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Old Testament. It is, however, well known that the cock had been introduced into Greece as early as the time of Themistocles. Now, the Old Testament history does not conclude till about twenty years after the death of that statesman; from which we may infer, that the silence of the later sacred historians regarding poultry must have had some other cause than ignorance of their existence; for, if the Greeks had received them prior to that period from Persia, or from the more south-eastern countries of Asia, they could scarcely have remained unknown to the intermediate regions inhabited by the Jews. With the exception of North and South America, and the great Australasian Continent of New Holland, there is scarcely any considerable the portion of the earth's surface, colonized by the human race, where poultry have not been known and cherished from a very remote period. In most nations, too, we find them valued for their pugnacious propensities, in which mankind have found a most anomalous source of amusement. The different races of our poultry are so remarkable for their disagreement with respect to size, colour, and proportions, that the reflecting naturalist with difficulty convinces himself of their descent from one common stock. It is true that all the varieties produce with each other a fertile progeny, but while we remember the fertile hybrid between the ferret and pole-cat, and that between the dog and the wolf, we may be allowed to doubt the sufficiency of this generally received criterion of identity of species. The first plausible L attempt to attribute the origin of our domestic poultry to a wild species, was made by Sonnerat, who discovered the Gallus Sonneratii, or Jungle Cock, a native of the Ghauts, in India. Later discoveries, however, have considerably invalidated the claims of this bird to be viewed as the original stock whence we have derived our breed of domestic poultry. Mr Wilson observed that the natural form and structure of any portion of the animal organization, were much less easily altered or effaced than the more superficial and transitory character of colour. The natural inference is, that a if the Jungle cock be the parent of our domestic breeds, such breeds would at least occasionally exhibit those marked and peculiar characters of form and structure by which the feathers of the supposed original are distinguished. On the contrary, however, among the numerous varieties of our domestic poultry, not one has been found, the plumage of which is characterised by the horny lamina or expansions of the quill, which form so marked a feature in the plumage of the Jungle cock. It is chiefly upon this difference of structure of the cervical feathers, and of some other parts of the plumage, that the necessity of seeking elsewhere the parent stock of our common poultry has been rested. Mr Wilson mentioned, however, another fact, which we do not remember to have seen previously insisted upon, and which leads irresistibly to the same conclusion. The natives of the district where the Jungle cock abounds, rear a breed of poultry differing as much from the supposed original as our own, and which never intermingles with the forest brood. Similar objections apply with still greater force to the forktailed cock (g. fureatus) of Java; and to the Macartney cock (g. Macarinei) of Sumatra. Mr Wilson next directed the attention of the Society to the better-founded claims of some of the species of wild poultry inhabiting the great Asiatic islands. According to M. Temminck, the species to which our domestic races are most nearly allied, are,the Jago cock of Sumatra (g. giganteus), a wild species of great size, and the Bankira cock of Java, another primitive species which occurs in the forest of the last named island. There are several circumstances which render the claims of these two birds much stronger than those of the Jungle cock. Istly, Their females bear a strong resemblance to our domestic hens. 2dly, The common village cock, in its most ordinary condition, is intermediate in respect to size between these two species. 3dly, The nature of the plumage, which in its form, consistence, and distribution, is absolutely the same as in the common cock, strengthens the supposition. 4thly, It is in these species alone, that we find the females as well as the males provided with a fleshy crest and small wattles, characters which likewise distinguish both sexes of our common poultry, although they are for the most part but slightly developed in the female. The Jago cock sometimes grows to so great a size, that while tanding on the floor of a room, according to Marsden, its ill attained the level of a dining table of ordinary height. The Bankira cock is of dimensions much more nearly proaching to several of our domestic varieties, with which t also agrees in some other characteristics. It is in the Form and direction of the tail, which, in this wild species, s almost horizontal, that it differs most from our poultry.
