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ed elaborate criticisms on such works of the old masters as came is most happily conceived. Dyce has a rich and ripe Flora, a lore'y under his observation. These are now likely to be given to the moonlight, and a " Hercules strangling the Serpents," in whied the world, as they have been placed by the family in the possession of power and passion of the demigod are beautifully blended with the Mr Campbell.

unformed innocence of the child. D. 0. Hill has a scene from the SCANDINAVIAN Poetry-Dr BOWERING.—We observe that Dr Gentle Shepherd, in which the rich fulness of the Peggy contrasta Bowering, the most indefatigable modern linguist living, has just finely with the beautiful but somewhat snappish look of the Jeans; published a volume of poetical translations illustrative of the lite

while Glaud listens to the pretended conjuror's display of power with rature of Hungary and Transylvania; and we have now before us

a gash “hoo-the-deil-cam-ye-to-ken-that'' sort of loek. Lauder hag the prospectus of another work of a similar kind which he is prepa

three portraits and a Sentinel, of which we know that Wilkie has es ring, and which will be published under the title of Songs of Scan pressed himself in terms of high approbation. Fletcher has : mast dinavia. It will extend to two volumes, the first of which will con characteristic bust of Mrs Hemans, and a splendid one of the Duked tain about one hundred specimens of the ancient popular ballads of Argyle. These, with many others we could mention, will, we think, north-western Europe, arranged under the heads of Heroic, Super bear us out in our assertion. The hanging committee are, Mesa natural, Historical, and Domestic Poems; while the second will con Colvin Smith, Kidd, and M'Leay. We can scarcely, however, ctstain many of the most remarkable lyrical productions of the modern gratulate these gentlemen on their promotion to that happy entinere, school of Danish poetry. Dr Bowering deserves more than well of

where the most favoured will give them no thanks, and nine out his country for his perseverance in this particular department of li.

ten will abuse them for their arrangements. terature, the more especially as profit is not the object of his transla

Theatrical Gossip.—The Oratorios have commenced in London.tions, which, from their possessing only a limited interest, are not

LI

There has been a Masquerade at Covent-Garden, under the directia calculated, as Dr Bowering well knows by experience, to bring any

of Charles Wright, which was crowdedly, but very promiscuously, pecuniary reward to their author.

attended.—The veteran comedian, Quick, completed his eight*** Foreign Literature.—The French Keepsake is a rival worthy third year last November, and has lately become very much erleben in of our English work bearing the same title. The engravings are all

led, so that he is unable to take his accustomed walks. He, boas English. Chateaubriand, Lamartine, and other writers of celebrity, are among the contributors.-M. Quatremère de Quincy has lately is as good as when a young man; but to appear before ibe pas

ever, still enjoys good health, and excellent spirits, and his appetites added to his already numerous productions on subjects connected

lic again would be a task quite impossible.-Sontag is nor per with the fine arts, the History, Lives, and Works of the most celebra

forming at Aix-la-Chapelle, and the report that she is about to leave me brated Architects, from the eleventh to the close of the eighteenth cen

the stage has fallen asleep.-In the 2d No. of the Yankee and Boru! tury; illustrated with views of the most remarkable edifices erected by ton Literary Gazette, recently established, we find the following them.-Twenty cantos of the Divina Commedia have been translateu into French verse by M. Antoni Deschamps, and published at Paris specimen of American eloquence on the subject of the drama:-"

PSE

the Drama–the legitimate and awful Drama—I do not meas the 73 with some success. The History of the Ancient Agriculture of the

bastard issue of caricature and show, of barbarous peageantry 10 Greeks, from Homer to Theocritus, with an appendix, relating to its

spectacle, is the generous high-hearted offspring either of stregen. present state in Greece, has appeared in Paris from the pen of Baron

strength, walking with a loud VOICE among the UNVISITED SØL! de la Bergerie.-M. Mermet the elder announces the recovery of a

TUDES of the human heart, or of poetry and eloquence under s high work hitherto unknown in Latin literature, the History of Vienne

state of cultivation—perhaps under the highest, wandering about the under the Twelve Cæsars, by Trebonius Rufinus, senator and decemvir of the city. Should it be really the case that a work of this

earth, like the animated staTUARY of Olympus." This sentence 3 writer has been preserved, whose existence is only known from the worthy the pen of that French female, who having tumbled in hand mention of his name by Pliny the younger, we shall be anxious for

the gallery into the pit, and broken her leg, only exclaimed," Vasen a sight of it.

