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of the temper or disposition of the times. The will never extend beyond that chain. On such an security of debts, and confidence in contracts, bave occasion as tbis, it would be idle to attempt a been so much weakened in public opinion, by the discussion of the theory of the prevailing winds operation of our insolvent law, that it would seem which take place in the two grand divisions of our to be the debtor, and not the creditor, who has at country; but we advance as an axiom that the cli. his command the hopes and fears, the comfort or mate in one division can never much'affect that in distress of the adverse party. And, we are entirely the other. of the opinion, that if it be once well known and Let us now look into some authorities, which generally understood, that those who contract establish, beyond a doubt, the changes that have debis must expect to pay them, or that they must taken place in the general temperature of Europe. be able to satisfy the creditor of their integrity and . It is an observation of L'Abbe da Bos," says Hume, genuine misfortune, or that they will have to submit in his Essay on the populousress of ancieni nations, to the temporary restraints now imposed by law, "that Italy is warmer at present than it was in and that no other relief was to be afforded, it would ancient times.—The annals of Rome tell us,” says have a most salutary effect upon the morals and he, "that in the year 480 AN, U. c. the winter was so habits of the community.
severe that it destroyed the trees. The Tyber Wedo not, therefore, perceive that the law of im froze in Rome, and the ground was covered with prisonment for debt, requires any material amend- snow for 40 days. When Juvenal (sat. vi.) describes ment; and if we were to suggest any alteration, it a superstitious woman, he represenis ber as breakwould be to exempt females altogether from im- ing the ice of the Tyber that she might perform prisonment, in consideration of their sex.
her ablutions: All which is respectfully submitted.
a glacie descender in amnem,
Ter mutulino Tyberi mergetiır.
lle speaks of that river's freezing as a common W. W. VAN NESS, event. Many passages of llorace suppose the JOSEPH C. YATES,
streets of Rome fuli of snow and ice. At present JONAS PLATT. the Tyber no more freezes at Rome than the Nile Albany, Jan. 22, 1819.
at Cairo. The Romans esteem the winters very rigorous if the snow lie two days, and if one see
for eight and forty bours a few icicles hang from a Change of Climate.
fountain that has a north exposure.” From the Salem Register.
“The observation of this ingenious critic," conA writer in the Newport Mercury, attempting to tinues Hume, may be extended to other European
show that the general temperature of climate climates. Who could discover the mild climate in a new country is softened by the advance of of France in Diodorus Siculus's description of that agricultore, and the labors of man, and that the of Gaul ? (lib. iv.) 'as it is a northern climate,' says operating cause which has changed the face, the he, it is infested with cold to an extreme degree. temperature, and the products of Europe, is now in cloudy weather, instead of rain there fall great performing its wonders in this country, proceeds snows; and in clear weather it there freezes so as follows:
excessive bard, that the rivers acquire bridges of As long as the rays of the sun fell on the uniform their own substance, over whicla, not only single surface of this vast country, which at the arrival of travellers may pass, but large armies accompanied our ancestors was covered with wood, the seasons with all their baggage and loaded waggons.-Colder were also regular and uniform; the winters were than a gallic winter, is used by Petronius as a pro. long; the snows began early, and were more abun- verbial expression. Aristotle says, that Gaul is dant; the north-west win'ls reigned, and the intense so cold a climate that an ass could not live in it cold was rarely interrupted by intervals of moderate -(de generat, anim. lib. 2.) weather. But when the lives had sent forth their Norih of the Cevenues, says Strabo, (lib. iv.) swarms into the interior country, and the axe had Gaul produces noi figs and olives: and the vines resounded in the forest, we began to feel the which have been planted, bear noi grapes that will fluctuations of a changing climate. The action, ripen. the power of the sun upon this extensive country, “Ovid positively maintains, with all the serious was increasing every day, and there was a pro. affirmation of prose, that the Euxine sea was frozen gressive alteration every year in the climate, keep-over every winter in his time, and he appeals to ing place with the advancement in agriculture. In Roman governors, whom he names, for the truth of our days, the effects produced within the last thirty his assertion. This seldom or never happens at years by the prodigious increase of population, are present in the latitude of Tomi, whither Oiid was apparent to every observer whose recollection ex. banished. All the complaints' of the same poet tends to that period. Although there is now un. seem to mark a