This discrepancy may easily be accounted for from the different habits of the birds. Mr Wilson argued, from the analogy of the anatomy of birds, that our domestic poultry, if abandoned in the woods to their own resources, would acquire, along with greater strength of wing, a depression of tail calculated to promote a swift progress through the atmosphere. In corroboration of this opinion, he mentioned a case which had come under his own notice, of an individual cock, which, having dwelt for the greater part of the summer in the woods upon his own resources, became so shy and wary, that he could neither be caught nor reclaimed, but generally rose with a harsh cry at the distance of 30 or 40 yards, with his tail extended horizontally, and was at last shot, like any other wild game, as a legitimate object for the exercise of sportsman-like skill. Mr Wilson concluded by stating, that he conceived the remarks he had submitted to the Society sufficient to establish two points:First, that the Jungle cock is not the parent of our domestic poultry, from all the known varieties of which it differs materially, both in the form and structure of its plumage; and second, that, as far as it is possible to judge, in the present state of our knowledge, this honour belongs to two species inhabiting the Asiatic islands, which possess, in a greater or less degree, all the characters of our domestic kinds, and are not contradistinguished by any marked peculiarity of structure. The objection to our domestic poultry being derived from a multiplied source, which naturally arises from the disinclination, evinced by most animals, to breed except with their own kind, is greatly weakened by the acknowledged facility with which the different species of gallinaceous birds continue to form hybrid or crossed breeds.
Dr Scot read a paper "On the question, whether the Hyena of naturalists be mentioned or alluded to in the Sacred Writings." No remarks were made upon this paper, and the Society adjourned.
SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES.
Monday, 22d March. Sir HENRY JARDINE in the Chair.
Present,-Professor Brunton; Drs Hibbert and Carson; James Skene, Donald Gregory, James Maidment, David Laing, Gabriel Surenne, &c. &c., Esquires.
THERE was read "A brief account of an ancient piece of furniture in the choir of the Parish Church, Terregles, in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright;" accompanied with a relative drawing, communicated by R. L. Milligan, Esq., M.D.
The assistant Secretary (Donald Gregory, Esq.) next read his "Enquiry into the causes which led to the proscription (in 1603) of the Clan Gregor."*
The Clan Gregor is one of the very few families in the Highlands supposed to be of pure Celtic origin. An early, if not the original, seat of the head of the family, was the valley of Glenurchy, in the district of Lorn. There is preserved, in Rymer's Fœdera, a mandate issued in 1293 by John Baliol, ordaining the Lord of Lorn to summon two individuals of the name of MacGregor to appear on a certain day in the royal presence, for the purpose of rendering homage; from which the natural inference is, that these persons were free barons. Among the prisoners taken by Edward I. at the battle of Dunbar in 1296, mention is made of John of Glenurchy. It appears that his lands and possessions were afterwards restored to him on condition of his going to serve Edward in his wars in France. He is designated one of the Magnates Scotia, a proof that his possessions holden of the crown must have been very considerable. It is also extremely probable, from the great numbers of the clan found in later times in the western districts of Perthshire, and particularly in Glendochart, Glen Lyon, and Rannoch, that previous to the reign of Robert, some of them held lands there under the crown as free barons.
* We regret that it is only in our power to present the reader with a however, to be able to return to the enquiry respecting the true origin summary of this interesting and ably executed paper; we hope, and character of that foray which brought about the proscription of the Clan Gregor, when the next number of Mr Pitcairn's Criminal Trials appears. We have been favoured with a view of the proof sheets of Mr Gregory's account of the trials of the M'Gregors; and we Gregory in the opinions he has expressed. are of opinion that the documents there collected fully bear out Mr We take the oppor ap-tunity of this note, to express our opinion, that Mr Gregory's notice of the Clan Gregor is the best, and indeed the only authentic history of a Highland Clan that we have seen. He has not hazarded a single assertion, in which he is not borne out by documentary and general contemporary evidence. Even our meagre abstract will serve to show the important conclusion to which his investigations have led him. 1
Malcolm de Glendochart and Patrick de Glendochart appear in the Ragman Roll in 1298; and both names are common in the Clan Gregor.
