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ed elaborate criticisms on such works of the old masters as came under his observation. These are now likely to be given to the world, as they have been placed by the family in the possession of Mr Campbell.
is most happily conceived. Dyce has a rich and ripe Flora, a lovely moonlight, and a "Hercules strangling the Serpents," in which the power and passion of the demigod are beautifully blended with the unformed innocence of the child. D. O. Hill has a scene from the Gentle Shepherd, in which the rich fulness of the Peggy contrasts finely with the beautiful but somewhat snappish look of the Jenny; while Glaud listens to the pretended conjuror's display of power with a gash "hoo-the-deil-cam-ye-to-ken-that sort of look. Lauder has three portraits and a Sentinel, of which we know that Wilkie has ex
SCANDINAVIAN POETRY-DR BOWERING.-We observe that Dr Bowering, the most indefatigable modern linguist living, has just published a volume of poetical translations illustrative of the literature of Hungary and Transylvania; and we have now before us the prospectus of another work of a similar kind which he is preparing, and which will be published under the title of Songs of Scan-pressed himself in terms of high approbation. Fletcher has a most dinavia. It will extend to two volumes, the first of which will contain about one hundred specimens of the ancient popular ballads of north-western Europe, arranged under the heads of Heroic, Super natural, Historical, and Domestic Poems; while the second will contain many of the most remarkable lyrical productions of the modern school of Danish poetry. Dr Bowering deserves more than well of his country for his perseverance in this particular department of literature, the more especially as profit is not the object of his translations, which, from their possessing only a limited interest, are not calculated, as Dr Bowering well knows by experience, to bring any pecuniary reward to their author.
characteristic bust of Mrs Hemans, and a splendid one of the Duke of Argyle. These, with many others we could mention, will, we think, bear us out in our assertion. The hanging committee are, Mess Colvin Smith, Kidd, and M'Leay. We can scarcely, however, gratulate these gentlemen on their promotion to that happy eminence, where the most favoured will give them no thanks, and nine out of ten will abuse them for their arrangements.
FOREIGN LITERATURE.-The French Keepsake is a rival worthy of our English work bearing the same title. The engravings are all English. Chateaubriand, Lamartine, and other writers of celebrity, are among the contributors.-M. Quatremère de Quincy has lately added to his already numerous productions on subjects connected with the fine arts, the History, Lives, and Works of the most celebrabrated Architects, from the eleventh to the close of the eighteenth century; illustrated with views of the most remarkable edifices erected by them.-Twenty cantos of the Divina Commedia have been translated into French verse by M.Antoni Deschamps, and published at Paris with some success.-The History of the Ancient Agriculture of the Greeks, from Homer to Theocritus, with an appendix, relating to its present state in Greece, has appeared in Paris from the pen of Baron de la Bergerie.-M. Mermet the elder announces the recovery of a work hitherto unknown in Latin literature, the History of Vienne under the Twelve Cæsars, by Trebonius Rufinus, senator and decemvir of the city. Should it be really the case that a work of this writer has been preserved, whose existence is only known from the mention of his name by Pliny the younger, we shall be anxious for a sight of it.
PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY'S SECOND CONCERT.-This Concert was Wemuch better attended than the first, and went off with eclat. ber's fine overture to the "Ruler of the Spirits," was encored. The sicilano and rondo on the clarionet by Kluissman, was a novelty which was favourably received; and the divertimento on the violon. cello by Hancox obtained well-merited applause. Miss E. Paton's song, "Deh! calma l'affanno," we consider the most successful vocal effort of the evening, and decidedly superior to Miss Inverarity's "Ah che forse." We say this because we think a too great lavishness of praise has been bestowed upon the latter young lady, who, although she certainly has a fine body of voice, and, considering her opportunities, has made very respectable progress, has not yet acquired Had the sweetness, flexibility, grace, and science of Miss E. Paton. Miss E. Paton just a little more energy and expression, we scarcely know a singer whom we should place before her. The trio from "Vallery," by Finlay Dun, is a wild, original, and beautiful composition. The instrumental part, in particular, is highly imaginative and graceful, though perhaps a little too redundant in ornament. Miss Hartley, who sang one of the solo parts, distinguished herself greatly by the taste and feeling she infused into it. The trio was unanimously encored. In conclusion, we must not forget to mention the improvement which Mr Wilson has made since last winter. His voice is richer and more under scientific control, and his style altogether is far more refined. All that he now wants is a greater degree of energy and brilliancy, which, in the winding up of such a song as "Fra un istante," is essentially necessary.-In the ensuing Professional Concerts, several novelties will, we understand, be produced. Among others, there is to be a new Overture, by Mr G. F. Graham, one by the celebrated Young Mendelssohn, a Scena for Miss Inverarity, by Mr Murray, and a Concerted Piece by Mr John
Theatrical Gossip.-The Oratorios have commenced in LondonThere has been a Masquerade at Covent-Garden, under the direction of Charles Wright, which was crowdedly, but very promiscuously attended.-The veteran comedian, Quick, completed his eighty third year last November, and has lately become very much enfeeb led, so that he is unable to take his accustomed walks. He, howe ever, still enjoys good health, and excellent spirits, and his appetite, is as good as when a young man; but to appear before the pub lic again would be a task quite impossible.-Sontag is now per forming at Aix-la-Chapelle, and the report that she is about to leave the stage has fallen asleep.-In the 2d No. of the Yankee and Ba ton Literary Gazette, recently established, we find the following specimen of American eloquence on the subject of the drama :-"Bit the Drama-the legitimate and awful Drama-I do not mean the att bastard issue of caricature and show, of barbarous peageantry spectacle, is the generous high-hearted offspring either of serg strength, walking with a LOUD VOICE among the UNVISITED SOLI, TUDES of the human heart, or of poetry and eloquence under a high state of cultivation-perhaps under the highest, wandering about the earth, like the animated STATUARY of Olympus." This sentences worthy the pen of that French female, who having tumbled from the gallery into the pit, and broken her leg, only exclaimed,—“ Mm, 567 Dieu! after I had got the very front seat!"-On his return from Aberdeen, Braham is to give a Concert in Edinburgh, the first part of which will consist entirely of sacred, and the second of miscella« neous music.-Young is to visit us shortly; and we learn that Miss Fanny Kemble will positively be in Edinburgh in June.-The na tional play of " Waverley," and the melo-drama of " Masaniello, or the Dumb Girl of Portici," are in preparation.-Mathews is now in Liverpool.-Fanny Ayton and Thorne are at Belfast.
WEEKLY LIST OF PERFORMANCES.
THE SCOTTISH ACADEMY.-The Exhibition at the Scottish Aca
demy opens this day, and we have already seen the greater part of the pictures. We regret to learn that Etty has been too much engrossed by the duties falling upon him as Committee-man upon the death of the President, to finish his promised picture. To make amends, we feel ourselves justified in announcing, that, to judge from the specimens we have already seen, we believe the present will prove the finest exhibition of modern paintings we have yet had in Edinburgh. It will, at all events, be the richest in native talent. Ewbank is coming down upon us in force with his full complement of pictures. Duncan, who has made prodigious advances since last year, has a splendid "Last May a braw wooer came doon the lang glen," and also a portrait of a gentleman of this city, which entitles him to rank high in that branch of art, besides other works of distinguished merit. Lees has, among other things, a "Milton dictating to his daughters," in which the dignified bearing of the blind old bard
TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS. OUR readers will be able to form some idea of what is technically termed "the press of matter" under which we labour, when we state that we have this week alone upwards of thirty pages in types, though we can make room for only fourteen. It shall all be forthcoming however, in the course of time. The interesting article by the A thor of "Anster Fair" in our next.
We shall endeavour to find room, ere long, for the remarks "On Sacred Poetry," though the sentiments are not altogether accordant with our own. The extract from M. Villemain's opening Lecture, will be inserted if possible.-"Sketches from the Portfolio of a Te veller" are in types, but are still unavoidably postponed.-To query of "R. D." we answer, that the Author of Waverley's healthy has been given more than once at public dinners in the presence of Sir Walter Scott, who joined in drinking the toast without acknow ledging it as a personal compliment.—The paper entitled “A Mi night Scene," is imaginative; but somewhat flowery and unnaturak We are glad to hear from Laura again.-We think the opinions "P." altogether apocryphal; his verses will not suit us; the Anecdot may be of use.
