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supposititium esse convincunt post eundem Scaligerum alii bene multi, in quibus omnium doctissime et copiosissime Humfredus Hodius.

One who should be disposed to dispute the point with Bentley, might say, that besides the first and illustrious Sophocles, there was a Sophocles his grandson, and a third in the time of the Ptolemies, and that they were all dramatic poets ; and he might suppose that this fragment or a part of it, was possibly taken from the second or third Sophocles. See Fabricius B. Gr. i. 623. He might compound the matter, and conjecture that the three first lines were genuine, and the six following spurious.

If the Cohortatio was not written by Justin, Athenagoras was perhaps the first father who took notice of this passage, and he only cites the two first verses, which gives some reason to suspect that he never saw the rest.

But, upon a review of the whole, I must agree with Bentley, and reject this pious fragment as the work of one forger, or perhaps of two. In the first yerse,

Εις ταϊς αληθείαισιν, εις εσιν θεός is preferable to

'Εν ταϊς αληθείαισιν. Bently objects to

Θνήθοι δε σουλυκερδεία σλανώμενοι that the fourth foot will be a spondee: but may not the diphthongs al, et, o, be made short, when a vowel or diphthong follows in the same word ? Sophocles Philoct. 1450.

Τίνα προσωφέλησιν έρξεις ; Βέλεσι τοϊς ΗρακλείοιςAnd so in other places, if I remember right. Homer, II. 2. 105.

Tοίοις έων, οίος τις 'Αχαιών χαλκοχθόνων. He observes, as I think, rightly, that an attie writer would not use sovruxepdsię in an iambic verse; but woraus, for wori's, is rather a poetic license than an jonic dialect. The best objection to exquxepósią is, that it is nonsense.

Attic writers use the words oλoίαιο, όψοίαιο, τιθέασι, διδόασιν, &c. which seemn properly to belong to the ionic dialect.

IX. The Epistle of the church of Smyrna says of the martyrs : το σύρ ήν αυτούς ψυχρoν τo των απηνών βασανισών. Frigidus ipsis videbatur iminuniuin carnificum ignis.

This passage, which hath been misunderstood, relates to the torments inflicted on the martyrs before they were put to death. They were treated like slaves and criminals, and tortured ; and in such tortures fire was usually one instrument.

Q. Curtius says of Philotas : Ac primo quanquam hinc ignis, illinc verbera, jum non ad qucestionem, sed ad prenam ingerebuntur,--vi. 11.

Cicero in Verr. v. 63. Huccine tandem omnia reciderunt, ut civis Romanus-deligatus in foro vergis cæderetur? Quid, cum ignes ardentesque lamince, ceterique cruciatus admovebantur? Seneca

says
of the
emperor

Caius : Ceciderat flagellis senatores; ipse effecit ut dici possit, Solet fieri: torserat per omnia, quæ in rerum natura tristissina sunt, fidiculis, tabularibus, eculeo, igne, vultu suo.

Et hoc loco respondebitur, magnam rem! si tres senatores, quasi nequam mancipia, inter verbera et flummus divisit De Ira iii. 19. Saxa, ferrum, ignem, Caium excepturi. De Brey. Vit. 18.

[Domitianus)

[Domitianus] plerosque partis adversenovo quæs, tionis genere distorsit : immisso per obscæna igne. Suetonius Domit. x.

Cicero Topic 20. Facit etiam necessitas fidem, quce cum a corporibus, tum ab animis nascitur. Nam et ver, beribus, tormentis, igni fatigati, quce dicunt, ea videtur teritas ipsa dicere. Propertius i. 1. 27.

Fortiter et ferrum, sævos patiemur et ignes :

Sit modo libertas, quæ volet ira, loqui. iv. 7. 49.

Lygdamus uratur, candescat lamina vernce. Tibullus i. 10. 21.

Ure meum potius flamma caput, et pete ferro

Corpus, et intorto verbere terga seca. Horace Epist. i. xv. 36.

Scilicet ut ventres lamná candente nepotum

Diceret urendos. Juvenal xiv.

Tum felix, quoties aliquis, tortore vocato,

Uritur ardenti propter duo lintea ferro. Ovid. Met. iii. 696.

et dum crudelia jussa Instrumenta necis ferrumque ignisque parantur, Seneca Oedip. 862.

Huc aliquis ignem : flamma jam excutiet fidem. Petronius : In verba Eumolpi sacramentum juravimus, uri, vinciri, verberari, ferroque necari ; et quicquid aliud Eumolpus jussisset, tanquam legitimi gladiatores domino, corpora animosque religiosissimi addicimus.

Seneca Epist. xxxvii. Eadem honestissimi hujus, et illius turpissimi auctoramenti verba sunt, uri, vinciri, ferroque necari. Ab illis qui manus arenæ locant, et edunt

ac

inc bibunt quce per sanguinem reddant, cavetur ut ista vel inviti patiantur ; a te, ut volens libensque.

Epist. vii. Occide, ure, verbera. Quare tam timide incurrit in ferrum?

Quinctilian. Declam. ix. Fremebant ubique omnia apparatu mortis. Hic ferrum aciebat, ille-accendebat ignibus laminas : hinc virgæ, inde flagella adferebantur.

Tertullian Apol. 15. Risimus et inter ludicras meridianorum crudelitates, Mercurium mortuos cauterio examinantem.

Ignatius Epist. ad Rom. 5. Iūs, seerpos, Inpíwr Te (uτάσεις, αναλομαι, διαιρέσεις, (κορπισμοί ορέων, Γκοπαι μελών, αλεσμοί όλα τα Cώματος, και κόλασις τη Διαβόλε επ' εμέ έρχέσθω, μόνον ivæ ’Inoi Xpisã én iluxw. Ignis, crux, ferarum concursus, sectiones, lanience, ossium discerptiones, membrorum concisiones, totius corporis contritiones, et Diaboli tormenta in me veniant, tantummodo ut Jesum nanciscar.

Justin. M. Dial. Κεφαλόγομέμενοι δ' και σαυρέμενοι, και θεφίοις σαραβαλλόμενοι, και δεσμοίς, και συρί, και πάσαις ταϊς άλλαις βασάνοις, ότι ουκ αφισάμεθα της ομολογίας, δηλόν εσιν. Quod namque dum gladio percutimur, et in crucem agimur, et bestüs objicimur, et vinculis, et igne, et tormentis aliis omnibus plectimur et excruciamur, a professione nostra non discedamus, satis constat, &c. &c. &c.

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

Thomas Turnbull, Printer, Edinburgh.

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