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the Hebrews argues, there could have been no room for a second.
2. Other prophets had revelations in dreams and visions, but Moses talked with God, with the Aóyos, face to face: so Christ spake that which he had seen with the Father.
If there be a prophet among you, says God to Aaron and Miriam, I the Lord will make myself known unto him in a vision, and will speuk unto him in a dream. My servant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all my
house; with him I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches, and the similitude of the Lord shall he behold. Num. xii.
All the prophets of the Old Testament saw visions, and dreamed drcums, all the prophets of the Newe were in the same state. St Peter had a vision, St John saw visions, St Paul had visions and dreans. But Christ neither saw visions nor dreamed a dream, but had an intimate and immediate communication with the Father, he was in the Father's bosom, and he, and no man else had seen the Father.— Aloses and Christ are the only two in all the sacred history, who had this communicution with God. Bp. Sherlock Disc. vi.
3. Moses in his infancy was wonderfully preserved from the cruelty of a tyrant, and from the destruction of all the male children: so was Christ.
4. Moses fled from his country to escape the hands of the king : so did Christ when his parents carried him into Egypt. Afterwards the Lord said to Moses in Midian, Go, return into Egypt: for all the men are dead which sought thy life, Exod. iv. 19. So the angel of the Lord said to Joseph, in almost the same words, Arise and trike the young child, and go into the land of Israel; for they are dead which sought the young child's life, Mat. ii. 20. pointing him out, as it were, for that prophet who should arise like unto Moses.
5. Moses refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, chusing rather to suffer affliction : Christ had the kingdoms of the world offered him by Satan, and rejected them, and when the people would have made him a king, he hid himself, chusing rather to suffer affliction.
6. Moses, says St Stephen, was learned, én videon, in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds; and Josephus, Ant. Jud. ii. 9. says that he was a very forward and accomplished youth, and had wisdom and knowledge beyond his years, which is taken from Jewish tradition, and which of itself is highly probable: St Luke observes of Christ, that he increased (betimes) in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man, and his discourses in the temple with the doctors, when he was twelve years old, were a proof of it. The difference was that Moses acquired his early knowledge by human instruction, and Christ by a divine afflatus. To both of them might be applied what Callimachus elegantly feigns of Jupiter :
οξυ δ' ανέβησας, ταχινοί δέ τοι ήλθον κλοι:
But earlier wisdom crown'd thy infant days. 7. Moses delivered his people from cruel oppression and a heavy bondage : so did Christ from the worse tyranny of sin and Satan.
8. Moses contended with the magicians, and had the advantage over them so manifestly, that they could no longer withstand him, but were forced to acknowledge the divine power by which he was assisted :
Christ ejected evil spirits, and received the same acknowledgments from them.
9. Moses assured the people whom he conducted, that, if they would be obedient, they should enter into the happy land of promise, which land was usually understood by the wiser Jews to be an emblem and a figure of that eternal and celestial kingdom to which Christ opened an entrance.
10. Moses reformed the nation corrupted with Egyptian superstition and idolatry : Christ restored true religion.
11. Moses wrought a great variety of miracles : so did Christ; and in this the parallel is remarkable, since besides Christ there arose not a prophet in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders which the Lord sent him to do.
12. Moses was not only a lawgiver, a prophet, and a worker of miracles, but a king and a priest. He is called a king, Deut. xxxiii. 5. and he had indeed, tho' not the pomp, and the crown and sceptre, yet the authority of a king, and was the supreme magistrate ; and the office of priest he often exercised : in all these offices the resemblance between Moses and Christ was singular. In the interpretation of Deut. xxxiii. 5. I prefer the sense of Grotius and Selden to Le Clerc's. The parallel between Moses and Christ requires it, and no objection can be made to it. The apostolical constitutions also, if their judgment be of any weight, call Moses high priest and king, τον αρχιερέα και βασιλέα. vi. 3.
13. Moses, says Theodoret, married an Ethiopian woman, at which his relations were much offended ; and in this he was a type of Christ, who espoused the church of the Gentiles, whom the Jews were very unwilling to admit to the same favours and privileges with themselves. But I should not chuse to lay a great stress upon this typical similitude, though it is ingenious.
14. Moses fasted in the desart forty days and nights before he gave the law ; so did Elias, the restorer of the Law; and so did Christ before he entered into his ministry.
15. Moses fed the people miraculously in the wil. derness : so did Christ, with bread and with doctrine ; and the manna which descended from heaven, and the loaves which Christ multiplied, were proper images of the spiritual food which the Saviour of the world bestowed upon his disciples.
Our fathers, said the Jews, did eat manna in the desert forty years, as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat. Jesus said unto them, My Father (now) giveth you the true breud from heaven. For the bread of God is he that cometh down from heaven, and giveth life to the world. I am the bread of life; he that cometh to me shall never hunger, and he that believeth in me shall never thirst. John vi.
The metaphors of hungering and thirsting after virtue and knowledge, and of eating and drinking them, and the representation of benefits of any kind under the expressions of food and drink, have been common in all writers, sacred and profane.
St Paul says to the Corinthians, All our fathers were under the cloud, und all passed through the sea, and did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink ; for they drank of that spiritual rock that followed them, and that rock was Christ.
Whether the passage of the Israelites through the sea, and under the cloud, the water issuing from the rock which Moses smote, and the manna which de
scended from heaven, were types intended to be fulfilled in Christ, and in the benefits and privileges of Christianity; or whether the apostle referred to these things by way of allusion, similitude, and accommodation, I determine not.
16. Moses led the people through the sea : Christ walked upon it, and enabled Peter to do so.
17. Moses commanded the sea to retire and give way: Christ commanded the winds and the waves to be still.
18. Moses brought darkness over the land : the sun withdrew his light at Christ's crucifixion. And as the darkness which was spread over Egypt was followed by the destruction of their first born*, and of Pharaoh and his host ; so the darkness at Christ's death was the forerunner of the destruction of the Jews, when, in the metaphorical and prophetic style, and according to Christ's express prediction, the sun was darkened, and the moon withdrew her light, and the stars fell from heaven, the ecclesiastical and civil state of the
* Mr Wasse had a conjecture, that the untimely death of Pharaoh's first-born son, who was, perhaps, better beloved than his father, gave occasion to the song, which the Greeks called Linus, and which they had from the Egyptians : iso ģ Aizualisi ė Aivos rastúpesyos Μαέρως. έφασαν δέ μιν Αιγύπλιοι το πρώτο βασιλεύσανθος Αιγύπίε παϊδα μιαναγεία μείσθαι· αποθανόνια δ' αυτόν άνωρον, θρήνοισι τέτοισι υπ' Αίγυπτίων τιμηθήναι» και αοιδών τι ταύτην πρώτης και μούνην ζρίσι μενέσθαι. Vocatur autem Linus Ægypriace Muneros: quem Ægyptii tradiderunt, quum filius unicus extitisset primi Ægypri regis, præmaturaque morte decessisset, bis lamentis ab Ægyptiis fuisse decoratum: et cantilenam barc primam eamque solam ipsos babuisse. Herodotus ii. 79
It may be observed, though it is a trifle, that Gronovius gives us Aīves circumflexed; but the first syllable is short in the best writers, and Moschus says, Epitaph. Bion.
ΑΙΛΙΝΑ μοι σοναχάτι νάπαι, και Δώριον ύδωρ. Sophocles, Ajac. 632. Alruvor. aïrovov.