We shall be glad if "W." will favour us with a call early next week -The "Lines to her who best can understand them," may havere place by and by.-We are afraid we cannot make room for the "Song from Leith, the more especially as it has already appeared in pri -Neither the prose nor the poetry of "J. S.",will suit us.-The fo lowing verses are inadmissible: The Grave of a Parent's Hope, "A Broken Heart," Stanzas" by "J. C.," and "Forsaken Emma."""
A Letter to Sir Henry Steuart, Bart., on the Improvement of the Quality of Timber, to be Effected by the High Cultivation and Quick Growth of Forest-Trees, in Reply to certain Passages in his “ Planter's Guide.” By W. Withers, Holt. London. Messrs Longman, Rees, Orme, and Co. 1829. 8vo. Pp. 133.
"Secondly, That trees may be said to be in their natural state, when they have sprung up fortuitously, and propagated themselves without aid from man, whether it be in aboriginal forests, ancient woodlands, commons, or the like. That in such trees, whatever tends to increase the wood, in natural state, must injure the quality of the timber. a greater degree than accords with the species when in its
"Thirdly, That whatever tends to increase the growth of trees, tends to expand their vegetable fibre; that when that takes place, or when the annual circles of the wood are soft, and larger than the general annual increase of the tree should warrant, then this timber must be less hard and dense, and more liable to suffer from the action of the ele
We are about to direct the attention of our readers to the pamphlet, the title of which we have just copied, for two reasons; first, because the raising of the best Oak timber for Naval purposes is one of the most important subjects that can be brought under the consideration of a Briton; and secondly, because, as Scotchmen, we consider it a duty we owe to our countryman, Sir Henry Steuart, the ablest arboriculturist now living, to place on the clearest footing the justice of his views concerning the cultivation of Forest-Trees, as well as to expose the dangerous ignorance of those, and especially of Mr Withers, who have ventured to dispute the accuracy of his conclusions. It is allowed, we believe, on all hands, and is a fact of which Scotland tially necessary to the closeness of texture and durability of "Fourthly, That a certain slowness of growth is essenhas reason to be proud, that Sir Henry Steuart's "Plant- all timber, but especially of the oak; and that, wherever er's Guide" was the first attempt that was made, in the growth of that wood is unduly accelerated by culture any language, to apply the sciences of physiology and che- of the soil-such as by trenching and manuring-or by unmistry to general planting, and thereby to raise it from a due superiority of climate, it will be injured in quality in mechanical and fortuitous, to the rank of a scientific art, the precise ratio in which these agents have been employed. -thus imparting to it, when considered particularly in "Fifthly, That, as it is extremely important for the success of trees, to possess a certain degree of vigour in the outreference to the British navy, an importance, which can set, or to be what is technically called well set off,' the aid scarcely be too much magnified. The natural consequence of culture is not to be in every case precluded, by a consiwas, that the“ Planter's Guide" attracted immediate deration of the general rule. That if trees be in a soil and attention in the very highest quarters. It was reviewed climate worse than those that are natural to them, then culby Sir Walter Scott in the Quarterly Review; and it was ture will be of some advantage; as the extra increase of also reviewed, in a very masterly and scientific way, in the wood will be of a quality not inferior to what in its naEdinburgh Review, by an English clergyman, resident in tural state it would obtain; or, in other words, it will corKent, whose name holds deservedly a prominent place which the nature of the species admits of being obtained. respond with that degree of quality and quantity of timber, among the phytologists of Europe. In many other pub- But culture, in this case, must be applied with cautious lications, both scientific and literary, the work was spoken discrimination, and a sound judgment. That, on the other of with the highest approbation; and our readers may hand, if trees be in a better soil and climate than are natuperhaps recollect, that in the tenth Number of the Literal to them, and, at the same time, that the annual increase rary Journal, we endeavoured, as far as in us lay, to do of wood be promoted by culture, (as already said,) it will be something like justice to its merits. a decided disadvantage, and deteriorate the wood. In the same way, if trees be in their natural state, the annual increase of timber, obtained by culture, will injure its quality, in a degree corresponding with the increased quantity.
