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In the EPISTLES of IGNATIUS there is a harshness of style, but a lively spirit, and a noble enthusiasın, especially in that to the Romans.

He tells the Ephesiuns that he had a design to write them another letter, and to instruct them in some points, μάλισα εαν ο Κύριός μοι αποκαλύψη, especially if the Lord should reveal any thing to me.

Whence it seems not improbable that he had been favoured with some revelations. xx.

The same inference may be made from these words to the Philadelph. vii. When I exhorted to your bishop, presbyters, and deacons, some of you suspected that I had been informed of dissentions amongst μου, μάρτυς δέ μοι εν ώ δέδεμαι, ότι από (αρκός ανθρωπίνης ουκ έγγων. το δε πνεύμα εκήρυσσιν λέγων τάδε. Χωρίς το επισκοπα μηδέν αριστε.

Testis autem mihi is est, in quo vinctus sum, quod a carne humana non cognoverim; sed Spiritus annunciavit, dicens ista; Sine Episcopo nihil facite.

Ad Rom. vii. Ζών και γράφω υμίν, έρων το αποθανείν. ο έμός έρως έσαυρώθαι, και ουκ έσιν εν εμοί, συρ φιλόύλον ύδωρ δε ζων, και λαλών εν εμοί, έσωθέν μοι λέγον, δεύρο προς τον πατέραι Virens enim scribo vobis amore captus moriendi. Meus amor crucifixus est ; et non est in me ignis amans materice. Sed

agud vivens et loquens in me, intus mihi dicit; Veni ad Patrem.

There is in this something very sublime and pathetic. The expression ύδωρ λαλών resembles the cocales unda which inspired the poets and prophets. Statius Sile. i. ii. 6.

Et de Pierüs rocalem fontibus undam. An oracle of Apollo Delphicus given to Julian, and preserved by Cedrenus :

Είπατε το βασιλέι, χαμαί σέσε δαίδαλος αυλα.
Ουκέτι Φοίβος έχει καλύβαν, και μάλιδα δαφνην,
ου σαγαν λαλένσαν, απέσβετο και λάλον ύδωρ.

Dicite regi, humi cecidit elegans aula.
Non amplius Phæbus habet casam, non vaticinatri-

cem laurum,
Non fontem loquentem, extincta est etiam garrula

aqua, In these verses, which, to do them justice, are elegant, Apollo, to raise Julian's compassion, deplores the silence of his oracles and of the speaking streams.

In the first line read βασιλής. , Anacreon, xiii.

οι δε Κλάρα σαρ' όχθαις
Δαφνηφόροιo Φοίβο
Λάλον σιόντες ύδωρ
Μεμηνότες βοώσιν.
Nec non aquam bibentes
Apollinis loquacem
Ripis Clari, furore

Acti subinde clamant. Vetus Interpres (says Cotelerius) : Et non est in me ignis amans aliquam aquam : sed vivens et loquens est

Hoc est Greece; Και ουκ έσιν εν εμοί πυρ φιλαν τι ύδωρ" ζων δε και λαλεν, αut λαλέμενον εν εμοί. In Interpolata Και ουκ έσιν εν εμοί συρ φιλεν τι: ύδωρ δε ζων, αλλόμενον εν εμοί. Et non est in me ignis qui aliquid amet: sed aqua viva, intra me faliens. Ex antiquo Interprete; Et non est in me, aqua autem alia viva manet in me. Legebat quippe άλλο et μέν, Ιoco αλλόμενον : et omisit que non intelligebat. Apud Metaphrastem, quem sequuntur Greci in Mendo; Ούκ έσιν εν εμοί σύ φιλόύλον ύδωρ δε μάλλον ζων και λαλεν εν εμοί. Εt non est in me ignis amans materie : aqua vero potius vivens et loquens in me, Perplaceret mihi; Και ουκ έσιν εν εμοί συρ φιλόύλον ύδωρ δε ζων, και αλλόμενον εν εμοί. Νam φιλόύλον Julianus Ignatii interpolati coder retinuit. αλλόμενον αutem confirmatur per illud Johan


in me.


is iv. 14. το ύδωρ ό δώσω αυτω γενέσθαι εν αυτω πηγή υδαίος αλλομένα εις ζωήν αιώνιον. Aqua quam ego dabo ei, fet in eo fins aquæ salientis in vitam æternam. Græci conjunctim ; Ούκ έσχες πυρ φιλόύλον έν σοι, Ιγνατιε: ύδωρ δε ζων μάλλον και λαλεν, δεύρο προς τον πατέρα: ύδωρ το αλλόμενον, το έκ ζωής εις ζωήν με εχέτευον ημας.

