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to regulate any but its purely internal Commerce, it exercises the identical power which is granted to the Union, and does the very thing which Congress alone is authorized to do.
547. As the power of Congress to regulate Commerce extends to Navigation carried on in vessels exclusively employed in carrying passengers, whether propelled by steam, or by the instrumentality of wind and sails, on waters wholly within a State, but which are navigable from the ocean, an exclusive privilege of Steam Navigation upon such waters claimed under a State, was judicially held to conflict with an authority to navigate the same waters, derived from the Laws of Congress; and so far as this interference extended, the State Law was declared void, as repugnant to the Federal Constitution.
548. As the power of regulating Commerce reaches the interior of a State, and may there be exercised, it is capable of authorizing the sale of those commodities which it introduces, because the efficacy of the power would be incomplete, if it ceased to operate at the point where the continuance of its operation is indispensable to its value.
549. The power to allow importation would be nugatory, if unaccompanied by the power to authorize the sale of the thing imported; for sale is the object of importation, and an essential ingredient in that Commercial intercourse of which importation constitutes a part, and as indispensable to the existence of that intercourse, as importation itself. .
550. The right of sale, as well as the right to import, being therefore considered as involved in the power to regulate Commerce, Congress has a right, not only to authorize importation, but to authorize the importer to sell.
551. An Act of a State Legislature, requiring wholsale importers and sellers of foreign goods to obtain a licence from the State, and to pay a sum of money for the privilege of selling, was consequently held to be void, as repugnant not only to that provision of the Constitution which restricts a State from laying duties on imports, but to that which invests Congress with the power“ to regulate Commerce."