Dieu ! after I had got the very front seat !"-On his return from PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY'S SECOND CONCERT.-This Concert was

Aberdeen, Braham is to give a Concert in Edinburgh, the first part much better attended than the first, and went off with eclat. We

of which will consist entirely of sacred, and the second of miscelta ber's fine overture to the “ Ruler of the Spirits," was encored.

neous music.-Young is to visit us shortly; and we leam that Me The sicilano and rondo on the clarionet by Kluissman, was a novelty Fanny Keinble will positively be in Edinburgh in June.- The which was favourably received; and the divertimento on the violon. tional play of " Waverley," and the melo-drama of " Masaniello, an cello by Hancox obtained well-merited applause. Miss E. Paton's the Dumb Girl of Portici,” are in preparation.—Mathews is wms2 song, " Deh! calma l'affanno," we consider the most successful vo. Liverpool.–Fanny Ayton and Thorne are at Belfast. cal effort of the evening, and decidedly superior to Miss Inverarity's

WEEKLY List of PERFORMANCES. “Ah che forse." We say this because we think a too great lavishness of praise has been bestowed upon the latter young lady, who, although

Feb. 6—12. she certainly has a fine bɔdy of voice, and, considering her opportu

SAT. nities, has made very respectable progress, has not yet acquired

The Lord of the Manor, f the Waterman.
Had

Mon. the sweetness, flexibility, grace, and science of Miss E. Paton.

Coriolanus, & The Youthful Queen. Miss E. Paton just a little more energy and expression, we scarce

TUES. Hamlet, He Lies like Truth, & Free and Easy. ly know a singer whom we should place before her. The trio froin

Macbeth, of The Robber's Wife. “ Vallery," by Finlay Dun, is a wild, original, and beautiful compo. THURS. The Iron Chest, $ The Noyades. sition. The instrumental part, in particular, is highly imaginative FRI. Pizarro, f Gilderoy. and graceful, though perhaps a little too redundant in ornament. Miss Hartley, who sang one of the solo parts, distinguished herself greatly by the taste and feeling she infused into it. The trio was

TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS. unanimously encored. In conclusion, we must not forget to men

Our readers will be able to form some idea of what is technicas tion the improvement which Mr Wilson has made since last winter. His voice is richer and more under scientific control, and his style that we have this week alone upwards of thirty pages in types, though

termed " the press of matter" under which we labour, when we state altogether is far more refined. All that he now wants is a greater

we can make room for only fourteen. It shall all be forthens degree of energy and brilliancy, which, in the winding up of such

however, in the course of time. The interesting article by the del a song as “ Fra un istante," is essentially necessary.- In the en

thor of “ Anster Fair" in our next. suing Professional Concerts, several novelties will, we understand,

We shall endeavour to find room, ere long, for the remarks " On be produced. Among others, there is to be a new Overture, by Mr G.

Sacred Poetry,” though the sentiments are not altogether accordsst, F. Graham, one by the celebrated Young Mendelssohn, a Scena for Miss Inverarity, by Mr Murray, and a Concerted Piece by Mr John

with our own.-The extract from M. Villemain's opening Lecture,

will be inserted if possible.—"Sketches from the Portfolio of a Tia Thomson.

veller" are in types, but are still unavoidably postponed.-To THE SCOTTISH ACADEMY.-The Exhibition at the Scottish Academy opens this day, and we have already seen the greater part of

query of “ R. D." we answer, that the Author of Waverley's health

has been given more than once at public dinners in the presence of the pictures. We regret to learn that Etty has been too much en

Sir Walter Scott, who joined in drinking the toast without ackom grossed by the duties falling upon him as Committee-man upon the death of the President, to finish his promised picture. To make ledging it as a personal compliment.—The paper entitled "A Mid amends, we feel ourselves justified in announcing, that, to judge from night Scene,” is imaginative ; but somewhat flowery and upnatural the specimens we have already seen, we believe the present will

We are glad to hear from Laura again.-We think the opinions prove the finest exhibition of modern paintings we have yet had in "P." altogether apocryphal; his verses will not suit us; the Anecdan Edinburgh. It will, at all events, be the richest in native talent. may be of use. Ewbank is coming down upon us in force with his full complement We shall be glad if “W." will favour us with a call early next week, of pictures. Duncan, who has made prodigious advances since last -The “Lines to her who best can understand them,” may haters year, has a splendid " Last May a braw wooer came doon the lang place by and by.—We are afraid we cannot make room for the "Save glen,” and also a portrait of a gentleman of this city, which entitles from Leith, the more especially as it has already appeared in prizem him to rank high in that branch of art, besides other works of distin. -Neither the prose nor the poetry of " J. S.",will suit us. - The fok guished merit. Lees has, among other things, a " Milton dictating jowing verses are inadmissible : - The Grave of a Parent's Hope to his daughters," in which the dignified bearing of the blind old bard “ A Broken Heart,” Stanzas" by "J. C.," and "Forsaken Emna"

WED.

