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417. It was formerly usual to precede hostilities by a public declaration, communicated formally to the enemy; but in modern times this practice has been discontinued, and the Nation proclaiming war now confines itself to a declaration within its own territory, and to its own People.
421. This Power is plainly derived in all cases from that of making war; and induces, in its exercise, an incomplete state of hostilities, which generally ends in a formal denunciation of war.
435. Unless the National Government could set bounds to the ambition, injustice, or exertions of other nations, no restraints should be imposed on the discretionary powers of Congress in relation to the subject; nor any limits prescribed to its efforts for the defence and preservation of the Nation.
436. A readiness for war in time of peace is not only necessary for self-defence, but affords the most certain means of preventing aggression, by exhibiting such resources and preparations for repelling it, as may discourage or deter an enemy from attempts which would probably prove unavailing.
437. A jealousy of the power of raising and maintaining armies and fleets in time of peace, arose from the prevailing sentiment at the time of the Revolution, in regard to the undefi ed power of making war, and supporting, by its own authority, regular troops in time of peace, which was the aeknowledged prerogative of the British crown.