"Sixthly, That such appears to be a correct, though condensed view of the operation of those general laws respecting growth, which govern the whole vegetable kingdom, and especially their effects on woody plants, and of the salutary restraints which science dictates to be laid on arti
In this state of matters, Mr William Withers, Attorney in Holt, Norfolk, has thought it incumbent upon him to come forward, to point out what he conceives to be certain fallacies in Sir Henry's book. In 1828, Mr Withers published a Letter to Sir Walter Scott," in which he undertook to expose some "fundamental errors" in an Essay on the Planting of Waste Lands, which Sir Walter had contributed to the 72d Number of the Quarterly Review. In this Letter, Mr Withers advanced doctrines, to some of which Sir Henry Steuart could by no means agree; and accordingly, in the second edition of his " Planter's Guide," he dedicated several pages to their consideration, in the course of which he laid down six Propositions concerning the Culture of trees, which appear to us, though not to Mr Withers, to be among the very best things ever written on planting, giving, as they do, a condensed view of many of the most important principles of the art, That our readers may be able to enter
"Some trees, however, and herbaceous plants, may be said to be naturalized to certain situations, in which, without the aid of art, they never would have been found. Thus,' says Mr Loudon, we sometimes find mountain plants common in plains, and even in ineadows, and alpine trees, which disseminate themselves in warmer and more level districts. But the botanist, by comparing the effects of these different situations on the vegetable, always knows how to select, as general nature, that which perfects all its parts, and where the soil and situation are best suited to the reproduction of the species, and the prolongation of individual life. These rules,' adds he, are founded in nature. For example: No person, judging from and situation of the Scotch fir, though it frequently is found growing them, could mistake a warm English common, for the natural soil there."-Form, and Improv. of Countr. Resid.
ficial culture, of which pruning, as well as manuring, forms a constituent part, as has been explained above at so much length. That it is by a diligent study of the peculiar habits of trees, and the characters of soils, illustrated and regulated by facts drawn from general experience, that rash or ignorant systems of arboriculture are to be best corrected, and science brought most beneficially to bear on general practice."
six Propositions, which he ought of course to have quoted in limine, and not to have misrepresented, before attempt ing to controvert them, we proceed at once to consider, upon its own merits, the weighty question-" How is the best Oak to be obtained?" and, in doing so, we are happy to state, that our opinions differ in no one particular from those of the author of the " Planter's Guide."
In opposition to the conclusions contained in these propositions, the object of Mr Withers's present "Letter" is to prove two things; 1st, that Sir Henry Steuart's principles of arboriculture are inconsistent and contradictory, inasmuch as he recommends culture and manuring in the highest degree in the body of his work, and then reprobates and rejects them in his notes and illustrations; and 2d, that the cultivating and manuring of woodlands is necessarily beneficial in all cases, whatever may be said of the laws of nature, or the results of experience, to controvert the practice.