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ments.

LITERARY CRITICISM.

completely into the merits of the present interesting controversy, we shall now lay these six Propositions before

them : A Letter to Sir Henry Steuart, Bart., on the Improve

“ First, That all timber trees thrive best, and produce ment of the Quality of Timber, to be Effected by the wood of the best quality, when growing in soils and climates High Cultivation and Quick Growth of Forest-Trees, most natural to the species. It should therefore be the anin Reply to certain Passages in his Planter's Guide.| xious study of the planter, to ascertain and become well acBy W. Withers, Holt. London. Messrs Longman, quainted with these, and to raise trees, as much as possible, Rees, Orme, and Co. 1829. 8vo. Pp. 133.

in such soils and climates.

“ Secondly, That trees may be said to be in their natural We are about to direct the attention of our readers to state, when they have sprung up fortuitously, and propathe pamphlet, the title of which we have just copied, for two gated themselves without aid from man, whether it be in Teasons; first, because the raising of the best Oak timber aboriginal forests, ancient woodlands, commons, or the like. for Naval purposes is one of the most important subjects That in such trees, whatever tends to increase the wood, in that can be brought ander the consideration of a Briton; natural state, must injure the quality of the timber.

a greater degree than accords with the species when in its and secondly, because, as Scotchmen, we consider it a duty we owe to our countryman, Sir Henry Steuart, the ablest of trees, tends to expand their vegetable fibre ; that when

." Thirdly, That whatever tends to increase the growth arboriculturist now living, to place on the clearest footing that takes place, or wben the annual circles of the wood are the justice of his views concerning the cultivation of Fo- soft, and larger than the general annual increase of the tree rest-Trees, as well as to expose the dangerous ignorance should warrant, then this timber must be less hard and of those, and especially of Mr Withers, who have ventured dense, and more liable to suffer from the action of the ele. to dispute the accuracy of his conclusions. It is allowed, We believe, on all hands, and is a fact of which Scotland tially necessary to the closeness of texture and durability of

“ Fourthly, That a certain slowness of growth is essenhas reason to be proud, that Sir Henry Steuart's “ Plant- all timber, but especially of the oak; and that, wherever er's Guide" was the first attempt that was made, in the growth of that wood is unduly accelerated by culture any language, to apply the sciences of physiology and che- of the soil—such as by trenching and manuring-or by unmistry to general planting, and thereby to raise it from a due superiority of climale, it will be injured in quality in mechanical and fortuitous, to the rank of a scientific art, the precise ratio in which these agents have been employed. -thus imparting to it, when considered particularly in

“Fifthly, That, as it is extremely important for the sucreference to the British navy, an importance, which can

cess of trees, to possess a certain degree of vigour in the outscarcely be too much magnified. The natural consequence of culture is not to be in every case precluded, by a consi,

set, or to be what is technically called 'well set off,' the aid was, that the “ Planter's Guide” attracted immediate deration of the general rule. That if trees be in a soil and attention in the very highest quarters. It was reviewed climate worse than those that are natural to them, then culby Sir Walter Scott in the Quarterly Review; and it was ture will be of some advantage; as the extra increase of also reviewed, in a very masterly and scientific way, in the wood will be of a quality not inferior to what in its naEdinburgh Review, by an English clergyman, resident in tural state it would

obtain; or, in other words, it will corKent, whose name holds deservedly a prominent place which the nature of the species admits of being obtained.

respond with that degree of quality and quantity of timber, atdong the phytologists of Earope. In many other pub- But culture, in this case, must be applied with cautious lications, both scientific and literary, the work was spoken discrimination, and a sound judgment. That, on the other of with the highest approbation; and our readers may hand, if trees be in a better soil and

climate than are natuperhaps recollect, that in the tenth Number of the Lite- ral to them, and, at the same time, that the annual increase fury Journal, we endeavoured, as far as in us lay, to do of wood be promoted by culture, (as already said,) it will be something like justice to its merits.