Le Clerc says, Est in Exemplari Græco, süp oinbüror. Icnis materialis est qıráčnos, amans materiæ; quá nempe antor. Sed spiritualis ignis, quo urebatur Ignatius, materia, hoc est, rerum corporearum, amans non erat. Quod est nonnihil coactum, ut et sequentin de aquâ in eo loquente. Scd sancti viri sermo refertus est ejusmodi violentis adlusionibus.

The sav 'wp must not be altered : it is sufficiently confirmed by the citations of Cotelerius in this very note where he is inclined to reject it; and it is more clegant and proper than Le Clerc imagined.

Ignatius, who was a Syrian, and a bishop of Antioch, was well acquainted with the oracle of Apollo Daphneus, and with the Castalian fountain, which were at his door, and which are frequently mentioned by ecclesiastical writers. Sozomen in his description of δαγhne, says, "Ην δ ενθάδε Δαφναία 'Απόλλωνος περικαλλές άγαλμα, και νεως μεγαλοφυώς τε και φιλοτίμως εξεργασμένος-έπισεύει. δε σαρά τους ταδε πρεσβεύεσι, αν αυτόθι και ύδωρ μανικών από Κασαλίας της πηγής, ομοίως της εν Δελφοίς ενεργείας τε και προσηγοpias axxéons. Erat enim illic Apollinis Daphncei pulcherrimum simulacrum et templum magnifice atque ambitiose constructum.-Credebatur etiam ab illis qui ista colunt et prædicant, aquam illic divinatricem fluere ex fonte Castalio, qui idem nomen eandemque efficaciam haberet, quam ille Delphicus. v. 19.

Ignatius therefore opposes to the speaking prophetic zcaters of the Pagans, the living waters mentioned by


our Lord in John iv. 14. which speak better and nobler things than the fabulous and poetic fountains. The interpolator, who could not put himself in the place of Ignatius, and had not the same thoughts and images which arose in the mind of the martyr, flung away üdwe renor, the speaking water, which he understood not, and for which he had no taste, and put in ύδωρ αλλόμενον to make it a closer copy from St John.

In the interpolated epistle wüp pingvti is absurd ; but φιλόυλον συρ makes good sense. .

He who in this passage, which we have been examining, can prefer the larger to the shorter epistle, must be a critic, who, of different expressions, likes the worst the best, and should be fed with chaff,

They who contend for the larger epistles would do well to weigh one thing, which they never seem to think of, namely, that whilst they want to support I know not what, they are hurting the reputation of an apostolical father, whom they have in great esteem; for if the passages which I have already pointed out, and those which others have censured, could be shewed to be genuine, Ignatius would be much less valued than he is by men of sense and judgment. But tho’ the shorter epistles are on many accounts preferable to the larger, yet I will not affirm that they have undergone no alteration at all.

Ignatius suffered under Trajan about the beginning of the second century. Here was a good man put to death by a good emperor ; but the Pagans then began to perceive that Christianity, if it prevailed, would prove the ruin of their religion, and some of them probably persuaded Trajan to act contrary to his disposition, which was mild and placable. Pliny, in his epistle to that emperor, says, that in his province the

P 2


and yet,

temples had been in a manner deserted, sacrificing left off, and the worship of the gods neglected. Trajan forbad the Christians to be sought after, and yet ordered them to be punished if convicted. 0 sentențiam necessitate confusam! negat inquirendos, ut innocentes ; et mandat puniendos, ut nocentes,—Quid temet ipsum censurâ circumvenis ? Si damnas, cur non inquiris ? si non inquiris, cur non et absolvis ? Thus Tertullian, in his Apologetic, inveighs, ingeniously enough against the inconsistency and absurdity of this sentence, and has had the good fortune to engage most of his readers in the same way of thinking ; and after all, the emperor's decree was not quite so absurd as Tertullian imagined. Trajan had no katred towards the men, and pitied their case, but disliked their religion for the reason above mentioned ; thefefore he was willing to treat the Christians gently, but would neither repeal the laws to which they were obnoxious, nor give them leave to exercise their religion freely.

Ignatius expressed an earnest desire to suffer for the sake of Christ, and a great joy at the expectation of it; but it appears not that he rashly sought or provoked danger. To him might be applied these lines of Lu. can *, which suit him as if they were made for him :

Projeci vitam, comites, totusque future

agor stimulis.--Agnoscere solis
Permissum est, quos jam tangit vicinia fati,
Victurosque Dei celant, ut vivere durent,

Felix esse mori, He speaks of himself with modesty and humility : he exhorts the Christians to live peaceably together, and to pay a high regard to their bishops and pastors, and has gone too far in his expressions : but it is something of an excuse for him that the state of the times

led Le Clerc, Hist. Eccl. p. 566.

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