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with the former, though not in every thing. He blames the latter for using figures of rhetoric instead of reasons, treating Van Dale and Fontenelle as Socia nians, setting the mob at them, and such sort of paurretez. But as great guns are the Ratio ultimu Regum, so these are the Ratio ultima Disputatorum, and supply the want of ammunition: and yet it is not altogether fair and honourable war; it is shooting chewed bullets and glass bottles.

Cæterum, says Le Clerc, notatu dignissimum est hoc Oraculum, quod neque a Judo, negue a Christiano, neque etiam ab Ethnico e vulgo fingi potuit. Oper. Phil. tom. ii. in Indice, HEBRAI.

Yet it might be made by some fantastical Pagan, who entertained a favourable opinion of the Chal. dæans and of the Jews; or rather by some Jew, who was not very scrupulous, and who might join the Chaldæans to the Jews, thinking it would remove the suspicion that the oracle was framed by a Jew: lie might also give this honour to the Chaldæans for the sake of his father Abraham, who was a Chaldæan. Or it might be the work of some old heretic, or of: some foolish Christian. It seems to have been forged in the saine shop where the orphic verses before-mentioned were fabricated : No one knew God, says this Orpheus,

μή μενογενής τις απορίωξ φύλο άνωθεν

Ast aliquis tantum Chaldæo a sanguine cretus.
By whom, says Clemens, he means Abraham, or bis
son, Strom. v. p. 723. Clemens observes that Or-
pheus borrowed his thoughts and expressions from
the Scriptures, and so far he is certainly in the right.


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An oracle of Apollo in Lactantius de Fals. Rel.

i. 7. Says,

Ούνομα μηδε λόγο χωρίμενο, έν συρί ναίων,
Τετί Θεός μικρα δε Θε μερίς άγελοι ημείς.
Nomen ne verbo quidem capiendum, in igne habitans,

Hoc Deus est: modica antem Dei portio Angeli nos. Made by a Jew, or a Christian.

There are more of the same stamp in Lactantius, and also Sibylline oracles bearing the most manifest marks of imposture.

Justin Cohort. g 16. and others after him, give us these Sibylline verses, which teach the unity of God, and condemn idolatry, and sacrifices, and exhort to the love of God, and are altogether in the language of the Scriptures, and carry their own confutation along with thern : :

Είς Θεός δς μόνος εφίν υπερμεγέθης, αγέννήθος,
Παντοκράτωρ, αόρατος, ορώμενος αυτός απανία:
Αυτός δ' και βλέπέαι θνητής υσο (αρκός απασης.
Unus Deus, qui solus est, ter maximus, increatus,
Omnipotens, invisibilis, ipse videns omnia.
Ipse autem a nulla videtur carne mortali.
"Ημείς δ' αθανατοιο τρίβες σεπλανημένοι ή μεν,
"Εργα δε χαροποίηα γεραίρομεν άφρονα μύθο (θύμα)
Είδωλα ξσάνων τε καλαφθιμένων τ' ανθρώπων.
Nos autem ab immortalis viis aberraveramus,
Ac opera manu facta colebamus stulta mente
Simulacra et statuas * pereuntium hominum.
"Ολβιοι άνθρωποι κεινοι καλα γαίαν έσονται,
Οσσοι δή σέρξκαι μέγαν Θεόν, εύλογέοντες
Πρίν φαγέέιν σιέειν τε, σεποιθότες ευσεβίνσιν.
Οι νηες μεν άπανίας απαρνήσoναι ιδόντες,
N 2

Και . Rather defunctorum. But I leave the Latin versions usually as I find them, though sometimes they want emendation,

Και βωμες, εικαία λίθων αφιδρύματα κωφων,
Αίμασιν εμψύχων μεμιασμένα και θυσίαισι
Τετραπόδων, βλεψεσι δ' ενός Θε ές μέγα κύδος.
Felices homines super terram erunt,
Quicumque diligent magnum Deum, benedicentes
Antequam comedant et bibant, confidentes pietate :
Qui omnia quidem templa abnegabunt videndo,
Et altaria, inanes lapidum sedes surdorum,
Cruoribus animalium contaminata et victimis
Quadrupedum ; et respicient ad unius Dei magnum

decus. In the fourth line, instead of tpibus, one might read αθανάτοιο τρίβε, with από understood; which may

be translated, We have erred from the everlasting path; but I rather think that charcétolo tpi@s means the path of God; από της τρίβε το 'Αθανάτε.