The MacGregors were, from their local situation, it may be also from consanguinity, the followers of the Lord of Lorn, and shared in the fate of his family upon the accession of Bruce, to whom he was bitterly opposed. Glendochart and Fortingal were bestowed upon connexions and followers of the new monarch. The Lord of Glenurchy had died in France, and the estate, being the property of an heiress and a minor, could not be forfeited. Her wardship and marriage, however, were bestowed upon Campbell of Lochawe, the king's brother-in-law, who bestowed her upon his son John, afterwards Earl of Athole. Upon his decease, without children, in 1333, the estate seems to have reverted to the MacGregors; for there is undoubted evidence of the death of "John MacGregor of Glenurchy" in 1390. In 1442, we find the estate in possession of a younger son of the first Lord Campbell, from whom the house of Breadalbane are descended. According to the records of that house, he received it from his father. This was the last freehold possession of any consequence held by the name of MacGregor.
About the middle of the fifteenth century, therefore, the Clan Gregor was in a situation totally different from that of any other clan in the Highlands-it had not one acre of land held free of the crown. But it had not yet become distinguished over the neighbouring families for a predatory disposition. The crown still possessed extensive lands in Perthshire, on which the chieftains of the tribe were seated, nominally, as crown tenants, but, in reality, from the unsettled state of the country, as absolute proprietors. During the reigns of James II., ÍÍI., and IV., however, numerous grants of these crown lands were made to powerful barons in that part of the country. Many of these, having been granted during minorities, were afterwards revoked; and the uncertainty hence arising in the new titles, encouraged the MacGregors, the actual occupants of the lands, to despise and resist the authority of charters, by which overlords were imposed upon them, in many instances from families with which they had long been at mortal feud. The struggle was unequal; and in proportion as the Clan Gregor became, from kindly tenants of the crown, subjects of oppression and suspicion to their wealthier and more powerful neighbours, they grew remarkable for their opposition to all law and order. Mr Gregory completely established this position, by entering into a detailed narrative of the management of the crown lands in Perthshire, (and particularly in Rannoch, the head seat of the Clan Gregor,) from the year 1473 till the end of the 16th cen
Those who have once burst the bonds of law, are exposed to greater temptations than those who live within them; and thus it happened with the Clan Gregor. There is strong ground for believing, that in many cases, and particularly after the death of the Regent Murray, they acted in their predatory excursions merely as the tools of some of their more powerful neighbours. The peculiar circumstances in which they had so long been placed, in regard to their ancient possessions, must have disposed them to enter with alacrity into any plans of violence and rapine, by which they might have a chance of bettering their condition. Their forays, too, were the more felt and complained of, that the wealthy district around Perth, as the nearest to their haunts, was that which generally suffered from their inroads. The bad reputation acquired by this unfortunate clan, is testified by the numerous government commissions issued at different times against them, breathing the most vindictive and relentless spirit, and consequently only fitted to make bad worse.
Amid all this adversity, there was one branch of the family of MacGregor which continued for some time to enjoy a state of comparative prosperity. Soon after the apparent extinction of the house of Glenurchy, a branch of the Clan Gregor may be traced, holding the small property of Glenstray, which lies contiguous to Glenurchy, as vassals of the Earl of Argyll. It was connected by marriage with most of the principal families of the name of Campbell, and as long as it continued to hold of the Earl, it appears to have flourished. During the reign of Queen Mary, however, Argyll conveyed the superiority of Glenstray to Campbell of Glenurchy, and from that time its possessors shared the fate of the rest of the clan. The great object of the Glenurchy family was to get rid of the MacGregors as vassals altogether. This object they attempted to accomplish, by refusing Gregor MacGregor of Glenstray as heir
to his father; and, after the execution of Gregor in 1581. by withholding the investiture from his son Allaster, who was legally ejected from Glenstray in 1590, under the pretext that he was merely a tenant of the lands against the will of his superior, Sir Duncan Campbell. In 1587, a very voluminous act of Parliament was passed, vulgarly called the General Bond, which denounced severe penalties, not only against the broken clans, but also against all their favourers and resetters. Early in 1593, Archibald Earl of Argyll received a commission of similar import, against "all and sundry persons of the wicked Clan Gregor." About this time, the landlords of the Clan Gregor, forced by the severe enactments of the General Bond, which made them answerable for the misdemeanours of their tenants, began to take measures for a universal ejection of the clan from their possessions; and, as far as the forms of law could go, numerous ejectments took place. It may safely be affirmed, in consequence of these rigorous measures, that, in July, 1596, not a single farm was occupied by a MacGregor, unless by force, and in defiance of the landlord. At that time, the Laird of MacGregor made his appearance before the King in council, became bound for the good behaviour of his clan, and promised to remain in attendance on his Majesty, as a hostage for their obedience. He appears, however, soon to have tired of his thraldom, and to have made his escape to the Highlands.
