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shore, and his companions set about founding a new city for the Bourbon Kings. For one hundred and thirty years, with a slight intermission the national oriflamme of its founders floated peacefully over the colony. Champlain passed down the Richlieu River into the wilderness of New York, and discovered the beautiful lake that bears his name. Troops of voyageurs and coureurs de bois paddled up the rivers, and ranged the forests for the precious spoils to be found there. Bands of Jesuits followed, and sometimes heralded, these hardy hunters, setting up their mission-tents by the roar of Niagara, and in the wilds of Mississippi and Minnesota. They struggled with the zeal of enthusiasts against the dangers of the wilderness. They braved the fangs of wild beasts; the perils of rapids ; the pangs of hunger, and the auto-da-fé of burning prairies, to implant their faith in the hearts of the red men-to gather another Province into the fold of the Church.
Emigrants came in thousands, bringing with them the manners of old France. The pioneers of Massachusetts were not more true to Puritan belief, than the transplanted men of Brittany and Normandy to their service of mass and candle. Along the river rose their settlements; in every hamlet a church spire and an abbéin every town a convent. A cluster of villages scattered along the banks of the St. Lawrence, and nestling round Quebec, became Canada; no longer Aca-nada, (the natives' term for “nothing here,”) or Kanata, (signifying in Iroquois language, “a collection of huts,”) but the dear Conodo of the settlers--a gem of price in the French Crown. From thence Montcalm marched to the massacre of William Henry; from the neighbouring province of Acadie, men of French blood carried relief to their countrymen at Beau Séjeur.
Well drilled into the observance of saints' days and festivals, in the old land of their childhood, they would record these great things of their Church for all time. St. Anne and St. Marie found elegy in sparkling waterfalls, Peter and John in lovely lakes ; Lawrence and Maurice in noble rivers ; Hilaire, Hyacinthe, Augustine and a hundred others, in “ habitant" villages. Where Saints' days are many, workers are few. French Canada was an example of this. The British Transatlantic colonies had increased to 1,300,000 inhabitants, while New France lingered behind with 60,000. A few pioneers had gone up the Ottawa, rough cabins clustered round Fort Fontenae, Detroit bosted a trading post; but Canada West was scarcely explored, wild fowl had undisturbed possession of Toronto Bay. At Montreal and at Trois Rivièries, small towns had been founded, but Quebec was the foremost city. It was the Paris of New France. Another race appeared upon the scene.
In the summer of 1759 a British fleet sailed up the St. Lawrence. For two months it failed to accomplish any results. The flag of France still floated from the ramparts of Quebec. A subordinate soldier suggested to General Wolfe a plan for taking the fortress by surprise. It was approved. On a star-light night at the commencement of Indian summer, the English troops in flat-bottomed boats were conveyed past the jutting promontory of Cape Diamond. All was still. The sailors rowed with muffled oars. None spoke but Wolfe, who repeated to his officers some verses of “Gray's Elegy,” observing, “Now gentlemen, I would rather be the author of that poem than take Quebec."
I have stood on the shingle of the cove where they landed. You would think there was no pass from below,
the crags are so steep and sharp! Such rocks are climbed by Chamois hunters in the Alps. The sailors dragged up a small cannon with ropes. The Highlanders led the way. They grasped hold of the roots of willow and alder, swung themselves up on to the plateau, and surprised the French sentinels before they could give an alarm. Quebec fell that day. The table-land of Abraham's plains became the anvil on which was struck the military fame of two commanders. It became also the place of death. Wolfe and Montcalm perished, stricken down on the field of battle. The dying Englishman heard the cry “ they run," and knew even in the moment of death, that victory remained with his troops. St. George's banner displaced the Eagle of France, and it hangs there
No people were ever better treated by their conquerors than the Canadians. Private property was respected, and religious toleration became the law of the land. The fruit of this lenience, has been the ripening of a harvest of loyalty to the Crown of Great Britain. As in all free States, there are some unsettled spirits longing for change; there have been in Canada, émeutes and dissatisfaction, but the people as a body, have never swerved from their loyalty.
We must roll history of the past, round a flag-staff of the past and lay it by, for our ship is coming near to Quebec. The city seems to wear a tinsel crown under the morning sun. Taking a lesson from those who built the palace at Milan, the people of Quebec have roofed their houses and spires with tin. This species of roofing is said to be far superior to shingles, for while the snow remains upon and would weigh down a wood roof, it glides off the tin and is no inconvenience.
The appearance of the city as seen from the river is singularly striking and picturesque. Out juts Cape Diamond with its frowning fortifications. This famous promontory derives its name from quartz crystals which are found in its slopes. After a shower of rain they are easily seen, appearing like gems in a setting of dark brown rock. Anchored in the river is H. M. ship “ Constance." Under the rock is a long, low craft whose early days were spent in “blocade running,” I am told. It is now employed in the more honorable service of “Postal Steamer" to Gaspé Bay. Riding in the magnificent roadstead are fleets of merchant vessels. Their presence shows that Quebec is not only a fortress, but also a port of commerce. As a proof of the latter, I am told, (that in addition to the “grain fleet") 1,000 timber ships leave every year. We may land and explore the city.
MEDIEVAL AND MODERN.
standing on the wharf, by the old market-house in Quebec, I thought that I had stumbled upon something akin to mediævalism. The first building in stone and mortar, erected on the Continent, was at Tadoussac ; but more substantial remains are found at Quebec. On land won from the river, and on terraces rising from the water, stands the old or lower town. It is composed of houses and stores, à la Français of 250 years ago. The streets are narrow and tortuous, often with footways of planks. The French quarters are dirty, with gloomy houses, in which a variety of small trades are carried on. In 1866 a great fire swept away much of this part of the city. It was then built chiefly of wood, but now the structures are of stone. A pale-coloured brick is also much used for outside walls; it has an ornamental and clean appearance.
The ascent to the Upper Town is made by a steep, winding street through Prescott Gate. The citadel is no doubt the strongest military post on the American continent. It is sometimes called the Gibraltar of the New World. I was conducted over the fortress and through the trenches by a soldier of the 53rd Line, a young man from Kent. A square of granite was laid upon the parapet wall, by the Prince of Wales in 1860. Upon it is carved the Prince's crest of the "three ostrich feathers'