rigor of the seasons, which is questionably less continuity of cold than there was scarcely, experienced at present in Petersburg or formerly, yet we cannot expect to enjoy a regular Stockholm !” temperature until the greatest part of the land on Polibius (lib. iv. cap. 21) says, "that the climate this side of the mouniains be cleared; for if the in Arcadia was very cold and the air mois." quantity of forest and of cultivated land be nearly “The northern parts of Spain,” according to equal, there will result from that state of the coun. Strabo (lib. 3) "are but ill inhabited because of the try a fluctuation in the seasons, which can be core great cold.” rected only by presenting to the rays of the sun a Saserna, quoted by Colomella, (lib. i. cap 1.) more uniform surface. In limiting these opera- affirmed, (and it is of Ialy of which he speaks tions of art and of nature to the space enclosed "that the disposition of the heavens was altered between the mountains and the Allantic ocean, we before bis time, and that the air had become much consider as an incontestible point, that we receive milder and warider: as appears bence,” says he, none of our north-westerly winds from any part of that many places now abound with vineyards and the continent beyond the cliain of mountains, and olive plantations, which forinerly, by reason of the that the south and easterly winds from the ocean' rigor of the climate, could raise none of these
productio:s."-'Sucb a change, if real,' remarks, Melish's large do. 2304 miles. Hume, 'will be allowed an evident sign of a better Do. small do. 190 miles. cultivation and peopling of countries before the Skelton and Kensett's United States, 240 miles. age of Saserna, and if it be continued to the pre Darby's map in Emigrant's guide, 207 miles. sent time, is a proof, that these advantages have Do. Jo. in his tour, 163.5. been continually increasing throught this part of It will be seen by this, how little accordance the world.
there exists between the various maps on the sub. 'Allowing, therefore, continues Hume, this reject of the true relative position of the Mississippi mark to be just, that Europe is become warmler river and Lake Michigan. The mere distance is than formerly, how can we account for it! Plainly now fixed, but as neither the river or lake are referan by no other method than by supposing, that the ble to any established point, no practical result can land is much better cultivated, and that the woods be drawn from the admeasurement, as it respects are cleared, which formerly threw a sbade upon the the form of the state of Illinois. Another very comearth, and kept the rays of the sun from penctrating mon error has deceived the writer of the article we it. Our northern colonies in America become more are examining, that is the false range given to lake temperate in proportion as the woods are felled.” Michigan in almost all inaps extant on which that
It would be easy for us to multiply quotatio, s, lake is marked. The lake is commonly made to but we consider those which we have adduced lie nearly north and south; when in fact its real sufficient to establish the fact, that the tempera- position is at least 20 degrees more S. W. and N. E. ture of a considerable part of Europe has been so This lake is about 260 miles long: of course an ermuch ithproved by the industry of man, that the ror of 20 degrees in its range would displace it olive, the fig, and the vine, now cover a great nearly 90 miles. This is the true cause why the reextent of country from which they were formerly lative distance in question was found so much less excluded by the severity of the cold. Yet the than was commonly marked. I laid down my map, greatest part of Italy, Rome itself, and the whole of published in the Emigrant's guide, from such docu. the Gauls, are to the North of the state of Rhode ments as I could then procure; of course it is erroIsland.-Such a prospect as this ought then to neous respecting Michigan. It was from recent itstimulate our fariners throughout the
country, to formation, received on my last tour, that I was enabclear, and especially drain their lands. Evaporation led to appproach so near the reality in the small secbeing a principal source of cold, by the reason tional map published with the account of that tour that the conversion of water into vapor causes the Leaving, however, the south point of lake Miabsorption of much calorick; it follows that when chigan wherever it may be, its position can in no by the advancement of cultivation, the superfluous ways produce any effect upon Illinois, unless the waters which were spread over considerable tracts Mississippi river is so egregiously wrong placed, as of country, and which were principally carried off to be nearly 100 miles more easterly than the maps by evaporation, are conveyed away by drains and have represented. From the much more intimate canals, the calorick which is then communicated knowledge we have of the Mississippi than of lake by tbe sun's rays in greater abundance to the earth, Michigan, the presumption is in favor of the formis reserved to warm and meliorate the climate. er being more correctly delineated than the latter.
