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I naturally resoried to the very able and expe, Whitelock, arrived in the river of Plata, on the 9tla rienced officer who commanded at Montevideo, of May, 1807, and after remaining at Montevideo and who had diligently employed himself in acquir. until the arrival of general Crawford's division, the ing every possible information upon this subject. British army proceeded up to Buenos Ayres: gene: I found that in the course of his operations against ral Whitelock, following the example of general Montevideo, and af er its capture, he had every Berresford, landed his tronps below the town, and reason to believe, that the people were, without experienced incredible difficully in the transpor! .. exception, inimical to us; that previous to the surtion of his artillery over the low swampy lande render of Montevideo, be could place no contin which skirt the borilers of the river. dence in any information he received, and that, The country people were decidedly beguile, and ufer ils capture, a sullen silence pervaded every none could be prevailed upon to serve as guides Tank. But be also found reason to believe, thai or 10 procure caitle for the army. The columns however inimical they were to us, they were still mistook the road and the men were almost fantaisied niore so to their present government, for upon re. when they arrived before the town. The wani of ports arriving at Montevideo, which afterwards proper accommodations for his troops, and the proved false, of the abolition of the court of au- dread of the rainy season, induced general White dienza, the setting uside of the king's authority, lock tu order an immediate attack. During the and not hoisting the Spanish colors, those who had march of the British troops froin Ensenada; the eppeared hus ile and inveterate, now pressed him inhabitants of Buenos Ayres recovered from their to advance a corps tu Buenos Ayres, and as ured him first panics and dispositions were made to defend that if he would acknowlelge their independence, the town by cutting ditches across the principal and promise them the projection of the English go sireets, placing the militia on the fat roofs, and vernment, the place would subnit.

securing the entrance of the houses. The party in power were mostly all natives of Sir Samuel Auchmuty, who commanded one Spain, in the principal offices of church and stale, column of attack, entered the upper part of the aud devoted to the Spanish government. The se town, and after a sanguinary conflict, drove the cond party consisted of natives of the country, with Spaniards from the square, and cook possessios of some Spaniards settled in it. The disposition of the plasa de coros, a large circular building, where the mother country had made them most anxi the bull fighls are held. This position commands ious to shake off the Spanish yoke, and though, the whole town. General Crawford led the column from their ignorance, their want of morals, and which entered the lower part of the town; hie met the barbarity of their disposi jonis, they were totally with little opposition, until he had advanced with. unfit to govern themselves, they aimed at following in a few hundred yards of the forl; suddenly a The steps of the North Americans, and erecting tremendous fire was opened upon the column from an independent state. If we would promise them the windows. Bombs and grenades were showered independence, they would instantly revolt againsi down upon the ranks from the roofs of ihe bouses; the governo ent, and join us wiib the great muss without pelaras, scaling ladders, or even a xes, the of the inhabitants. The next consideration was trops in vain endeavored to break open the dovriss our giving up the fooling we had in South Ameri. and general Crawford, after losing half his force,

Orthis subjeci many important considerations without being able to mouke any effectual resistance, presented themselves. Firsi: The situation of the retreated imio a large church, where he defended country, and the nature of our instructions. It himself for some time; the church was exposed to was supposed trom the information received by the fire of the fort, and he was al length compelled government, that the country would be conquered to surrender at discretion. This decided the fute and kept in subjection by 8000 troops, which was of the expedition. considered as a large torce; but the information

General Whitelock was informed of the capture receivel by govertunt upon this subject, mus! of general Crawford's columns, and it was intinrata have been founded in ignorance of the true state of ed to him, that if the attack contimied it wow it the country. Ifund, on my arrival, that the rebe impossible to protect the prisoners from the sistance we should have to contend withi, far ex rage of the people. Finding that the object of the ceeded every calculation; not a single friend had we in the country, on the contrary every inhabi government could not be accomplished, he entered tant was determined to exert his individual strength. evacuate Montevideo, and the territory of the river

into a treaty with Liniers, by which he agreed to Upou this subjeci, 1 rely upon the experience of of La Piata, provided lie was periwitted to resir Samuel Aichmury, who stuted chut double the embart lois troops. These conditions were im. number of troops I hive mentioned would be re

mediately conceded, and the British furces abans quired to conquer and keep pussession of the cornery," doned the shores of La Plata. On the return of the vice ruy Sobreinente froin Montevideo, the people refused to receive him,

The expedition under general Whilelock, assista and wislied to proclaim Liniers.

That officered by the disposition of the people, migist have appeased the tumult and reinslated Sobremente in secured the emancipation of these colores, bus his command. I'he cabildo, however, deposed lim vas not adequate to transfer their dominion tu le as soon as they heard of the approach of another crown of Great Britain. British exper! i;ion, and gave te coinmand to Li. The revolution in Spain changed the destiñiation niers. They then despaiched a deputation to Spain, of a still more formidable expedi: iun fised out by in consequence of which Sobremente was recalled Great Britain, and intended for the filial conquest and Don Santiago Liniers ii polmed vice roy of Lt of these colonies. Monster de Chasnie, #truisery Piita.