After this event, various attempts were made by the Council to reduce the Clan Gregor without undue severity; but all its good intentions were frustrated by the interested policy of Argyll. He stirred them up to acts of violence against those proprietors who had the misfortune to be at feud with him; and afterwards took advantage of these very acts of insubordination to get himself appointed his Majesty's Lieutenant and Justice, with most ample powers, in the whole bounds inhabited by the Clan Gregor. The last important outrage committed by this sept, previous to its proscription, and the immediate cause of that act of se verity, was the invasion of the Lennox in 1603, during which the celebrated conflict of Glenfrune took place be tween them and the Colquhouns. The declaration of the Laird of MacGregor, produced as evidence against him at his trial, charges Argyll with having been the instigator of this irruption; and the simplicity and unconscious pathos of the document are strong warrants of its veracity. Its assertions are, moreover, corroborated by many adminicles of evidence adduced on the trials of the MacGregors. The magnitude of this foray was sufficient to strike a panic into the govern ment, which vented itself in the celebrated act of Council prohibiting any person, under pain of death, from bearing the name of Gregor or MacGregor. The chief himself was shortly afterwards apprehended through the machinations of Argyll, and executed at Edinburgh. At this period, the Clan Gregor was to all human appearance extinguished. **j Mr Gregory concluded by remarking, that he had "endea-4) voured to show that the causes of the proscription of the Clan Gregor were closely connected with the system on which the ancient Crown Lands were managed; and that the system took more effect upon this clan from their ha ving lost most of their freehold possessions so early as the reign of Robert Bruce.
ANDERSON'S UNIVERSITY, GLASGOW.
On the evening of Monday, the 22d March, the first of the meetings purposed to be held on the plan of those that have proved so delightful at the Royal Institution, Albe marle-street, took place in the University Rooms, George street. It was numerously and brilliantly attended,-Lord John Campbell, who rightly thinks that a love of scienc can add lustre to even the name of Argyll, Mr Smith of Jordan-hill, Professor Dr Hooker, Professor Mylne, M May, besides Mr Anderson, President of the Institution Mr Douglas, the Secretary, and all the learned body o Professors, being present. After tea and coffee in the ap paratus room, the Museum was thrown open. It is a hand some apartment, but the collection will speedily outgrow it It is particularly rich in mineral and geological specimens Among the latter, a splendid suite of primitive and other rocks, arranged by the hand of Werner, and presented b Mr Edington, was much admired. At eight o'clock, i the Great Hall of the University, Dr Ure delivered an admirable, though, from its nature, desultory lecture, on a review of the most recent and striking discoveries in che mical science, of which he is himself so distinguished an ornament. Among these, we were chiefly struck with that of a German chemist, WAELLER, who, by passing clay it
a state of combustion, united with animal charcoal, through
My creed's not the Catholic's-Purer
When his faith was the faith of your foes,-
Another new substance was also shown, which has been recently added to our catalogue. It is termed GLUCINUM, and is found in the emerald. This and the preceding examination, the learned Doctor remarked, threw some light en the nature of meteoric stones, which he conceived to be floating bodies, containing the earths in a metallic state, which fused on coming into contact with our atmosphere. The most interesting portion of the discourse was, however, that which detailed Dr Ure's present investigations en tests for detecting the presence of opium. In prosecuting these, he has clearly established, that in our saliva there is a large portion of sulpho-cyanic acid, akin to prussic acid, and the most deadly poison! Thus we every moment swallow a portion of it! In a state of Ptyalism, however, the mercurial action seems to banish it. The tincture of iron colours the saliva, where it is present, a bright red, and from this circumstance some light may be thrown upon the curious question as to the colouring matter of the blood. In the course of the Doctor's experiments, he has demonstrated, that in some of the London porter of the most famous brewers, a serious quantity of opium is discoverable. A well-executed head of Berzelius, in selenium, was landed round as a specimen of that rare metal. Mr Smith of Jordan-hill, Mr Douglas, Professor Mylne, Dr Hannah, and the President, each delivered their remarks. The venerable father of the College of Glasgow was received with enthusiasm, as was also the mention by Mr Anderson, that to the unwearied zeal and influence of Mr Smith we were
indebted for the organization of a series of meetings so delightful as these promise to be.