a decided disadvantage, and deteriorate the wood. In the In this state of matters, Mr William Withers, Attorney

same way, if trees be in their natural state, the annual inin Holt, Norfolk, has thought it incumbent upon him to in a degree corresponding with the increased quantity.

crease of timber, obtained by culture, will injure its quality, ebre forward, to point out what he conceives to be certain

“ Sixthly, That such appears to be a correct, though fallacies in Sir Henry's book. In 1828, Mr Withers condensed view of the operation of those general laws republished a “ Letter to Sir Walter Scott,” in which he specting growth, which govern the whole vegetable kingundertook to expose some “ fundamental errors" in an dom, and especially their effects on woody plants; and of the Essay on the Planting of Waste Lands, which Sir Wal- salutary restraints which science dictates to be laid on artiter had contributed to the 720 Namber of the Quarterly Review. In this Letter, Mr Withers advanoed doctrines, "Some trees, however, and herbaceous plants, may be said to to some of which Sir Henry Steuart could by no means

be naturalized to certain situaljons, in which, without the aid of art,

they never would have been found. "Thus,' says Mr Loudon, 'we agree; and accordingly, in the second edition of his sometimes find mountain plants common in plains, and even in inea. * Planter's Guide,” he dedicated several pages to their dows, and alpine trees, which disseminate themselves in warmer

and

more level districts. But the botanist, by comparing the effects of cousideration, in the course of which he laid down six these different situations on the vegetable, always knows how to sePropositions concerning the Culture of trees, which appear lect, as general nature, that which perfects all its parts, and where to us, though not to Mr Withers, to be among the very cies, and the prolongation of individual life. These rules,' adds he, best things ever written on planting, giving, as they do, . are founded in nature. For example: No person, judging from a condensed yiew of many of the most important princi- and situation of the Scotch fir, though it frequently is found growing

them, could mistake a warm English common, for the natural soil ples of the art. That our readers may be able to enter there,'"-Form. and Improv. of Counts. Resid.

3

ficial culture, of which pruning, as well as manuring, forms six Propositions, which he ought of course to have quoted a constituent part, as has been explained above at so much in limine, and not to have misrepresented, before attempt wait length. That it is by a diligent study of the peculiar habits ing to controvert them, we proceed at once to consider, of trees, and the characters of soils, illustrated and regulated by facts drawn from general experience, that rash or igno- upon its own merits; the weighty question—" How is the rant systems of arboriculture are to be best corrected, and best Oak to be obtained ?” and, in doing so, we are happy science brought most beneficially to bear on general prac to state, that our opinions differ in no one particular from y se tice."

those of the author of the “ Planter's Guide.” In opposition to the conclusions contained in these pro The first thing to be considered is, the peculiar characpositions, the object of Mr Withers's present “ Letter" is ter of the oak, with which every intelligent planter is well j... to prove two things ; lst, that Sir Henry Steuart's prin- acquainted. It is in its habits the most accommodating we ciples of arboriculture are inconsistent and contradictory, of all trees, and will grow in almost all soils and climates ; para inasmuch as he recommends culture and manuring in the but it will fully thrive in those soils and climates only that yote highest degree in the body of his work, and then repro- are natural to it—that is, where it most readily repro bates and rejects them in his notes and illustrations; and duces and perfects its species, and attains the greatest vez 2d, that the cultivating and manuring of woodlands is length of individual life. The intelligent planter is further necessarily beneficial in all cases, whatever may be said of aware, that, for these purposes, this tree requires a strong, ied the laws of nature, or the results of experience, to contro deep, loamy, or clayey soil, and a temperate climate. vert the practice.

