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Ιουλίων των από Αινες γενομένων εμονάρχησε. Ηunc versum, ut vere Sibyllinum, canere cæperunt, Ultimus Id quod accidit, sive vere prcdictum divino Oraculo, sive afflatu multitudinis ex statu rerum qui tum erat : nam is ultimas ex Julü familia, quæ ab Ænea profecta erat, regnavit. Xiphil. p. 180. ed Steph.
I shall conclude this poetical section with an oracle from the Anthologia, and as good an oracle as the Sibyl ever uttered :
Προς την μάνλιν "Ολυμπον 'Ονήσιμος ήλθ' ο ταλαιστής,
Και σενλαθλος "Υλας, και σαδιευς Μενεκλής,
Γνωναι κακείνος τους ιερούς ενιδών,
Και σε κατασρέψη, και σε παρατρεχάση.
Doctus Hylas cestu, Phegeus catus arte palæstrie,
Clarus Olympiacis et Lycus in stadiis,
Hammonem Libyce consuluere deum.
Indubitata quidem, si caveatis, ait,
Phegea, ne cursu te, Lyce, prætereat. There is an Epistle ascribed to Barnabas: we cannot certainly know by whom it was written. . The first who cites it is Clemens Alexandrinus, who was born about the middle of the second century, and there is a passage in it which shews that it was written after the destruction of Jerusalem. We may therefore conclude that it was composed after A. D. 70. and before 180, and probably in the first century.
He says of the temple ; Δια και το πολεμείν αυτές, καθηρέθη υπό των εχθρών, νύν και αυτοί οι των εχθρών υπηρέται ανοικοδομήσεσιν (ανοικοδομήσιν) αυτόν. Νam quia bellum gesserunt, & hostibus destructum est; nunc vero ipsi hostium ministri illud recedificant. xvi. He mentions not this destruction, as an event which had just then come to pass, but says indefinitely xabmpébn, as if some time at least were elapsed since that calamity. There is a great conformity between the subject of this epistle and of that to the Hebrews; but a great difference between the epistles, før that to the Hebrews is in all respects superior.
Since the author of this epistle, as it now stands, discovers not himself, and gives no internal mark by which we may find him out, and since the name of Barnabas * might be common to other persons, or assumed on purpose, one would willingly take occasion from hence to ascribe it to some unknown author, rather than to the apostle Barnabas. If it was really the work of St Paul's companion, there are internal characters in it, which should incline us to judge that he was not at that time under any particular guidance of the Holy Spirit. The ancient Christians judged so, and received it not as a canonical book, which shews also that they were not so very credulous, and so ready to adopt every thing as they are imagined by some to have been.
Barnabas is supposed by Clemens Alexandrinus, Eusebius, and many of the ancients, to have been one of the seventy disciples ; Tillemont Hist. Eccl. i. 408. and when he is first mentioned in the Acts, nothing is said to intimate that he was converted after Christ's ascension,
When * Barnabas, or Son of consolationi.
When he preached with Paul, the Pagans of Lystra took him to be Jupiter, and Paul to be Mercurius, whence it might be conjectured that he looked, and that he was, much older than St Paul ; but I çare not lay a stress on this argument. Chrysostom says that he was drò the fews ášron penns, that he had an air which commanded esteem and respect. I fancy that Chrysostom had the same conjecture in his mind, and thought that the Pagans were induced to take Barnabas for Jupiter, from his amiable aspect and majestic countenance, fit for the Father of gods and men.
Upon the whole, there may be room to suspect either that he did not survive the destruction of Jerusalem, or that he was then very old, and emeritus; and not likely to write a long and laboured epistle:
It has been said that Barnabas and Clemens Romanus speak not of miracles as being performed in the church in their time. Suppose it to be true, the same thing might be observed of some Epistles in the New Testament, particularly of the Epistle to the Hebrews, which were written before the destruction of Jerusalem, when St Paul and some other apostles were living, and preaching the gospel in various places, the Lord working with them, and, as we may justly suppose, confirming the word with signs following:
Barnabas, ch. xii. says, Éroinge gol-worárta ögur denver aumés: that is : God caused all sorts of serpents to bite the people of Israel in the wilderness. I have sometimes thought that it should be wugóerla öpır. Num. xxi. 6. Misit Dominus in populum serpentes urentes, Seraphim; ignitos, as Jerom renders it. The LXX. indeed has θανατείλας. We translate it tery serpents. Πυρόεντα άφιν, in the singular, for fiery serpents, would be an ilebraism, as ver. 7. Ora ut tollat a nobis serpentem :
but the emendation is uncertain. Justin Martyr speaking of the same thing, says-απήντησαν αυτοίς ιοβόλα θηρία, έχιδναι τε και ασσίδες, και όφεων σαν γένος, οι έθανάτου τον λαόν. Apol. i. $ 60. which favours the received reading in Barnabas. One would almost think that Justin took his σαν γένος from Barnabas. Le Clerc thinks that he has found a remark in Justin's Apology, borrowed from Barnabas. Bibl. Chois. iii. 391. The Benedictin Editor of Justin is of the same opinion, Addend. Ρ.