THE SONG OF CONCILIATION.
EY JAMES SHERIDAN KNOWLES.
Air," One Bumper at Parting."
Should never be grudged to the Free.
They strengthen his infidel cause,
Then, boys, doff the Lily for ever!
The Shamrock, Leek, Thistle, and Rose, Åre our national emblems,—then never— O! never wear any but those.
Why rail against WELLINGTON-PEEL-
That to change is the act of a man.
To a faction ought millions to bow?
What to me is the creed of my neighbour?
Let the laws be the same we obey. 0! spurn not his altar! forbear!
'Tis an act Nature-God-will condemn ;
Come-a bumper! Fill up!--to the brim!
Though already we've drunk him to-day-
Он! could we away where the cliff and the cave
There morn would not wake me to gaze upon woe,
E. O. B.
LITERARY CHIT-CHAT AND VARIETIES.
MR MACFARLANE, who is already favourably known to the public by his work on Turkey, is about to publish a tale, entitled The Armenians, the scene of which is laid on the Bosphorus.
The first volume of a Treatise on Optics, containing the theory of unpolarised light, by the Rev. Humphry Lloyd, is announced.
A Transcript from a curious Manuscript, discovered under the foundations of the ancient Manor-house at Abbot's Leigh, Somerset, to be called the Royal Book, or Oracle of Dreams, is in the press.
Mr Thomas Aird, the author of "Religious Characteristics," is preparing for publication a poem, to be entitled The Captive of Fez. From what we know of Mr Aird's abilities, we are inclined to augur highly of the success of this work. Mr Blackwood is to be the publisher.
We understand that Mr John Parker Lawson has made considerable progress with his Life of Bishop Horsley, which will be ready for press in the course of a few months.
The Stories from the History of Ireland, which we noticed some time ago, are said to have been compiled by Lady Frances Leveson Gower, for the use of her own sons.
There is at present in the course of publication at Paris, a beautiful edition of Buffon's works, in 18mo, with plates, the price of which is about sixpence halfpenny per volume.
Among other interesting works which have very recently issued from the press, we may enumerate: 1st, The second volume of Caillie's Travels to the long-sought Timbuctoo.-2d, Temple's Travels in that attractive portion of South America, Peru.-3d, Lloyd's Northern Sports, descriptive of the field diversions in the north of Europe.-4th, Captain Moorsom's Letters from Nova Scotia, containing a curious and vivid picture of the actual state of that colony. -And, 5th, Mr Dobell's Account of the present State of Siberia and China, of which latter country new details were much wanted. In a few days we are to have a translation of M. Bourrienne's Memoirs
* This song has been arranged with symphonies and accompani ments, and will be published immediately.
of Napoleon, which have excited so great a sensation in the French capital; and a poetical work from the pen of the Hon. Mrs Norton, under the singular title of "The Undying One."
The Early Christians, or the Aspect and Spirit of Primitive Christianity, 18mo, is preparing for publication.
We understand that many of the Songs in the Musical Album have been published separately. Among the rest, Queen Mary's Song. ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA.-The first Part of the new edition (the seventh) of this valuable work is now ready. It is very elegantly printed; and, both from its cheapness and the established value of its contents, is well entitled to the most extensive circulation.
RUDIMENTS OF CORRECT READING. This is a new school-book, upon a simple and ingenious plan, by Mr Alexander Adam, teacher in Edinburgh.
