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deeis aspernatur cruenta illa unimalium sacrificia, que et Judaici cultus pars erunt insignis, et sibi

erant insignis, et sibi per vim erepta Judri, si minus usu, saltem animo et voluntate retinebant. Pluribus aliis contigit Judicos eodem modo exagitare, S. Phileas Martyr de Judæis sic loquitur, Act, Mart.

Solis Judzeis præceptum fuerat sacrificare Deo soli in Jerosolyma. Nunc autem peccant Judæi in locis aliis solemnia sua celebrantes, &c.” Præf.

P. 444.

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I cannot believe that this epistle was written by Justin Martyr; for Justin would have managed the argument better, and have omitted neither the

prophecies, nor the miracles. The author seems to have been some Gentile converted to Christianity, who had perused Justin's Cohortatio ad Græcos.

Justin begins it thus : 'Aρχόμενος της προς υμάς παραιέσεως, ώ άνδρες Ελληνες, εύχομαι τω Θεώ εμοί μέν υπάρξαι, τα δέονία προς υμάς ειπείν υμάς δε, της προτίρας αφε μένας φιλονεικίας, και της των προγόνων σλάνης απαλλαγενίας, έλέσθαι τα λυσιτελεία roví. Cohortaticnem apud vos, Greeci, instituens, Deum precor, ut mihi quidem apud vos, ut par est, dicere contingat; vos autem pristinam pertinaciam relinquentes, et a majorum discedentes errore, quce utiliu sunt in presentia eligatis. This is an imitation of the exordium in the oration of Demosthenes for Ctesiphon : and as Justin imitates Demosthenes, so the writer of the Epistle initates Justin-σαρα τε Θεέ, τη και το λέγήν και το ακάν ημίν χωρηγενες, αιτεμαι δοθήναι εμοί μεν είπαν ότως, ως μάλισα αν ακεσαι [ακώσανα] σε βελτίω γενέσθαι: (οι τι [ε] έτως ακεσαι, ως μη avansarai tò titóla. Peto a Deo, qui et loquenthe et qudiendi nobis facultatem suppeditat, ut ab eo detur, mihi quiden, ita verba facere ut in primis contingut, te, postquam audieris, melivrem evadere ; et tibi, ita ardire, ut tristitia non afficiatur is qui verba fecerit.

This is said well enough:

amphora cæpit Institui; currente rota, cur urceus exit? The epistle has a few chasms, but there seems to be only a little of it that is lost. It was perhaps an exercise, or declamation, addressed to a great man, with whom the author had no acquaintance; as some modern epistles to the pope, and to Lewis the fourteenth, which were never presented.

As I have had occasion to mention Tillemont, and shall probably often cite him hereafter, I take this opportunity to own my obligations to him for his useful and laborious collections. After this due respect and acknowledgment, I hope it will be permitted to make a few observations which may do others some good, and can now do him no harm, nor destroy the peace which I believe he enjoys in a better world.

His history of the einperors is very valuable ; but ke has filled his other books with an account of trilling, absurd, ridiculous miracles.

He never affirnis facts without vouchers, but he often makes use of bad ones in his Ecclesiastical History,

and builds upon a sandy foundation, upon the testimony of forgers, fanatics, and of interested persons, who write in their own behalf, and want to discredit their adversaries.

He commonly proceeds upon a supposition that they who have obtained the honour of Ecclesiastical knighthood, and are called saints, are all excellent men, and entirely to be trusted, and that all they who were, or were accounted heterodox, are to be little regarded, and held in bad esteem.

He seems to have been a pious, humble, meek and modest, as well as a very learned and accurate man;


and yet he cannot forbear insulting Protestant writers as heretics, even those to whom he and the Christian world had great obligations, as Usher, Pearson, &c. He takes all opportunities, and sometimes goes out of his way to seek opportunities, of inculcating the horrible doctrine that the very best of Pagans, heretics, and schismatics are condemned to suffer eternal tortures. Speaking of young Tiberius, who was murdered by order of the Emperor Caius, and compelļed by the soldiers, as Philo relates it, to thrust a sword into his own body, he concludes the melancholy tale with this reflection,Thus by his own hand he ended his miserable life, to begin another the misery of which will never end. Hist. des Emp. i. p. 142. Observe that this unhappy youth was then but nineteen years of age, that he had been bred up at court under Tiberius, in a sort of genteel prison, that probably he had never heard Christianity even mentioned, and that history relates no one bad thing concerning him : So that the Pagan ignorance of this child was altogether invincible, and might have been thought sufficient to qualify him at least for purgatory.