These form the conditions of its perfect existence. La It will require very few words to make it evident to then, we are to enquire what will improve, or what will every one, that Mr Withers's first ground of complaint is injure, the quality of the oak in general, or of different to captious and uncalled for. When Sir Henry Steuart un- oak trees in different situations; or if we are to compare dertook to draw up a Treatise on the best method of such trees with one another, for the sake of illustrating giving “ Immediate Effect to Wood,” he did not, of course, some principle of theory or practice, our enquiry most conceive himself bound to enter into a discussion or de- bear reference to the conditions of their existence, and ta tail of the general principles, which are laid down in his the extent to which those conditions may be supplied, if six propositions. He took up, as his proximate object, a we wish the result to be correct or conclusive. For particular department of the art of Planting, and all he we compare, for example, the qualities of slowly raised had to do was to make it appear, how trees could be raised oaks on light land, or in a warm climate, with those of within the shortest period, without taking into considera- oaks quickly raised on heavy land, in a temperate climate, tion, whether they contained the best possible timber or it is tantamount to the comparing of bad oaks with good, not; and if the system proposed should ensure to the pos- and of course there can be no doubt of the result of the sessors " sound and valuable wood," it was all they had comparison. a right to expect. For this purpose, it is obvious that, These premises being shortly stated, we come to the according to every principle of science, the highest degree question at issue,— What is the effect that general cultur of culture was requisite, that art or ingenuity could de- produces on the oak?-culture, of course, including vise. But, at the same time, Sir Henry was careful to trenching and manuring, or amelioration of the soil explain, that, as trenching and manuring can be advan- climate beyond the natural state. The answer is precisely tageous only to particular portions of extensive woodlands, what Sir Henry Steuart has set forth. It expands the and under particular circumstances, in order to produce vegetable fibre ; it unduly promotes quickness of growth, the best timber, so they cannot be applied to any wood and consequently deteriorates the quality of the woods land indiscriminately, unless where either a speedy re- it being always understood, that the tree previously is in turn of crop, and marketable timber, but nothing more, are possession of the conditions already described. On the expected."* There is, therefore, no inconsistency or other hand, a certain slowness of growth improves the contradiction whatever, in the arboricultural theories ad- quality of the wood, by adding to its closeness of texture vanced in his work. The art of giving "immediate effect and durability. It follows, then—as is distinctly stated to wood,” where artificial culture is essentially needful, in Sir Henry's fourth proposition—that wherever growth is entirely distinct from that of general planting, the prin- is unduly accelerated by culture of the soil, such as by ciples of which are contained in the six Propositions, to-trenching and manuring, or by undue superiority of cligether with a short view of the laws respecting growth, mate, the wood will be injured in quality, in the precise and of the salutary restraints which science dictates should ratio in which those agents are employed. In like matbe laid on artificial culture, of which trenching, manuring, ner—as is mentioned in the fifth proposition—if trees be and pruning, all form a part. Under this simple view in a soil or climate worse than is natural to them, then of the subject, all Mr Withers's declamation evaporates in culture will be of advantage, and will improve the quality smoke, even although it is bolstered up with something of the wood. On the other hand, if trees be in a better like professional maneuvring and mystification ; for, be soil or climate than is natural to them, and culture be it remembered that Mr Withers is an attorney.t applied, it will be a disadvantage, and deteriorate the

What Mr Withers undertakes to prove under his se wood. In the same way, if trees be in their natural cond head, is of far greater interest and importance-name- state, culture will injure the quality of the timber, in a ly, that trenching and manuring may be safely used in degree corresponding to the increased quantity produced tree culture under any circumstances, and that, in fact, Hence it is plain, that, in certain cases, culture may be the richer the ground be made by manure, the better will very properly applied for the amelioration of timber, bu be the quality of the wood. Passing over the garbled it should be done under the control of science, and of a view which our attorney gives of Sir Henry Steuart's sound judgment.

This short account of the operation of those general Planter's Guide, p. 471.

laws respecting growth which govern the whole vegette with some of the country gentlemen of England, it is worth while recould not have been easily misunderstood or misrepro

As a specimen of this mystification, which, perhaps, may succeed ble kingdom, is such as we should really have supposed and manuring to tree culture is an original discovery" of his own, sented, had not Mr Withers come forward with his pres of the Romans, and the practice of which has been familiar to every the proofs of his

position, that the highest degree of cule

Let us, however, look for a moment to years ago, Mr Guthrie of Craigie, in the county of Angus, trenched ture is in all cases the best.' It were in vain to expect and manured all his plantations at that place, and introduced the him to deduce bis evidence physiologically, from the soil period. We wonder that Mr Withers does not write a pamphlet to style of its organization and peculiar habits. deenshire and Northumberland, did the same thing soon after this and climate, natural or unnatural to the oak, or from the recommend the public use of rail-ways and steam-navigation, both of which might then come to be considered "as original discoveries." on the authority of Mr Withers himself that there are fer

