of his enemies raised dark accusations 14th of August, 1779, he again set sail with a squadron against him, from which, however, he successfully vindiof five vessels. He first endeavoured to effect a landing cated himself. The Empress, who was by this time tired at Leith, in which he was frustrated by the weather. of him, granted him leave of absence-a polite method of On the 23d of September, he encountered and captured removing him from court. He visited Paris, where his the Serapis and Countess of Scarborough, his own vessel whole energies were directed to regaining his situation sinking immediately after the action. He afterwards under a government which had checked and thwarted him carried his squadron into the Texel, where he arrived on when in its service, and then coolly and ungratefully the 3d of October. The English fleet were lying off the thrown him aside. In the midst of his projects, death mouth of the Zuyder-Zee, and the Dutch, inclined to tem- overtook him on the 18th of July, 1792, shortly after he porize a little longer, would not recognise Jones; so he found had completed his forty-fifth year. considerable difficulty in making his way to a French port. The last nine years of his life contrast painfully with Being high in popular favour, he was received with em- the vigour and energy which characterise his earlier capressement at court, and had conferred on him by Louis reer. We know, from the report of one who knew Jones, the military order of merit, and a splendid sword. After and admired him, that his habits were finical in the exmuch unsatisfactory negotiation, he sailed for America, treme. His apartments were splendidly furnished ; and, where he arrived in February, 1781. He received the although he was accessible to all, yet his servants had pothanks of Congress; but his active career in the American sitive orders not to admit any pedestrian visitor, whose navy was now closed. He was promised the command boots or shoes were not free from all taint of mud or dust. of a large ship then building; but as the vessel was after- His correspondence at that period, too, shows that his wards presented to the King of France, his expectations female acquaintances were chiefly secondary imitators of were disappointed. He next solicited and obtained per- high life, and his letters to them are deeply marked with mission from Congress to go on board the French fleet a mawkish sentimentality and fade gallantry. His taste cruising on the American seas, for improvement in his was not sufficient to guide him aright, and, instead of a profession. The peace, which almost immediately follow- gallant gentleman, he became a mandlin fop. ed, put an end to his studies in this school.
The fate of John Paul Jones reads a lesson to all fuThe portion of Paul Jones's history of which we have ture time. Naturally endowed with an aspiring mind, now given a short abstract, was the most brilliant of his generous sentiments, great talents, without any overlife. His cool, though reckless courage, his skill in ma-whelming passions, he sacrificed the ties of kindred, and noeuvring a vessel, the number and ingenuity of his pro- the prospect of humble usefulness, to love of distinction. jects, the perseverance with which he continued to urge Introduced into the splendid circle of a court, he saw on the cold and the fickle, but, more than all, the true and there yet richer food for his vanity, and to it he sacrificed comprehensive view he took of the state of the Ameri- his political principles. The two best guides of human can marine, his incessant warnings of the dangers im nature thus rudely eradicated, his heart withered and his pending from its want of discipline, and its disorganized arm grew weak. His close of life was a fruitless struggle state, and the modesty with which he always acknow to attain what, if possessed, could have afforded him no ledged his deficiency in the tactics of combined fleets, enjoyment. His epitaph may well be—“ One of God's and anxiety to remedy it, prove that he had within him creatures lies here, wrecked by his inordinate self-will." all the materials of a great commander. In regard to his embracing the cause of America, he had lived as much in that country as in Britain, and the combatants on
Life of Hernan Cortes. By Don Telesforo de Trueba y either side being thoroughbred Englishmen, it would be Cosio, Author of “ Gomez Arias,” “ The Castilian," childish at this time of day to maintain that there was &c. Being Constable's Miscellany, Vol. XLIX. any thing unnatural in his adhering to the Transatlantic
Edinburgh. Pp. 344. party. His conduct to his family was throughout most praiseworthy; and towards such English as the chance The author of this interesting and romantic biography of war threw in his power, it was totally free from any justly demands that his hero's character be judged by the taint of the mean and malignant renegade. At the same standard of the age in which he lived. The enlightened totime, it cannot be denied that his motives may well have lerance which characterises every truly great man of the been of a mixed and doubtful kind.
nineteenth century, was unattainable by a native of Spain On the 1st of November, 1783, Jones was appointed by at the period when that nation, in the flush of its newly Congress, at his own earnest solicitation, “agent for all concentrated energies, fondly deemed the discovery of Ameprizes taken in Europe under his own command.” In rica, happening, as it did, at the very moment of the final discharging the duties of this office, he spent three years expulsion of the Moors from Spain, a proof of its Divine in Paris, during which time he figured in the gay world mission to root out infidelity from the earth. It is suffithere, greatly to the satisfaction of his personal feelings. cient if, taking his whole life into review, we find that In the year 1787, he paid a short visit to America. Ön Cortes's employment of the high talents with which he his return to Europe, he proceeded to Copenhagen, osten-was endowed by nature, did not materially swerve from sibly on a mission regarding some of his prizes which had those principles of justice which had been discovered and been carried into Danish ports, but in reality to be near established in his time. A recapitulation of the most St Petersburg, where negotiations had already been set striking events in his conquest of Mexico will afford the on foot for his entrance into the service of the Empress best solution of this problem. Catherine. At the first beck of that jolly despot, he Mexico, or New Spain, rises abruptly from the coasts hastened to her court, where he was flatteringly received, both of the Pacificand Atlanticoceans; and the lofty plateau and invested with the rank of Rear-Admiral. His trans subsides into a capacious basin, nearly in the centre of formation into the courtier, which had been partially ef- which is the lake of Mexico, the climate of which apfected at Paris, was now completed. Ile was inflamed proximates to that of the more favoured countries of with a chivalrous devotion to his liege lady, and spoke in the temperate zones. The inhabitants, and in particular a most patronising tone of the infant state of America. those who occupied the islands and margin of the central He was soon summoned by Potemkin to take a share in fresh-water sea, had advanced in civilisation, when Mexico the campaign of the Liman. The operations of this war was first discovered, far before the surrounding tribes. afforded Joues an opportunity of showing his native da- The mechanical, and even the ornamental arts, had made