We see then, by the total change of the incle The state of Illinois covers all the territory lying ment temperature of the south of Europe, which south of 42 30 N. latitute, east of the Mississippi, formerly could not give maturity even to the grape, north of the Ohio, and west of Indiana; consequent but which now produces abundantly the fig and the ly, let lake Michigan range as it may, the form and olive, and in some places is sufficiently softened to extent of Illinois must remain nearly as it is repre. to mature the orange, that a benign Providence sented on our maps. The probability is, that the bas given to man for his comfort and happiness, a N. E. corner of Illinois, and the N. W. of Indians power over the climate in which he lives. - It would will be in lake Michigan; and that, in place of Illitherefore be impious not to believe, tha: the same nois being contracted by the correct projection of means will be attended with the same effects in the lake, the territory of Michigan will be found this magnificent country, which at least equals the much more extensive than it has been considered. eastern continent in fertility, and far surpasses it in If the south end of Michigan lake is from 50 to 100 the grandeur and beauty of its scenery.
miles more to the west than it was forme dy thought
to be, then will a triangle be included in the termLake Michigan and the Mississippi. anrw Whose base must be the length of the lake,
tween the false and true longitude of the southern Mr. Spooner--I have read an article in your pa- part of the lake. Suppose this difference 60 miles, per of this day, and also some other prints, stating, and the length of the Lake 260, Michigan will be in substance, that, by a recent and accurate survey, enlarged 7,390 square miles; a space almost equal the distance from the south extremity of Lake to the state of Connecticut. W. DARBY. Michigan to the Mississippi, was found to be 161 New York, May 21. miles, in place of 250, hitherto estimated; and that Since writing the above, I have observed the fol. of course the state of Illinois will be narrowed by lowing notice in the Aurora of May 21: the difference. The piece will, no doubt, go the “I consider it my duty to the public to state, that rounds of the papers, though utterly unfounded as my map of the United States, and the local maps to the induction.
projected by me, cmbracing that portion of the I have taken the trouble to measure the distance country (Illinois,] have all been improved some between those points upon the following maps, and time ago. On measuring the maps of the United have annexed the result:
States by the scale, from the Mississippi to the Lewis Evan's map, 1753, improved and republish. south end of lake Michigan, it will appear tmt the ed 1776, by 1'. Pownal, distance 230 miles, distance is exactly one hundred and silly one males. It
Arrowsmith's map of North America, 207 miles. may be proper to state here, that all the maps kept Lewis' large map of the United States, 203 miles. by me for sale, are, as far practicable, kept in a con do. small do. 208 miles.
tinual state of improvement. JOIN MIELISH.
FROM THE NEW YORK COLUMBIAY.
hundred and twenty years since the character of ABORIGINES OF NORTH AMERICA.
the population, which lef: the traces of th- second On the population and Tumuli of the Aborigines fortifications, of which so much has been said, and
period, underwent a change. The appearances of of North America. In a letter from H. M. Bruckenridge, esq. to Thomas Jefferson.-Read which have been attributed to colony of Welch, Oct. 1, 1813, before the American Philosopbical
are nothing more than the traces of pallisadoed society.