Theatrical Gossip.-Kean has appeared again at Drury Lane, in his old favourite part of Richard III., and the audience made up by the warmth of their reception for their former ill treatment of him. If the Londoners were to deprive themselves of Kean, we should like to know whom they could find to supply his place ?-On Thursday last, Miss Kemble played Portia, for her own benefit, to her father's Shylock. The house was, of course, a bumper.-Drury Lane Theatre is no longer in the hands of Mr Price; but is to remain under the general direction of a committee till the end of the season, when will be let to the highest bidder. Laporte and Charles Wright are named as candidates; but we doubt whether either is fitted for the situation. Wallack is still stage-manager.-It is stated that Mrs Saldons went lately to see Miss Kemble play Mrs Beverley, and that this was the first time she had ever seen "The Gamester" performed.— Braham has returned to town, and is to appear at Drury Lane shortly. -Mathews has been performing at Manchester with great success. Byron's "Werner" has been brought out by Macready at Dublin, and has been favourably received.-Vandenhoff has been playing a Glasgow. Mrs Henry Siddons has appeared since our last in " The Rivals," "Wives as they were,and Maids as they are," and "The Wa to Keep Him." The house, upon each occasion, has been filled to overflowing. To-night she performs "All in the Wrong," and takes her final leave of us on Monday, on which evening she will deliver a Farewell Address, written expressly for her by Sir Walter Scott. Lis ton is to be here in a few days, and is to be succeeded by T. P. Cooke, Then will come the benefits; and in June we are to have Miss Fairy Kemble. Miss Jarman's engagement terminates on the third of April. We think the Manager ought to have engaged her for the whole season, because, without her, we have no prima donna. We shall not, however, complain, as we have no doubt he will not allow her to go away without securing her return at no very distant peria Miss Jarman is to take a benefit on the 3d, we believe, and certainly the exertions she has made, and the talent she has displayed, entita her to expect that it will be crowdedly attended. We understand that the authoress of "Aloyse," in consequence of Mrs Siddons's re-appearance, and Miss Jarman's speedy departure, has thought it best that the production of her new piece, should be delayed tail the commencement of next season. Our readers will be glad to learn that Mr Murray has obtained, upon liberal terms, the patent of the Theatre-Royal, and that Mrs Siddons having retired from all share in the concern, he is now the sole patentee. We are informed that it is Mr Murray's intention to proceed to London immediately on the close of the present season, to make as extensive and spirited ar well-rangements as possible for his next winter campaign; and among other things, to engage the first London scene-painters to assist in supplying him with an entire new stock of scenery.
WEEKLY LIST OF PERFORMANCES.
JAMES SHERIDAN KNOWLES.-Our readers will perceive by the advertisement, that Mr Knowles is to deliver this day his first Lecture on Dramatic Literature. We confess ourselves anxious that a man of genius, and a stranger among us, should meet with that encouragement which Edinburgh knows so well how to bestow upon genius when properly employed.
NEW MUSIC. Mrs Orme, of whose musical talents we have already had occasion to speak very favourably, has just published another song, entitled, "Mary Jamieson," the words from the Edinburgh Literary Journal. The melody is exceedingly simple and expressive, and the accompaniment rich and full.-We have also received this week three songs by Mrs Alexander Kerr, all of which we like much, and particularly the canzonet entitled, "This is the Hour." We are glad to know that both these ladies are now resident in Edinburgh, and are likely to lend their best efforts to the support of musical taste among us. Mrs Kerr is preparing for publication, a volume of melodies, of which both the music and words will be her
learned these facts while at Paris above three years ago, when I be
MR YANIEWICZ'S CONCERT.-Mr Yaniewicz is to give his annual Concert on Tuesday next, and is to have the assistance of his own talented daughters, the Misses Paton, and Mr Boyle, who will, upon this occasion, make his first appearance in Edinburgh. We have heard Mr Boyle sing in private, and can answer for the sweetness and flexibility of his voice, and also for the chasteness of his style, -what we fear is, that it may want power for a large assembly. We have no doubt that the Concert will be well attended.
P. S. Information connected with other French Literary Societies at Paris, will at times be transmitted to you, provided the present may not be thought uninteresting.