'Eyraporous me odd's Suñs. Psal. xv. 11. Τί επλάγησας ημας από της οδε και; Isa. Ixiii. 17. Στήτε επί ταϊς οδοίς, και ίδετε, και ερωτήσατε τρίτες Κυρίε αιωνίες και ιδεθε σοία εσίν η οδός η αγαθή. Jerem. vi. 16. And the Prophetess says in another place,

- opibor ópbiv Ευθειαν σφολιπόντες. Justin in his Dialogue takes no notice of the Sibyl; in his Apology he mentions her as foretelling the conHlagration at the last day, and saying many good things; and complains that it was forbidden to read her. The Cohortatio is thought to surpass his other works in elegance of diction ; but that alone will hardly be a sufficient reason to pronounce it spurious, though it may justify a suspicion and an hesitation about it. The Benedictin Editor, p.

Cum scriberet Cohortationem ad Graecos Justinus, credebat Septuaginta illos Viros, dum pro se quisque separatim

604. says,


inclusi laborabant, magno miraculo in omnibus verbis et
sententüs inter se consensisse. Sed hanc fabulam,' nec in
prima Apologia, ubi agit de Septuaginta Interpretibus,
commemorat, nec in Dialogo illius credende onus imponii
Jud.is : in quo quidem non lecis conjectura est eam Jus-
tinum aut nissam fecisse, aut saltem suspectum habere
cæpisse. Some will rather conjecture from this, that
Justin was not the author of the Cohortutio; and I
could name a friend, well known to the Icarncd world,
and a very good judge, who thinks that nothing of
Justin is certainly genuine, besides the Diulogue, and
the Apologies. The Benedictin endeavours to prove
that the Cohortatio is to be ascribed to him, and con-
tends with Casimire Oudin, who held the contrary
opinion. Pref. p. Isviii.
The Sibyl in the Proæm says,

Τίς και αξ δύναται τον επουράνιον και αληθή
οφθαλμοίσιν ιδείν Θεόν άμβροτον, ός σόλον οικεα ;
'Αλλ' εδ' ακτίνων καθενανίον κελίοιο
"Ανθρωποι στήναι δυνατοί, θνητοί γιγαντες.
Corporeis oculis etenim quis cernere verum
Æternumque Deum possit, cælumque colentem ?
Cum neque splendentis radiantia lumina solis

Sustineant homines mortales cernere contra. Socrates in Xenophon has the same sentiment, and says that the Deity is inconspicuous, and that a man cannot look upon the sun without being dazzled. Memor. iv. 3. Theophilus, Minucius Felix, Theodoret, and others have said the same thing. Clemens Alexandrinus fancied that Xenophon borrowed it from the Sibyl, Cohort. p. 61. and Strom. v. 714. But even admitting the antiquity of these verses, and supposing that they were written in Noah's ark, it will not follow from the parity of thought, that So


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crates or Xenophon had seen them, since all men, ex: cept those who are blind, know, without an instructor, that it is impossible to look upon the sun when he shines out in full strength. One thing is very plain, that the two first verses, and the word Capt for mortal man, are taken from the Scriptures.

Justin Cohort. 18. has cited a very singular passage from Sophocles;

Είς ταϊς αληθείαισιν, εις εσιν Θεός,
“Ος έρανόν τέτευχε, και γαίαν μακραν ;
Πότε τι χαροπόν οίδμα, κανέμων βίας.
Θνήσι δε σολλοί καρδία σλανώμενοι,
Ιδρυσάμεσθα σημάτων σαραψυχήν
Θεών αγάλματ' έκ λίθων τε και ξύλων,
"Η χρυσοτεύκων ή ελεφαντίνων τύπος:
Θυσίας τι τύτοις και καλας πανηγύρεις
Τεύχοντες, έτως ευσεβείν νομίζομεν.
Unus profecto est, unus est tantum Deus,
Cæli solique machinam qui condidit,
Vadumque ponti cærulum, et vim spiritus.
At ducta creco errore gens mortalium
Commenta cladis in suce solatium est
Formas Deorum saxeas qut cereas,
Aurove ductas fusili, aut eburneas.
His victimarum sanguinem, his festos dies,

Cum dedicamus, esse nos remur pios.
In the seventh verse, should it be,

χρυσοτιύκλους ή ελεφαντίνους τύπους. Or,

- ή 'λεφανίκους –? These verses are to be found in Clemens Alexandrinus and in other fathers, and with some variety of readings. See Eusebius P. Ev. xiii. 13. p. 680. and the notes of Vigerus. Though this be such,

says worth, as might ze!l become a Christian, and be 130



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