We have it

1

men in England, who have ever planted a tree, so utterly that will decline, or altogether become stationary, if ignorant of all arboricultural science. From his " Letter to planted on any other soils. Some, however, show more, Sir Walter Scott," published in 1828, welearn that he knows and some less, of this sort of phytological affinity. But nothing of Scotland or Ireland, or of any other part of the the oak is, of all plants, the most accommodating, as has world, except Norfolk, and that his observations on wood, been already observed. It will grow in any sort of soil, and the modes of raising it, are wholly confined to that from the dampest to the driest, from the most silicious to county, where, as we understand, he possesses a cabbage gar- the most aluminous. But it loves only the last mentioned, den, and a small piece of nursery ground. From his pamph- and will truly thrive—that is, it will perfect its species-let, we clearly perceive, that he is utterly ignorant of ge on one that is strong, deep, and loamy, or, in other words, neral planting, or its history and progress in Britain, in a good, rich, heavy soil. Mr Withers either does, or does France, or any other continental country, and that vege- not, know this. If he does know it, he means, by a table physiology and the anatomy of plants have not statement like the above and there are many such to be come within the line of his studies. What a man, there found in his pamphlet—to impose upon his readers, whom fure, so admirably qualified to maintain a phytological he must consider as the most gullible of men. If he does argument, does not know himself, he naturally seeks to not, then he is the most ignorant planter that ever prelearn from others. With a peculiar obtuseness of intellect, tended to write upon trees, or to give instruction to however, Mr Withers, instead of proponnding Sir Henry others. Stenart's six propositions, or any thing like them, to com But we have not yet got to the summit of Mr Withers's petent judges, puts the following notable query to about absurdity as a planter, which, in legitimate climax, rises eighteen or nineteen different persons, who, being for the to the last, and is to be found at page 115, et seqq., near most part timber-merchants, are nearly as ignorant of rai- the close of the pamphlet. A Mr Farrow-still another sing the oak as himself :-“ Whether have you found," timber-merchant-here comes forward to his assistance. says he, " that fine fast-growing timber, when arrived This man modestly professes no knowledge of arboricul. at maturity, was inferior in quality to timber of slower ture, but he merely practises (as he says) the buying, growth; and whether do you think that the application selling, and “converting” of wood, by which, we suppose, of manure to poor land at the time of planting, and the he means the converting it into cash. Well, this Mr deaning of the land for a few years, can have any injurious Farrow tells a strange story of two oak trees, that grew effect on the quality of the wood, when it has attained its in the same field, the same soil, and the same climato. full growth * Now, this has as much to do with the ob- The first tree (No. 1), as it appears, had no aid but what ject of the six propositions, as if he had quoted the first was furnished by the soil itself, which was good, with proposition in Euclid. Respecting both divisions of the a bluish clay bottom;" whereas the other (No. 2) grew query, as put in the abstract, no one of the least know- near the “rack-yard of the farm," and close to a ditch or ledge of wood would ever hesitate to answer in the nega- drain, which conducted the moisture from the yard, and tive; and such an answer, so far from refuting, would in fact the roots appear to have extended to the yard itrather strengthen the conclusions come to by Sir Henry self. Both, as Mr Farrow adds, grew well, but the one Steuart.

near the drain by far the more rapidly of the two; and Of the eighteen referees to whom Mr Withers applies, it was the current opinion about the place, that they had two are men of real science;-Ist, The Editor of the been planted about the same period. On cutting down Domestic Gardener's Manual; and 20, Mr G. W. John the trees and weighing the wood, No. 2 was found to be son, the well-known writer on Horticultural Chemistry. 14 lbs. in 10 lbs. the heavier. Specimens of both were To these may justly be added a very sensible landowner tried by Professor Barlow, as above, when No. I was (No. 2), whose name is not given, but whose judicious fractured by a weight of 835 lbs. superinduced upon it, opinions we formerly met with, in the " Letter to Sir but No. 2 required 972 lbs. to fracture it. These facts, in Walter Scott.” All these, as well as the referees Nos. 1, the way they are stated, we cannot be brought to believe, 7, 10, 13, and 16, unwittingly confirm, instead of con as Mr Farrow, a very ignorant individual, is the only troverting, the propositions. And we find that there were evidence brought forward to support them. We take Reveral others, whose answers were so hostile to Mr Wi-them, as we should take the supposed facts and circumthers's opinions, that he does not publish them at all. stances of a well-authenticated ghost story, and for this