The first thing to be considered is, the peculiar charac ter of the oak, with which every intelligent planter is well acquainted. It is in its habits the most accommodating of all trees, and will grow in almost all soils and climates; but it will fully thrive in those soils and climates only that are natural to it—that is, where it most readily repro duces and perfects its species, and attains the greatest length of individual life. The intelligent planter is further aware, that, for these purposes, this tree requires a strong, deep, loamy, or clayey soil, and a temperate climate. These form the conditions of its perfect existence. If, It will require very few words to make it evident to then, we are to enquire what will improve, or what will every one, that Mr Withers's first ground of complaint is injure, the quality of the oak in general, or of different captious and uncalled for. When Sir Henry Steuart un- oak trees in different situations; or if we are to compare dertook to draw up a Treatise on the best method of such trees with one another, for the sake of illustrating giving "Immediate Effect to Wood," he did not, of course, some principle of theory or practice, our enquiry must conceive himself bound to enter into a discussion or de- bear reference to the conditions of their existence, and to tail of the general principles, which are laid down in his the extent to which those conditions may be supplied, if six propositions. He took up, as his proximate object, a we wish the result to be correct or conclusive. For particular department of the art of Planting, and all he we compare, for example, the qualities of slowly raised had to do was to make it appear, how trees could be raised oaks on light land, or in a warm climate, with those of i within the shortest period, without taking into considera-oaks quickly raised on heavy land, in a temperate climate, tion, whether they contained the best possible timber or it is tantamount to the comparing of bad oaks with good, not; and if the system proposed should ensure to the pos- and of course there can be no doubt of the result of the Bessors sound and valuable wood," it was all they had comparison. a right to expect. For this purpose, it is obvious that, according to every principle of science, the highest degree of culture was requisite, that art or ingenuity could devise. But, at the same time, Sir Henry was careful to explain, that, as trenching and manuring can be advantageous only to particular portions of extensive woodlands, and under particular circumstances, in order to produce the best timber, so they cannot be applied to any woodland indiscriminately, "unless where either a speedy return of crop, and marketable timber, but nothing more, are expected." * There is, therefore, no inconsistency or contradiction whatever, in the arboricultural theories advanced in his work. The art of giving "immediate effect to wood," where artificial culture is essentially needful, is entirely distinct from that of general planting, the principles of which are contained in the six Propositions, together with a short view of the laws respecting growth, and of the salutary restraints which science dictates should be laid on artificial culture, of which trenching, manuring, and pruning, all form a part. Under this simple view of the subject, all Mr Withers's declamation evaporates in smoke, even although it is bolstered up with something like professional manœuvring and mystification; for, be it remembered that Mr Withers is an attorney.†
These premises being shortly stated, we come to the question at issue,-What is the effect that general culture produces on the oak?-culture, of course, including trenching and manuring, or amelioration of the soil or climate beyond the natural state. The answer is precisely i what Sir Henry Steuart has set forth. It expands the vegetable fibre; it unduly promotes quickness of growth, and consequently deteriorates the quality of the woods it being always understood, that the tree previously is in possession of the conditions already described. On the other hand, a certain slowness of growth improves the quality of the wood, by adding to its closeness of texture and durability. It follows, then-as is distinctly stated, in Sir Henry's fourth proposition-that wherever growth is unduly accelerated by culture of the soil, such as by trenching and manuring, or by undue superiority of di mate, the wood will be injured in quality, in the precise ratio in which those agents are employed. In like mat ner-as is mentioned in the fifth proposition-if trees be in a soil or climate worse than is natural to them, thes culture will be of advantage, and will improve the quality of the wood. On the other hand, if trees be in a better soil or climate than is natural to them, and culture be applied, it will be a disadvantage, and deteriorate the wood. In the same way, if trees be in their natural
What Mr Withers undertakes to prove under his second head, is of far greater interest and importance-name-state, culture will injure the quality of the timber, in a ly, that trenching and manuring may be safely used in degree corresponding to the increased quantity produced. tree culture under any circumstances, and that, in fact, Hence it is plain, that, in certain cases, culture may be the richer the ground be made by manure, the better will very properly applied for the amelioration of timber, but be the quality of the wood. Passing over the garbled it should be done under the control of science, and of a view which our attorney gives of Sir Henry Steuart's sound judgment.
• Planter's Guide, p. 474.
This short account of the operation of those general laws respecting growth which govern the whole vegeta As a specimen of this mystification, which, perhaps, may succeed ble kingdom, is such as we should really have supposed with some of the country gentlemen of England, it is worth while remarking, that Mr Withers asserts, that the application of trenching could not have been easily misunderstood or misrepre and manuring to tree culture is an "original discovery" of his own, sented, had not Mr Withers come forward with his pre although Sir Henry Steuart has shown it to be as old as the time sent attempt. Let us, however, look for a moment to of the Romans, and the practice of which has been familiar to every the proofs of his position, that the highest degree of cul intelligent gardener in for the two last centuries. years ago, Mr Guthrie of Craigie, in the county of Angus, trenched ture is in all cases the best. It were in vain to expect all that to deduce bis evidence physiologically, from the soil his Several gentlemen, in both Aberdeenshire and Northumberland, did the same thing soon after this period. We wonder that Mr Withers does not write a pamphlet to
and climate, natural or unnatural to the oak, or from the style of its organization and peculiar habits. We have t on the authority of Mr Withers himself that there are few
recommend the public use of rail-ways and steam-navigation, both of which might then come to be considered "as original discoveries."