CHIT-CHAT FROM LONDON. Mrs Charles Kemble gave a musical soiree last Sunday. The concluding morceau was an air sung by Miss Fanny Kemble, in a manner which elicited the most unbounded applause of all present. Her style for depth and purity of expression was pronounced unrivalled, and the quality of her voice was compared to that of Malibran. We hope Miss Fanny Kemble did not swallow all this. Mr Washington Irving was of the party.-A grand National Cemetery has been projected in London, on the plan of Pere la Chaise, in the neighbourhood of Paris. It is to be established by a joint-stock company, and numerous drawings and plans have been already given in. The whole arrangements are under the direction of the projector, Mr Goodwin, the architect of several known public buildings.-The new Library at the British Muscum, which is one of the most magnificent rooms in Europe, is 300 feet long, 42 wide, and 32 high. It contains about 80,000 volumes, in mahogany cases, and is open gratis to the public three days in the week. Some persons having begun to object to the indecorum of the dancing at the Opera-house, Laporte, the manager, has written a letter to the Times, in which he maintains that nothing could be "more orderly, moral, and decent than the dances."-On the whole, there is little that is very new going on in London at present.
THE SOCIETY OF FRENCH ANTIQUARIANS.
To the Editor of the Edinburgh Literary Journal.
SIR,-The handsome manner in which you have allowed the proceedings of the Antiquarian Society of this city to be entered in your valuable columns, calls for the thanks of every individual composing it; and thinking that any thing connected with the Society of French Antiquarians at Paris may not be unacceptable, I beg to state the following circumstance attending the reading of a paper in that Society. Every paper, either from abroad, or any part of France, is referred to a committee, on the report of whom, it is either allowed to be read or not. In this manner, none but interesting papers are read before the Society. This custom, a wholesome one, is necessary, from the multiplicity of matters laid on their table; and I freely confess, that it is with some degree of pride I mention to you that the paper read by me in our Society here last Monday se'nnight, was sent a year ago, in French, to the Société des Antiquaires de France, approved of by their committee, and read before them. I may also mention, in reference to the French Antiquarian Society, that no person is admitted upon the simple recommendation of members. The candidate must first give proofs of his abilities and aptitude in the labours with which the attention of the Society is occupied, and if thought a fit literary character, he is admitted. Some members have written many essays before they had this honour.
TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS.
SEVERAL interesting articles still stand over in types. The communication from Gainsborough in defence of Tate mi Brady's version of the Psalms, is ingenious and sensible; but as a does not refer to the main point in discussion, which is the propriety of making any alterations on the Scottish version, we are afraid we shall not be able to make room for it.
"Spring hours in Père la Chaise," which we have read with p sure, shall have a place at our earliest convenience.-"Stephen Kenble and the son of Neptune," shall also be inserted.-We believe there is no truth whatever in the report alluded to by "Harmoni cus;"-the lady he mentions has been in bad health, but has no in. mediate prospect of returning.
"An Autumnal Midnight Vision" in our next.-We shall endesvour to find room for the verses on "The Torwood Oak."-Th
effusion of "W. P. L." will not suit us.
EDINBURGH LITERARY JOURNAL;
WEEKLY REGISTER OF CRITICISM AND BELLES LETTRES.
SATURDAY, APRIL 3, 1830.
Travels in various Parts of Peru; including a Year's Residence in Potosi. By Edmond Temple. In two vols. London. Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley. 8vo. Pp. 431 and 504.
Our reviews of new works are, in general, splendid,— impartial, comprehensive, spirited, minute, and complete. They are calculated not only to show the true merits of the author, but to put in the clearest point of view the abilities of the critic. We are aware, at the same time, that there is a set of dull rogues who do not think this last advantage so very essential to a good review. These people say," We do not wish to have your own speculations on the subject in question; we wish to know rather what the author says about it ;-give us fewer original remarks, and more extracts. We pity the blindness, but we respect the prejudices, of such persons. Knowing, as we do, that there is no author now living who can write upon every subject so well as we can, we must naturally feel for the ignorance of those who have the misfortune to think differently. But as we are the most amiable creatures in existence, and take a supreme delight in humouring and pleasing all our readers, we shall this week review a book or two according to the plan they suggest, and the melancholy absence of our own brilliant observations may awake them, perhaps, to a due appreciation of the value of what they have lost.
