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neighbors to cross the boundary and show them what a real republic was like.

DOWNFALL AND RISE OF GERMANY

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The immediate successor of Frederick the Great was, of all his successors, the weakest; he squandered, in an incredibly short time, the forty million dollars that Frederick had saved during the

years of peace. Morally much better was his successor, Frederick William II, but the latter lacked the energy and power

of mind to continue and vitalize the traditions of Frederick. Lacking the spirit of its creator, the Prussian state and military system became petrified. Moreover, the great successes of Frederick the Great in war had given the army the opinion that it was invincible, without further need of combined effort for improvement. The result was the great crash when the Prussian army was defeated by Napoleon, and the Prussian state crushed to ruins; now the eyes of the people were opened to the true condition of things.

It is true that the period following the battle of Jena, in 1806, is justly called the time of Prussia's greatest downfall; but, looking at its consequences, we may call it as well the time of Prussia's rejuvenation. In spite of disastrous appearances, there must have remained alive in this German people something that needed only to be rediscovered and aroused. Within six or seven years after the battle of Jena, the nation had completely recovered from the terrible misfortune that had befallen it.

THE NAPOLEONIC ERA AND THE WAR OF LIBERATION

After Napoleon and Josephine were crowned by the Pope, in 1804, the history of Napoleon becomes, for twelve momentous years, the history of Europe. His arms, directly or indirectly,

revolutionize the political and social systems of central and southern Europe.

As early as 1803, Napoleon had made plans to land in England. In 1804, England, Russia, and Austria joined forces against the new emperor and king. Napoleon retorted by resuming preparations for the invasion of England, but he suddenly turned all his forces against Austria and appeared before the city of Ulm, from whence he advanced to the Austrian capital, Vienna, which he entered in triumph. Shortly after this triumph, Napoleon encountered the combined forces of the Czar and the Austrian emperor at Austerlitz (Dec. 2, 1805), where he gained one of the most brilliant successes of his life.

The northern powers now became thoroughly alarmed at the schemes of Napoleon, who threatened to get control of all Europe. A fourth coalition was formed against France, consisting of England, Russia, Sweden, Saxony, and Prussia, a country that had long stood neutral. The war recommenced (1806). In the two tremendous battles of Jena and Auerstedt, fought on the same day, Napoleon completely humbled the Prussian monarchy, so that its independence was nearly destroyed. A fortnight later (Oct. 27, 1806), Napoleon entered Berlin, the capital of Prussia. In 1807, after the French victory at Friedland, the Peace of Tilsit was made, by which Prussia had to give up a large part of her territory. Out of a portion of her territory, lying west of the Elbe, Napoleon created the kingdom of Westphalia, the crown of which he gave to his brother Jerome Bonaparte. To make his glory complete, Napoleon sought to secure its transmission in the line of his own descent. He was resolved to ally himself by marriage with royal blood, and, after obtaining a divorce from his devoted wife, Josephine Beauharnais, he made the vanquished emperor of Austria give him the hand of the princess Marie Louise, by whom he had a son (1811), who received the title of “King of Rome.”

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In order to strike a blow at England, Napoleon was resolved to attack Russia. He raised an army of 600,000 men. In the summer of 1812, he crossed the river Niemen (also called Memel) at about 90 miles southeast of Tilsit in Russian Poland, and began his march on Moscow. The policy of the Russians was to avoid an encounter by continually falling back. As they retreated, they burned their villages and fields of grain. Napoleon's army advanced through a desolated country. At last, at Borodino, the enemy came to a stand, and a desperate battle was fought, in which the French came off victors. A week later, Napoleon entered Moscow, the ancient capital of Russia (Sept. 14, 1812). The city was deserted and already on fire at different points. For five days the capital burned, and Napoleon's army was without food and shelter. Napoleon lost his power of decision. Word was given to retreat. Then came the disastrous march, a funeral march, of the ragged, shivering, starved troops, back through the desolate country. They crossed the Niemen, but few ever reached home.

Then all Europe rose in a fifth coalition to crush the fallen giant. England, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Austria massed a million men against France. Napoleon raised another army. The decisive struggle came at Leipzig in the autumn of 1813, and Napoleon was beaten. The allied forces now invaded France from north and south. Paris could not defend itself. The allied troops passed through her gates, and Napoleon, forced to abdicate, was sent in exile to the island of Elba. Louis XVIII was placed on the throne.

In less than twelve months, Napoleon escaped to Paris. Louis fled in dismay. A congress of sovereigns (Wiener Kongress) was sitting at Vienna, rearranging the map of Europe. They had allotted certain provinces on the Rhine to Prussia. Blücher, the most famous of the Prussian generals, was in the Rhenish provinces. Duke Wellington, the “Iron Duke,” was in Belgium. Napoleon decided to invade Belgium and destroy Blücher's and Wellington's army. The great, final battle was fought on Sunday, June 8, 1815, at Waterloo (BelleAlliance), a hamlet about twelve miles southeast of Brussels. It was a desperate battle for the French, but a great defeat. Napoleon succeeded in escaping from the battle field and in reaching Paris. He abdicated in favor of his son, and was sent by the English, as a prisoner for life, to the desolate island of St. Helena.

The editor wishes to express her thanks to her mother for assistance in reading the proofs, for helpful suggestions, and for her loving interest in the preparation of this book. Thanks are also due to the author, Rudolf Herzog, for allowing the novel to be abridged and edited for class use, and to Miss Mildred Firth for kindly aiding in the arrangement of the vocabulary.

O. G. B. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

June, 1916.

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