men in England, who have ever planted a tree, so utterly ignorant of all arboricultural science. From his "Letter to Sir Walter Scott," published in 1828, we learn that he knows nothing of Scotland or Ireland, or of any other part of the world, except Norfolk, and that his observations on wood, and the modes of raising it, are wholly confined to that county, where, as we understand, he possesses a cabbage garden, and a small piece of nursery ground. From his pamphlet, we clearly perceive, that he is utterly ignorant of general planting, or its history and progress in Britain, in France, or any other continental country, and that vegetable physiology and the anatomy of plants have not come within the line of his studies. What a man, therefore, so admirably qualified to maintain a phytological argument, does not know himself, he naturally seeks to learn from others. With a peculiar obtuseness of intellect, however, Mr Withers, instead of propounding Sir Henry Stewart's six propositions, or any thing like them, to competent judges, puts the following notable query to about eighteen or nineteen different persons, who, being for the most part timber-merchants, are nearly as ignorant of raising the oak as himself:-"Whether have you found," says he, "that fine fast-growing timber, when arrived at maturity, was inferior in quality to timber of slower growth; and whether do you think that the application of manure to poor land at the time of planting, and the cleaning of the land for a few years, can have any injurious effect on the quality of the wood, when it has attained its full growth "Now, this has as much to do with the object of the six propositions, as if he had quoted the first proposition in Euclid. Respecting both divisions of the query, as put in the abstract, no one of the least knowledge of wood would ever hesitate to answer in the negative; and such an answer, so far from refuting, would rather strengthen the conclusions come to by Sir Henry Steuart.
that will decline, or altogether become stationary, if planted on any other soils. Some, however, show more, and some less, of this sort of phytological affinity. But the oak is, of all plants, the most accommodating, as has been already observed. It will grow in any sort of soil, from the dampest to the driest, from the most silicious to the most aluminous. But it loves only the last mentioned, and will truly thrive-that is, it will perfect its specieson one that is strong, deep, and loamy, or, in other words, a good, rich, heavy soil. Mr Withers either does, or does not, know this. If he does know it, he means, by a statement like the above and there are many such to be found in his pamphletto impose upon his readers, whom he must consider as the most gullible of men. If he does not, then he is the most ignorant planter that ever pretended to write upon trees, or to give instruction to others.
But we have not yet got to the summit of Mr Withers's absurdity as a planter, which, in legitimate climax, rises to the last, and is to be found at page 115, et seqq., near the close of the pamphlet. A Mr Farrow-still another | timber-merchant-here comes forward to his assistance. This man modestly professes no knowledge of arboricul ture, but he merely practises (as he says) the buying, selling, and "converting" of wood, by which, we suppose, he means the converting it into cash. Well, this Mr Farrow tells a strange story of two oak trees, that grew in the same field, the same soil, and the same climate. The first tree (No. 1), as it appears, had no aid but what was furnished by the soil itself, which was "good, with a bluish clay bottom;" whereas the other (No. 2) grew near the "rack-yard of the farm," and close to a ditch or drain, which conducted the moisture from the yard, and in fact the roots appear to have extended to the yard itself. Both, as Mr Farrow adds, grew well, but the one near the drain by far the more rapidly of the two; and it was the current opinion about the place, that they had been planted about the same period. On cutting down the trees and weighing the wood, No. 2 was found to be 14 lbs. in 10 lbs. the heavier. Specimens of both were tried by Professor Barlow, as above, when No. 1 was fractured by a weight of 835 lbs. superinduced upon it, but No. 2 required 972 lbs. to fracture it. These facts, in the way they are stated, we cannot be brought to believe, as Mr Farrow, a very ignorant individual, is the only evidence brought forward to support them. We take them, as we should take the supposed facts and circumstances of a well-authenticated ghost story, and for this simple reason, that they contradict the laws of Nature, and the general results of experience; and, for the same reason, we reject any inference that can be drawn from them.