603. Valentinus, who taught his heretical doctrines about A. D. 140. * and might be born at the end of the first or the beginning of the second century, says ; Eίς δε έσιν άγαθος και σαρρησία και δια τα γε φανέρωσις" και δι' αυτή μόνο δύναιτο αν η καρδία καθαρα γενέσθαι, σανθος σονηρά πνεύματος έξωθε μένα της καρδίας. πολλα δ' ενοικεία αυτη σνεύμαλα ουκ έα καθαρεύειν έκαςον δε αυτών, τα ίδια εκτελεί έργα, σολλαχώς ενυβριζόνων επιθυμίαις και προσηκέσας και μοι δοκεί όμοιόν το πάσχειν τω σανδοχείω ή καρδία και και εκείνο καθατήραταί τε και ουτ. εται, και πολλάκις κόπρου σί μπλαίαι, ανθρώπων ασελγώς εμμενόντων, και μηδεμίαν πρόνοιαν ποιουμένων τε χωρίς, καθάπερ αλλοτρίς καθετωτος. τον τρόπον τατον και η καρδία, μέχρι μη προνοίας τυχανα, ακάρθατος ήσα, σολλών όσα δαιμόνων οικητήριον επειδαν δε επισκέψηται αυτήν ο μόνος αγαθός Πατήρ, ήγίασαι, και φωθι διαλάμπει και το μακαρίζεται ο έχων την τοιαύτην καρδίαν ότι όψεται τον Θεόν. Est autem unus Bonus, cujus fiduciú est ea quce fit per Filium manifestatio, et per eum solum potest cor feri mundum, ejecto ex corde omni maligno spiritu. Multi enim in eo habitantes spiritus, id mundum esse non sinunt. Unusquisque
, autem eorum propria efficit opera, sæpe nor convenientibus insultans cupiditatibus. Ac mihi quidem videtur cor non esse absimile diversorio : illud enim
pers foratur et effoditur, et stercore sæpe repletur, cum homi
* See Massuet's Dissertation concerning him in Irenæus, in which he plages him somewhat earlier,
ses se petulanter gerant, et locum nihil omnino curent, ut qui sit alienus. Eodem modo cor quoque : cum, quandiu nulla ejus providentia geritur, sit immundum et multorum Dæmonum habitaculum : postquam autem id inviserit, qui solus est bonus Pater, sanctificutum est, et luce resplendet, et sic qui tali est corde præditus, beatur, quoniam Deum videbit.
This fragment is preserved by Clemens Alexandrinus Strom. ii. p. 489. where he stands up for human liberty against the Valentinians, who were a sort of Fatalists, or Predestinarians, and thought themselves to be the only elect. Observe, that Valentinus bears witness to the authority of the New Testament, for he takes passages or expressions from it to insinuate and recommend his own doctrines, as & φανέρωσις-δαιμόνων οικητήριον-επισκέψη αι-μόνος αγαθός Πατήρ-φωτί διαλάμπει yaxupítetai &c.—ötetan Otor. See 1 Tim. iii. 16. Rev. xviji. 2. Luke vii. 16. Mat. xix. 17. Luke xi. 36. Mut. v. 8.
He also seems upon the whole to imitate Barnabas, who says, Προ το ημάς στιςεύσαι τω Θεώ, ήν ημών το οικητήριον της καρδίας φθαρτον και ασθενές-ότι ήν πλήρης μέν είδωλαλατρείας, και ήν οίκος δαιμόνων-Διό εν τω κατοικήθηρίω ημών αλή- . θως ο Θεός κατοικεί εν ημίν σως και ο λόγος αυτα της πίσεως-Αηtequam nos Deo crederemus, erat nostrum cordis habitar culum interitui obnoxium et imbecillum quia erat quiden plenum cultu idolorum, et erat domus Dæmonum, Quare in domicilio nostro vere Deus existit : habitat in nobis. Quomodo ? Verbum ejus fidei.
CLEMENS ROMANUS is an author on whom I made soine remarks, Disc. vi. p. 223. 3d edit. I have only this to add : Clemens Epist. i. 4. says, Asd Sinov. o Futàię 'HMAN ’laxw6 dzpx-Propter æmulationein pater 03