towns or villages. The first travellers mention this Six-From a knowledge that research into the custom of surrounding their towns with pallisades; bisiory of the primitive inhabitants of America, is
the earth was thrown up a few feet, and pickets one of your favorite amusements, I take
the liberty placed on the top. I have seen old volumes in of making this communication. My attention to
which they are represented in the engravings.* the subject was first awakened on reading, when The Arikara and Mandan villages are still fortified a hoy, the observations contained in the 'notes on
in this way. The traces of these are astonishingly Virginia,' and it has become with me a favorite numerous in the western country; I should not theme of speculation. I often visited the mound, swaggerate if I were to say that five thousand might
be found. Some of them inclose more than an borhood of Pittsburgh, my native town, attracted hundred acres. From some cause or other
(and the cause, and afterwards read, and heard with suffice to effect it) the population had been as delighi, whatever related to these monuments of tonishingly diminished immediately before we be. the firsi, or rather earlier inhabitants of my native came acquainted with them; and yet Charlevois country. Since the year 1810 (without previously mentions a town of the Mascutin tribe (at present intending it) I have visited almost every thing of incorporated with the Kickapoos) containing a this kind, worthy of note on the Ohio and Missis. thousand families? The barrows, or general
re. sippi; and from examination and reflection, some. ceptacles of the dead, such as examined by your. thing like hypothesis has taken place of vague self, may be classed with the pallisadoed lowns, wanderings of fancy. The following is a sketch of though they are much more numerous; they are, the result of those observations :
fact, to be found in almost every corn field in 1. Throughout, what is denominated by Volney, often met with where there is no appearance of
the western country. The tumuli, or mounds, are the valley of the Mississippi, there exist the traces of a population far beyond wbat this extensive and Pallisadoed villxges or fortifications, or of barrows. fertile portion of the continent is supposed to have
3. The first and more ancient poriod is marked possessed: greater, perhaps, than could be support
by those extraordinary tumuli or mounds. I have el of the present white inbabitants, even with the reason to believe that their antiquity is very great. careful agriculture practised in the most populous The oldest Indiang liave no tradition as to their parts of Europe. The reason of this is to be found authors, or the purposes for wliich they were in the peculiar manners of the inhabitants by whom originally intended; yet they were formerly, I it was formerly occupied; like those of Mexico, might almost say instinctively, in the habit of their agriculture hud for its only object their own using them for one of the purposes for which they sustenance; no surplus was demanded for com
were at first designed, to wi', as places of defence. merce with foreign nations, and no part of the soil, The old chief Du Coin told Mr. Rice Jones that
the mounds in the American bottom had been susceptible of culture, was devoted to pasturage, yet extensive forests filled with wild animals would fortified by the Kaskaskius in their wars with the still remain. The aggregate population of the Iroquois. An old work by Lafitau, a jesuit, which country might be less, but that of particular dis. I met with at New Orleans, contains a cúrious
plate tricts much greater. We mist, in this way, ac
in which one of these mounds, fortified by pallisades of Mexico, when first known to the Spaniards; per: well as fortifications, are to be found at the
junction count for the astonishing population of the vale on the top, and large beams extending to the bot
tom, is assaulted by enemies. These lumuli as haps equal to any district of the same extent of climate. The astonishing population of Owyhee of all the considerable rivers, in the most eligible and Otabeite, must be accounted for in the same positions for towns, and in tlre most extensive way. There are certninly many districts on the bodies of fertile land. Their number exceeds, Ohio and Mississippi equally favorable to a numer perhaps, three thousand; the smallest not less than ous population. When I contemplated the beauty
twenty feet in height, and one hundred in diameter and fertility of those spots, I could scarcely believe at the base.-Their great number, and the astonish it possible, that they should never have supported ing size of some of them, may be regarded as fiera e numerous population; such a fact would form an
nishing, with other circumstances, evidence of their exception to wbat has usually occurred, in every think, that at the period when those mounds were
antiquiry. I have been some times induced to other part of the globe. 2 in the valley of the Mississippi, there are
constructed, there existed on the Mississippi, a discovered the traces of two distinct races of peo. -d the borders of the Nile, or of Euphrates, or of
population us numero's as that which once animat. ple, or periods of population, one much more
Misico and Peru. ancient than the other. The traces of the last are the most numerous, but mark a population less
4. The most numerous, as well as the most con. advanced in civilization; in fact they belong to the siderable of these remains, are found precisely in same race thai existed in the country when the the part of the country where the traces of <!'. French and English effected their setilements on merous, population might be looked for, to wit, this part of the continent: but since the i..tercourse from the mouth of the Ohio (on the east side of of these people wish the whites, and their as orisli. ing dimination in numbers, many of their customs *They are to be seen in many old volumes in bave fallen into disuse. It is not more than the present library of congress, which contains the
most valuable collection of books on America 19 *See llumholdt, vol. I. page 127.
be found in any part of the world. Sup. TO VOL. XVI.