Calling in some corroborative circumstances to his aid, simple reason, that they contradict the laws of Nature, Mr Withers mentions (at page 115) that he got, from and the general results of experience; and, for the same Mr Boorne of Erpingham, (another timber-merchant) reason, we reject any inference that can be drawn from two specimens of oak-wood, the one taken from a fast, the them. other from a slow growing tree. The former, as Mr Last of all, comes Mr Withers's grand and sweeping Boorne describes it, was raised in " a very strong, good conclusion, which at once announces his victory, and sums wil," the latter on "a light soil, with a gravelly bottom;" up his argument. “ These experiments," says he," throw and both specimens were forwarded, by Mr Withers, to new light upon the subject, and lead to the most importProfessor Barlow, of the Royal Academy at Woolwich, ant conclusions. They prove, not only that fast-growing oak in order that he might try their respective strengths. timber is superior in quality to that of slower growth, but This, as we conceive it, was equivalent to saying to the that by the constant application of manure to the roots of learned Professor,—“ Here is a specimen of the very best trees, planted even in a good soil, nearly double the quanoak that can be found, and here is also a specimen of the tity of timber may be obtained in the same period, while very worst ; pray, which is the stronger of the two, as veri- its strength, instead of being diminished, will be thereby infied by experiment?" Had Professor Barlow been at all creased.” We certainly never thought that Mr Withers aquainted with arboriculture—which does not seem to be had much practical skill, even in the mechanical part of the case he would have been much amused with the ap- planting; we never believed that he possessed any smatpaal thus made to him, and of which the consequences tering of science, beyond what he had picked up from may be easily conjectured. The two specimens of tim- reading the Planter's Guide ;—but little as that is, we ber were squared down to pieces of equal sizes, when the really think he might have seen to what consequences all first mentioned was broken with a weight of 9991bs., and this nonsense tended, even could country gentlemen be the last with one ofonly 6771bs., respectively laid upon them. brought to swallow it. In the first place, it would go Now, it is a faet well known to every planter of expe- near to destroy our belief in what is denominated “phyrience, although, from the folly of this proceeding, it does tological affinity” in woody plants, than which no arborithat seem to be known to Mr Withers, that all woody cultural fact is better ascertained, or more generally creplants have their peculiar and favourite soils, on which dited.' And, in the second place, it would give to garthey will grow. luxuriantly; and there are many trees deners this new and curious piece of information; that,"

as the grand qualities of the oak, beyond all other trees, the best possible timber. The same thing is observable in consist in its possessing the greatest strength, hardness, the economy of all other trees, as well as that of the cake toughness, and durability united, so the best place for raj. as it is in accordance with the general law of nature sing the tree in the greatest perfection is, the highest-ma- which governs the whole vegetable kingdom in respect to nured kitchen-garden, and still more, the richest hot-bed !!! growth, and is known to every well-informed planter. Bravo, Withers! Your theory has now got to its climax! Whatever, therefore, is adverse to this general law, we at Vivat stercoratio, ruat cælum !--Muck and the Attorney once reject as the offspring of ignorance or inexperience, for ever!

Fanciful theories and erroneous practices may live for But, joking apart, the principles to be acted on in rai- season, and flippant pamphlets in praise of them may be sing the best timber of every sort, and especially the best produced by such men as the present author ; but they timber for paval purposes, is a subject of too serious and cannot permanently retard the progress of science, or long general an interest to be treated with ridicule, or to be impose on the good sense of the public. In the words of suffered to sink into neglect, among the transient novel the greatest planter of the age, “ It is only on an acquaintties or follies of the day. Great Britain is well known ance with vegetable physiology, and the anatomy of plants, as the country, of which the soil and climate are capable with the habits they display, and the organs and prope of raising, and have hitherto raised, the BEST OAK TIMBER ties they possess, that any sound foundation can be laid IN THE WORLD; and it is deeply interesting and important for an art, of which the practice should be scientific, a. to her that she should continue to raise it. Considering though it has been hitherto treated as wholly mechanithe low state of scientific arboriculture as yet among us, cal." and the late stimulus which has been given to curiosity respecting it, by the writings of ingenious men, it may Strictures on Sir Henry Steuart's Planter's Guide. By not be amiss, before concluding these strictures on a very

a Planter of Some Experience. (That is, Edward Sang, shallow, but specious production, to endeavour to condense into a few sentences a sort of summary to our argu

Nurseryman in Kirkaldy.) Edinburgh. John Anderson, jun.