Of the eighteen referees to whom Mr Withers applies, two are men of real science;-1st, The Editor of the Domestic Gardener's Manual; and 2d, Mr G. W. Johnson, the well-known writer on Horticultural Chemistry. To these may justly be added a very sensible landowner (No. 2), whose name is not given, but whose judicious opinions we formerly met with, in the "Letter to Sir Walter Scott." All these, as well as the referees Nos. 1, 7, 10, 13, and 16, unwittingly confirm, instead of controverting, the propositions. And we find that there were several others, whose answers were so hostile to Mr Withers's opinions, that he does not publish them at all.
Calling in some corroborative circumstances to his aid, Mr Withers mentions (at page 115) that he got, from Mr Boorne of Erpingham, (another timber-merchant,) two specimens of oak-wood, the one taken from a fast, the other from a slow growing tree. The former, as Mr Last of all, comes Mr Withers's grand and sweeping Boorne describes it, was raised in "a very strong, good conclusion, which at once announces his victory, and sums wil," the latter on "a light soil, with a gravelly bottom;" up his argument. "These experiments," says he, "throw and both specimens were forwarded, by Mr Withers, to new light upon the subject, and lead to the most importProfessor Barlow, of the Royal Academy at Woolwich, ant conclusions. They prove, not only that fast-growing oak in order that he might try their respective strengths. timber is superior in quality to that of slower growth, but This, as we conceive it, was equivalent to saying to the that by the constant application of manure to the roots of learned Professor," Here is a specimen of the very best trees, planted even in a good soil, nearly double the quanoak that can be found, and here is also a specimen of the tity of timber may be obtained in the same period, while very worst ; pray, which is the stronger of the two, as veri- its strength, instead of being diminished, will be thereby infied by experiment?" Had Professor Barlow been at all creased." We certainly never thought that Mr Withers acquainted with arboriculture-which does not seem to be had much practical skill, even in the mechanical part of the case—he would have been much amused with the ap- planting; we never believed that he possessed any smatpeal thus made to him, and of which the consequences tering of science, beyond what he had picked up from may be easily conjectured. The two specimens of tim-reading the Planter's Guide; but little as that is, we ber were squared down to pieces of equal sizes, when the really think he might have seen to what consequences all first mentioned was broken with a weight of 999lbs., and this nonsense tended, even could country gentlemen be the last with one of only 6771bs., respectively laid upon them. brought to swallow it. In the first place, it would go Now, it is a fact well known to every planter of expe- near to destroy our belief in what is denominated "phyrience, although, from the folly of this proceeding, it does │tological affinity" in woody plants, than which no arborinot seem to be known to Mr Withers, that all woody cultural fact is better ascertained, or more generally creplants have their peculiar and favourite soils, on which dited. And, in the second place, it would give to garthey will grow. luxuriantly; and there are many trees deners this new and curious piece of information; that,
as the grand qualities of the oak, beyond all other trees, consist in its possessing the greatest strength, hardness, toughness, and durability united, so the best place for raising the tree in the greatest perfection is, the highest-manured kitchen-garden, and still more, the richest hot-bed!!! Bravo, Withers! Your theory has now got to its climax! Vivat stercoratio, ruat cœlum!-Muck and the Attorney for ever!
But, joking apart, the principles to be acted on in raising the best timber of every sort, and especially the best timber for naval purposes, is a subject of too serious and general an interest to be treated with ridicule, or to be suffered to sink into neglect, among the transient novelties or follies of the day. Great Britain is well known as the country, of which the soil and climate are capable of raising, and have hitherto raised, the BEST OAK TIMBER IN THE WORLD; and it is deeply interesting and important to her that she should continue to raise it. Considering the low state of scientific arboriculture as yet among us, and the late stimulus which has been given to curiosity respecting it, by the writings of ingenious men, it may not be amiss, before concluding these strictures on a very shallow, but specious production, to endeavour to condense into a few sentences a sort of summary to our argument, for the use of such of our readers as may be planters, and to lay before them, as shortly as possible, what seems now to be the generally understood principle in this important business.
the best possible timber. The same thing is observable in
Strictures on Sir Henry Steuart's Planter's Guide. B a Planter of Some Experience. (That is, Edward San Nurseryman in Kirkaldy.) Edinburgh. John Ande. son, jun. 1830. Pp. 40.