the Mississippi) to the Mlinois river, and on the , stands in the midst of alluvium, and there is no
ing erected on the top. It was in this way the tem1. Ai Great creek, below Wheeling. 2. At Pitts, ple of Belus at Babylon was erected, and Egyptian burgh. 3. At Marietta. 4. At Cincinnati
. 5. Ai pyramids of the second class, which are solid, and New Madrid-one of them 350 feet diameter at probably the most ancient. Besides being places the base. 6. Bois Brulie bottom, 15 miles below of adoration, the Teocalli also served as fortresses; St. Genevieve. 7. At St. Genevieve. 8. Mouth of they were usually the last places to which the the Marameck. 9. St. Louis-one with 2 stages, inhabitants of the cities conquered by Cortez re. another with 3. 10. Mouth of the Missouri, 11. On sorted, after baving been driven from every other the Cohokia river--in 2 groups. 12. Twenty miles quarter. They were enabled from the position, below-2 groups also, but the mounds of a smaller form, and the tower on the top, to defend them. size-on the back of a lake, formerly the bed of seives in these situations to great advantage.the river. 13. Near Washington (M.T.) 146 feet Placed from the bottom to the top of the roude, in height. 14. Al Bator. Rouge, and on the bayou by gradations above each other, they appeared (as Manchac--one of the mounds near the lake is solis in his animated style expresses it) to conchiefly composed of shells; the inbabitants have stitute a living bill; and, at first, judging only from taken away great quantities of these for the pur- the experience of their own wars, they fancied pose of making lime. 15. The mound on Black themselves unassailable. river, of two stages, with a group around it. From the oldest book extant, the bible, we see
At each of these places there are groups of exemplified, in numerous instances, the natural mounds; and at each there probably once existed predilection for resorting to high places, for the a city. On the other considerable rivers which are purpose of worship; this prevailed amongst all natributary to the Obio and Mississippi in Kentucky, tions, and probably the first edifice dedicated to Tennessee, state of Ohio, Indiana territory, &c. the Deity was an elevation of carth, the next they are equally numerous. But the principal city step was the placing a temple on it, and finally and centre of population was between the Ohio, churches and mosques were built with steeples
. Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois. I have been this baving prevailed in all countries, may be informed that in the plains between the Arkansa considered as the dictate of nature. The most and St. Francis, they are numerous and some very ancient temples of the Greeks were erected on large. They resemble the Teocalli, in these im- artificial or natural elevations of eartb; at the preportant features, 1. In their positions the cardinal sent day, almost every part of Europe and Asia, points are observed with considerable accuracy. 2. exhibit these remains of tumuli, the rudest, though The larger mounds have several stages. 3. In perbaps the most lasting of buman work. The every groupe there are two mounds much larger mausoleum generally holds the next place to the than the others. 4. The smaller mounds are placed around symmetrically. A closer examination would "See the second account of the Teocalli of New show a resemblance in other particulars. It is Spain, by Humboldt, pages 16, 41, 44, 123, 170, &c. doubted by Humboldt whether advantage had not vol. II. New York edition, 1811. been taken of some natural rise, in the formation fMr. Robertson, who is disposed to lessen every of the pyramid of Cholula; with respect to the thing American, and to treat with contempt, un mound of Cohokia there can be no doubt, for i worthy of a philosopher, all their acts and advance.
ments in civilization, attributes this to the imagina. "See the chapter on the Antiquities of the Valley tions of the Spaniards, inflamed with the spirit of of the Mississippi, in the views of Louisiana,' by quixotic adventure, the author of this memoir, p. 181. Pittsburgh See appendix to Volney's views of America, edition, 1814.
Clark's travels in America, &c.