1830. Pp. 40. ment, for the use of such of our readers as may be planters, and to lay before them, as shortly as possible, what seems FRIEND SANG, we are perfectly aware that you know now to be the generally understood principle in this im- something of mechanical planting; and we are further portant business.

aware that, with the assistance of a friend, you once came All trees have their peculiar soils and climates, in which forward as the editor of a posthumous treatise of Walter they will thrive best, and most fully perfect their species. Nicol's, another mechanical planter like yourself. Bat This is the law of nature, and what Sir Henry Steuart how it should enter your brain to attempt “ Strictura has called “phytological affinity.” The soil most conge on a scientific work, of which you cannot understand a nial to the oak, as already remarked, is a strong, deep, single sentence, truly exceeds our comprehension. It is and loamy soil, often a reddish clay, together with a tem true, Sir Henry Steuart does not speak with much fee perate climate.

Such are the soil and climate in which spect of the science of the Scottish nurserymen, and we the best and most durable oak has always been found, regret that he should have so much reason to do so; bae when planted by the hand of nature, and such, therefore, it is also true, that he speaks of yourself, in particular, may be set down as most natural to the species. The much more highly than you deserve It was therefore best oak timber is certainly that which grows most vi- very ungrateful in you, and likewise very foolish, to ex gorously under these circumstances ; but the combined pose yourself as you have done, by taking up the cudgels action of climate and soil may be such, as to cause it to for either the gardeners, or the nurserymen of Scotland, transcend the measure of the most perfect wood. All neither of whom, as far as we can discover, Sir Henry cultivation or amelioration of a soil like this is injurious, has unfairly treated. because it expands the vegetable fibre, and renders the Neddy Sang, you seem to be fond of quoting Latin, a wood more porous and less dense, by upduly accelerating appears by your pamphlet; we will therefore say to your its growth. If the oak be planted on clayey land, and of a in the exhortatory way, and in that language, Hoc age! poor and thin quality, trenching and manuring will bring that is, mind your proper business and vocation ; stecks about a beneficial effect, by rendering such land deeper well, and arrange your nursery-ground, and take a plant. and richer, and by assimilating it to the soil most natural ing contract, when you can get it, from the Lairds of to the species. In the same way, if poor, silicious, or Fife ;- but, for God's sake, be advised by us; steer clear light soil be to be planted with the same trees, trenching of science, and, above all things, of scientific arboricuitare, and manuring will occasion a favourable effect, by deep- or the trade of book-making; as any attempt at either cat ening it, and rendering it more tenacious of moisture, and, only make you ridiculous. We advise you as a friend by consequence, assimilating it, in some degree, to the na as an ancient painter advised an honest tradesman, abeut tural soil; and if lime be added to consolidate such a soil, as foolish as yourself-Nesutor ultra crepidam! and with or clayey compost, made up with lime, it will be still that kindly monition we take our leave, hoping never ta more advantageous. These ingredients impart to thin meet you again, in either the one department, or the other. and poor soils of every sort, before being planted, a certain portion of those essential requisites which nature bas denied them. But the great regulator, or, if we may so

The Lives of the Most Eminent British Painters, Sculp speak, the unerring barometer of all soils, is atmospheric

tors, and Architects. By Allan Cunningham. Vol. IL temperature,—that is, the measure of heat and cold, as mo.

Being No. X. of the Family Library. London. Joha dified on woody plants. The soil most congenial to the

Murray. 1830. 12mo. Pp. 320. oak has been already described. Take that soil, for ex. This volume is fully equal in interest to its predeces ample, at the bottom of a deep valley, where the oak is sor from the same pen. We do not, of course, look upen found to grow in the highest luxuriance, and compare its the work, as one which the artist will study with the produce with that of a similar soil, at a greater elevation, view of obtaining additional information concerning the and in a greater exposure to the elements, in the same principles of his art, nor as one to which the amateur wil valley. Here the trees, with the very same advantages appeal as competent authority in matters of disputed taste, of soil, will be found to grow more slowly. Their ve or as settling the estimation in which various productions getable fibre being more contracted or condensed, their of the pencil ought to be held. This is not its objects whole organic structure will be modified to the circum and they who judge it by such a standard, jadge it erstances in which it is placed, and stronger and more close-roneously. All that Mr Cunningham: undertook to do grained wood will consequently be produced. This, un. was, to supply popular, entertaining, and impartial Live der proper circumstances, may probably be considered as of those who have most distinguished themselves in the

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