FRIEND SANG, we are perfectly aware that you kno something of mechanical planting; and we are furth aware that, with the assistance of a friend, you once can forward as the editor of a posthumous treatise of Walt Nicol's, another mechanical planter like yourself. B how it should enter your brain to attempt "Stricture on a scientific work, of which you cannot understand....... single sentence, truly exceeds our comprehension. It true, Sir Henry Steuart does not speak with much 14 spect of the science of the Scottish nurserymen, and regret that he should have so much reason to do so; h it is also true, that he speaks of yourself, in particul much more highly than you deserve. It was, therefo very ungrateful in you, and likewise very foolish, to pose yourself as you have done, by taking up the cudg for either the gardeners, or the nurserymen of Scotla neither of whom, as far as we can discover, Sir Her has unfairly treated.
All trees have their peculiar soils and climates, in which they will thrive best, and most fully perfect their species. This is the law of nature, and what Sir Henry Steuart has called " phytological affinity." The soil most congenial to the oak, as already remarked, is a strong, deep, and loamy soil, often a reddish clay, together with a temperate climate. Such are the soil and climate in which the best and most durable oak has always been found, when planted by the hand of nature, and such, therefore, may be set down as most natural to the species. The best oak timber is certainly that which grows most vigorously under these circumstances; but the combined action of climate and soil may be such, as to cause it to transcend the measure of the most perfect wood. All cultivation or amelioration of a soil like this is injurious, because it expands the vegetable fibre, and renders the wood more porous and less dense, by unduly accelerating its growth. If the oak be planted on clayey land, and of a poor and thin quality, trenching and manuring will bring about a beneficial effect, by rendering such land deeper and richer, and by assimilating it to the soil most natural to the species. In the same way, if poor, silicious, or light soil be to be planted with the same trees, trenching and manuring will occasion a favourable effect, by deepening it, and rendering it more tenacious of moisture, and, by consequence, assimilating it, in some degree, to the natural soil; and if lime be added to consolidate such a soil, or clayey compost, made up with lime, it will be still more advantageous. These ingredients impart to thin and poor soils of every sort, before being planted, a certain portion of those essential requisites which nature has denied them. But the great regulator, or, if we may so speak, the unerring barometer of all soils, is atmospheric temperature, that is, the measure of heat and cold, as modified on woody plants. The soil most congenial to the oak has been already described. Take that soil, for example, at the bottom of a deep valley, where the oak is found to grow in the highest luxuriance, and compare its produce with that of a similar soil, at a greater elevation, and in a greater exposure to the elements, in the same valley. Here the trees, with the very same advantages of soil, will be found to grow more slowly. Their vegetable fibre being more contracted or condensed, their whole organic structure will be modified to the circumstances in which it is placed, and stronger and more close-roneously, All that Mr Cunningham undertook 1 grained wood will consequently be produced. This, un- was, to supply popular, entertaining, and impartial ]» der proper circumstances, may probably be considered as of those who have most distinguished themselves in
THIS Volume is fully equal in interest to its prede sor from the same pen. We do not, of course, look the work as one which the artist will study with view of obtaining additional information concerning principles of his art, nor as one to which the amateur appeal as competent authority in matters of disputed t or as settling the estimation, in which various product of the pencil ought to be held. This is not its ol and they who judge it by such a standard, judge i
The Lives of the Most Eminent British Painters, Se
Neddy Sang, you seem to be fond of quoting Latin appears by your pamphlet; we will therefore say to y in the exhortatory way, and in that language, Hoc a
that is, mind your proper business and vocation; st well, and arrange your nursery-ground, and take a pla ing contract, when you can get it, from the Laird Fife; but, for God's sake, be advised by us; steer d of science, and, above all things, of scientific arboricult or the trade of book-making; as any attempt at either only make you ridiculous. We advise you as a frien as an ancient painter advised an honest tradesman, al as foolish as yourself-Ne sutor ultra crepidam! and v that kindly monition we take our leave, hoping neve meet you again, in either the one department, or the ot