SUBMITTED TO CONGRESS AT THE LATE SESSI
temple; and, what is remarkable, all nations in innocent people that ever lived, and in the ar's their wars have made the last stand in the edifices as much advanced as were the ancient Persians consecrated to their gods, and near to the tombs or Egyptians; and not only in the arts, but even in of their ancestors. The Adoratorios of New Spain, the sciences. Was ever any work of the old world like all works of the kind, answered the three superior to the two roads from Quito to Cusco? purposes, of the temple, the fortress, and the Pardon me, sir, for troubling you with this long, mausoleum. Can we entertain a doubt but that and perhaps tiresome letter, dictated probably by this was also the case with those of the Mississippi? the vanity of personally communicating my crude
The antiquity of these mounds is certainly very theories to one who holds so distinguished a place great; this is not inferred from the growth of trees, in that temple of science which belongs to every which prove an antiquity of a few centuries, but age and every country. from this simple reflection; a people capable of With sentiments of the highest respect, I am, works requiring so much labor must be numerous, sir, your most obedient humble servani, and if numerous, somewhat advanced in the arts; we
H. M. BRACKENRIDGE. might therefore look for works of stone or brick, Baton Rouge, July 25, 1813. the traces of wbich would remain for at least eight or ten centuries. The great inound of Cobokia, is evidently constructed with as much regularity
Friends' Memorials, as any of the Teocalli of New Spain, and was doubtless cased with brick or stone, and crowned to the senate and louse of representatives of the with buildings; but of these no traces remain. United States, in congress assembled. Near the mound at St. Louis, there are a few decay. The memorial and petition of the representatives ing stones, but which may have been casually of the religious sociely of Friends in the states brought there. The pyramid of Papantla, in the of Ohio, Indians, and Illinois, and the adjacent northern part of the Intendancy of Vera Cruz, un. parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia, respectfully known to the first conquerors, and discovered a represent: few years ago, was still partly cased with bricks. That your memorialists, viewing with sensa. We might be warranted in considering the mounds tions of deep commiseration, the suffering of the of the Mississippi more ancient than the Teocalli, aborigines of this country, arising from their una fact worthy of notice, although the stages are cultivated and savage mode of life, have been still plain in some of them, the gradations or steps engaged for several years, with the pernaission of have disappeared, in the course of time the rains the executive, in atiempting to diffiise the comhaving wasbed them off. The pieces of obsidan forts of civilization among some of those tribes or dint, are found in great quantities near them, as which are scattered along our northwestern-fronis the case with the Teocalli. Sɔme might be tier. In the prosecution of this important understartled if I should say that the mound of Cohokia taking, we bave acquired a koowledge of their is as ancient as those of Egypt! The Mexicans habits, their sufferings, and their susceptibility of possessed but imperfect traditions of the construc improvement, which has increasingly excited our tion of their Teocalli; their traditions attribute sympathy and more deeply interested our feelings. them to the Toultees, or to the Olmees, who proba. Under these impressions, and with a solicitude to bly migrated from the Mississippi.
promote their advancement towards that condition Who will pretend to speak with certainty as to in which the mind is expanded by reason and in. the antiquity of America—the races of men who struction, and dignified by the inftsence of religion, have flourished and disappeared of the thousand while the resources of nature are rendered sub: revolutions which, like other parts of the globe, servient to the comforts of the rational agent, we it has undergone? The philosophers of Europe, are induced respectfully lo call the at.ention of with a narrowness and selfishness of mind, have congress to the subject. endeavored to depreciate every thing which relates From the habit of depending on game for a to it. They have called it the new world, as precarious sustenance, they have been naturally though its formation was posterior to the rest of led to adopt an itinerant and wandering mode of the habitable globe. A few facts suffice to repel life; and the continual pressure of an overwhelming this idea: the antiquity of her mountains, the re- white population, las successfully driven them mains of volcanoes, the alluvial tracts, the wearing from situations on which they might possibly have away of cataracts, &c. and the number of primitive been induced to form permanent settlements. Thus languages, greater perhaps than in all the rest of the darkness in which they have been involved, the world besides.
has been protracted, while the same causes have The use of letters, and the discovery of the evidently tended to the extermination of the race. mariner's compass, the invention of gunpowder and
We are sensible that the general government, of printing, have produced incalculable changes by adopting a more humane and liberal policy, has in the old world. I question much whetber be- in some measure counteracted this tendency, and fore those periods, comparatively recent, there endeavored to meliorate their condition by secur. existed, or could exist, nations more civilized than ing to them reservations of land, granting them the Mexicans or Peruvians. In morals, the Greeks annuities, and by taking other measures to pro. and Romans, in their most enlightened days, were mote their civilization. But the power of Habit not superior to the Mexicans. We are told that long formed, and descending from father to son, these people sacrificed human beings to their through a series of successive generations, cannot Gods! did not the Romans sacrifice their upfor: be supposed to be removed, but by time and patient tunate prisoners to their depraved and wicked perseverance. These babits, however, are begin. pleasures, compelling them to kill each other? ning to lose their influence, and an evident proWas the sacrifice of Ephigenia, to obtain a favor- gress towards civilization has been made by those able wind, an act of legs barbarity than the sacri. tribes to which our attention has been more fices by the Mexicans of their prisoners on the particularly directed; and others are desirous of altar of their Gods? The Peruvians were exempt lobtaining similar assistance. But the funds which from these crimes--perhaps the mildest and most your memorialists possess, are altogether inade