Tantum relligio potuit suadere malorum ! It is remarkable that in the little edition of Tillemont the passage stands thus he ended his miserable life, what follows was added afterwards in the quarto edit. whence we may learn that the good man, as he grew older, grew more uncharitable in his religious notions. The apophthegm of Horace is not always true,

Lenit albescens animos capillus. The hoary heads of some persons are like mount Ætna, where the snow and the fire dwell together in strict friendship.

Sed, Sed, quamvis nimio ferrens exuberet cestui,

Scit nicibus servare fidem Claudian Rapt. Pros. i. 165.

These are some of the doetrines which have unhappily helped to propagate Atheism or Deism, and have made many a man say to himself, If this be Christianity, let my soul be with the philosophers.

The old Christians were more charitable, and had nobler sentiments of the Divine benignity. Justin Martyr, in his Apology, i. 46. speaks handsomely of Socrates and of other worthy men in the Pagan world, and represents them as a sort of Christians, and doubtless entertained favourable thoughts of their future state. Tòr Xpisov a pulótoxor το Θιά είναι εδιδάχθημεν, και προεμηνύσαμεν λόγον όυλα, τα σαν γένος ανθρώπων μετέσχε και οι μετα λόγω βιώσαντες, Χριστιανοί εισι, καν άθεοι ένομίσθησαν, οίον έν Ελλησι μεν Σωκράτης και Ηράκλειτος, και οι όμοιοι αυτοίςώσε και οι προγενό

άνευ λόγω βιώσαντες, άχρηστοι και εχθροι τα Χρισώ ήσαν, και φονείς των μέγα λόγο βιώνων" οι δε μένα λόγο βιώσαντες, και βιντες, Χριστιανοί και άφοβοι, και ατάραχοι υπάρχουσι. Christum primogenitum Dei esse ac Rationem illam, cujus omne hominum genus particeps est, didicimus, et supra declaravimus. Et qui cum ratione vixerunt, Christiani sunt, etiamsi athei existimati sint ; quales apud Græcos fuere Socrates et Heraclitus, isque similes-Similiter qui olim absque ratione vixere, improbi et Christo inimici fuere, et eorum qui cum ratione vivebant, homicidæ. Qui vero cum ratione vixerunt et vivunt, Christiani sunt, atque impavidi atque intrepidi. Ed. Paris. 1742. Now turn to the preface, pag. xxxii, and see the Benedictin Editor, fighting for a theological system which has nothing at all to do with an edition of Justin, and taking great pains to clear the good father from the shameful imputation of supposing that a virtuous Pagan might be sa

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ved, as well as a monk. What will the Benedictin say

for Clemens Alexandrinus? This learned and good-natured father was of opinion that Christ and his apostles preached the gospel in hades to the dead, and that the souls which repented and believed were received to favour ; επεί θήριοι, και παιδευτικαί αι * κολάσεις τη Θεε, εις επιστροφήν άγεσαι, και την μεγάνοιαν τα αμαρτωλά μάλλον και τον θάνατον αιρώμεναι και ταυτα καθαρώτερον διοράν δυναμένων των σωμάτων απηλλαγμένων ψυχών, καν σάθεσιν επισκοτών7αι, δια το μηxét! ETITIPOZOEZOAI Capriw. Sunt enim salutares, et quiet

erudiunt, Dei castigationes, adducentes ad conversionem, et potius peenitentiam peccatoris eligentes quam mortem : idque præcipue cum possint animæ purius perspicere, que sunt liberæ a corporibus, etiamsi obscurentur perturbutiombus, eo quod non se amplius eis opponut et impediat caruncula.

I think it should be, é importão das Crepriw, obnubilari, from éria por féw. For the corrections of God are salutary, und instructive, leading to amendment, and preferring the repentance to the death of a sinner; and souls in their separate state, though obumbrated with perturbutions, yet have a clearer discernment, than they had whilst they were in the body, as they are no longer clouded and encumbered with the flesh. Strom. vi. p. 764. See also p. 794. and the notes.


Aneqiqes de supewpiec & rónecorso s jeho gàę róraris os técxoulos évies tesise si de touwgic rõ wošntos. says Aristotle. In Xenophon. Oecon. terra xonálile, i. e. emendatur. See A. Gellius vi. 14. Oxos de και τιμωρείται. ίσι γαρ ή τιμωρία, κεκ αναπόδοσις: κολαζει μέντοι προς το χρήσιμον & κοινή και ιδία τους κολαζομένοις. Clemens Strom. ii. p. 895. Origin was of the same opinion, and perhaps carried it somewhat farther.

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