Mr Edmond Temple is a young Irishman, who went ont to South America in the year 1825, as secretary to the then newly-established joint-stock company, entitling itself" The Potosi, La Paz, and Peruvian Mining Association." He and the other commissioners had hardly reached Potosi when the bubble burst, and the affairs of the company fell into irretrievable ruin. Mr Temple, however, was two years and a half out of England, and having kept a Journal of every thing he saw and did, he has now published a book written in that good-natured lively style, which implies that the destruction of the splendid prospects of "The Potosi, La Paz, and Peruvian Mining Company," produced a very trifling effect on his spirits. Mr Temple is not a profound nor a scientifie man, but he seems to be an acute sensible fellow, with a dash of the bold and eccentric spirit of green Erin in his constitution. We shall take such extracts from his two volumes, as may appear to us likely to excite most attention when read separately. Some of them are amusing, and others instructive. Having landed at Buenos Ayres, he travelled across the Pampas to dova, and thence by Tucuman and Salta to Potosi. On all this route he found that every body kept open house for travellers, but not exactly after the manner that open house is kept in this country.
KEEPING OPEN HOUSE IN PERU.
"Proprietors of houses in England, judging from their own cases, may imagine that keeping open house for travellers is attended with very great trouble and expense. According to the customs of England, it certainly would be so; but in South America it is neither troublesome nor expensive.
Here is no calling for chambermaids to prepare a room, no disturbing the housekeeper from her tea to air a pair of sheets, no demand upon the butler for a bottle of wine, nor upon the cook for any extra exercise of his art, nor upon coachmen or grooms to take care of carriages and horses. The traveller alights at the door of the house, which he en
ters, and accosts those he may chance to see, saying, 'God keep ye, gentlemen!' to which a similar reply is given. The traveller then says, With your permission, senores, I shall stop here for the night. With the greatest pleasure,' is the reply. Here ends, nine times out of ten, the whole of the trouble or interference between the parties. The traveller points to a spot either inside or outside the house, according to the state of the weather, where he wishes his muchacaho (servant) to spread his saddle-cloths; these being three or four fold, are sufficiently large to lie upon, and, with his saddle under his head, and poncho or cloak over him, complete the bed.
"Some few, who like their luxuries, carry a small mattress, and sometimes even a portable bedstead, but nothing of the kind is given or expected, either at a public or private house, -for the very best reason, because they have nothing of the kind to give. The traveller also carries with him his alforjas-a species of haversack-with provisions; but if he happens to arrive at the family meal-time, he is invited to partake, which invitation is usually declined, because it is usually complimentary and nothing more."
Upon the subject of South American and Spanish phraseology, we have the following entertaining passage:
PECULIARITIES OF SPANISH AND SOUTH AMERICAN
"In South America, as in Spain, ceremonious compliments are too frequently indulged in; offers and promises of every thing, without meaning or intending any thing, are of daily occurrence. But this general rule has, of course, its excep tions; for it would bestrange to say that there are not as truly generous friends in South America and in Spain as in any other part of the world, yet even the very best are addicted to empty compliments, altogether unknown among Englishmen. Should you, for instance, chance to admire a valu able necklace, a watch, a ring, or a handsome horse, the owner, although unacquainted with you, immediately makes an obeisance, and says, Esta a la disposicion de V. It is at your service;' but never expects you to accept the proffered gift. It must, no doubt, have occurred to others as well as to myself, in both Spain and South America, when speaking in praise of a lady, be she wife or daughter, in the presence of the husband or father, to have received from the latter the same generous offer-Senor, està a la disposicion de V.'
"The compliments of Spanish society have been practised in ancient and modern times, and may be very adroitly ren
dered subservient to self-interest, sometimes to the confusion of one party, and to the benefit of another, as the following Cor-instances will show. The learned Countess d'Aunoy, in her travels through Spain, a hundred and fifty years ago, wrote to a friend at Paris in these terms:- I was sitting at table, when one of my women brought me my watch to wind it up, as it was my custom at noon; it was a striking watch of Tompion's make, and cost me fifty louis d'or. My banker, who was by me, expressed a desire to see it. I gave it him with the customary civility. enough: my blade rises and makes me a profound reverence, telling me that he did not deserve so considerable a present, but that such a lady as I could make no other, and he would engage his faith that he would never part with