of Nepoleon, arrived in Buenos Ayres h 1809. 1 The advancel guard of the second expedition, vice roy, Liniers, laid his despatches wat ik niet under the cuinmand of sir Samuel duchuiuty, land audietizin, and the cabildo, and Munsuer de Craene ed on the eastern shore of tire river of La Plata, AS sriit off. He atterwards fell into the land of and laid sirge to Montevideo. Soon after balleries General Eliv, and atier experiering tin2 102tute were opened, a brrach Wus made, and the piace treatinent, wus seni back to Buenos Ayres, from fukcal swill. Tiso lesbi budow.der senesno wlasitoe w Wars coavejed is a prisoner bú Carmen

The vicerov, Liniers, issued about t'is time apro., The first scheme of the revolutionists was formed cla:n91109 setiing forth the state of the peninsula upon these pretensions. and *x iorting live people to remain traiquil, and They proposed to deliver up the country to the t.) follow the toriune of the mother country, what. princess Charlotte, expecting to retain "he ad. ever might be the issue of the present contest; the ministration in their own hands, and intending, at same langunge was held by the regency of Spain. some more fortunate period, to assert their entire In un adress to the Americans, they say, it is not independence. sufficient for you to be Spaniaris, unless whatever They despatched an agent, with their proposals, be the event of triune, you als belong to Spain. to Rio de Janeiro. The princess accepted their

General Eln, who bad been appointed inilitary offer, upon condition that ihey should admit. Governor of Montevidro, bad secretly excited the Portuguese garrison into Buenos Ayres. As this inhabitants of the eastern shore to revolt against measure would bave defeated the plan of the revoluithe authority of the vice roy. He now accused tionis's, the negociai jon was dropped. Liniers of treason, réfused to obey his orders, and The first revolutionary movement in the vice roy forined a jienta in Montevideo, on the model of of La Plata, was made in La Paz; and a junta was the provincial government in Spain. The arrival formed in the capital of that intendancy, after the of Goyeneche, rho left Marlrid as the emissary of plans of the provisional juntas of Spain. Murat, and afiorwards accepted scommission from The vice roy of Lima resolved immediately to the junta of Seville, to proclaim Fordinand the suppress this party, and despatched Goyen eche, at seventh in South America, contributed to agitate the head of a large force, into Upper Peru. La the public mind, and to encourage the spirit of re. Paz was taken, and the members of the junta, with volnion. The people were invited to take part with some of the principal citizens, put to death-the the dissentions of the chiefs, and were called up first example of the exterminating fury with which 0.) for the first time to think and to act. Goyeneche Goyeneche conducted the war in Upper Peru The Tuled at Montevideo, where he approved the con. failure of the plan to transfer the government to duct of general Elio, and assured him, that the ihe princess Charlotte, obliged the leaders of the formation of a junta would be highly acceptable to revolution to adopt more decisive measures. Their the government of Spain; at Buenos Ayres he ap- intentions were discovered, and it was expected plauded the loyalty of Liniers; in the provinces that every means would be used to frustate them. ihrough which he passed, on his way to Lima, heTheir danger obliged them to act with prompiness alvised the establishment of juntas. At Lima he and resolution; and the first attempt of the vice roy solicited and obtained the command of the army to check them, was followed by an open declara. sent against the junta of L. P.2, and conducted the tion on their part. He was peremptorily ordered war against that province in the most sanguinary to resign his command; and after a short struggle, and impoli ic manner.

and a vain appeal to the people, was obliged to comNotwithstanding the central janta of Spain had ply.. Immediately upon his resignation, a meeting been recognized by Liniers, and through his influ. of the principal inhabitants was held in the tow ence by the people of Buenos' Ayres, that govern- hall of Buenos Ayres. In this assembly the bishop, ment listened to the accusations of his enemies and whose influence had hitherto been umbounded, superceded the only man, whose popular character ventured to oppose the current of public opinion: and services to the state, could have preserve this but his authority was no longer sacred; and his colony from immediate revolt.

assertions, that the last Spaniard who remained in 01 the arrival of the new vice roy, Cisneros, America, ought by right to govern the country, Liniers was strongly solicited to retain the com; him such a torrent of abuse, that he retired to his

excited such universal indignation, and drew upon maand. The military offered to support him; and !! pas were entertained by the patriots, that the palace, confounded and dismayed. impolicy and injustice of the Spanish government,

This assembly still wishing to temporize, created would drive over to their party this able and poor president, but the people who had felt their power,

a provisional junta, and named the ex-vice roy pujar leader. But Liniers, who appears to have acted thro'ghost with chivalric honor, disappoint, 1810, a junta was elected from the Creoles of

refused all compromise, and on the 25th of May, ed their hopes, by privately withdrawing bimself from the solicitations of his friends, and the per mand, amidst the universal acclamations of the

Buenos Ayres, and took possession of the com. secution of his enemies.

people. Ci-neros Cid not possess the character or abilities necessary .o repress the revolutionary spirit of the the revolution to the interior provinces; and troops

Every exertion was immediately made to extend people of Buenos Avres. The decree of free trade, were despatched to favor the patriots in Peru and extoried from this vice roy in 1809, increased their Paraguay. intercourse with foreigners; and the ignorance and superstition by which their allegiance had been teract this plan, and maintained a correspondence

The ex-vice roy and fiscals endeavored to coun. hitherto secureit

, was fast wearing away; while with the Spanish authorities in those provinces; as their conquest of the capital, and their successful soon as this conduct was known to the government, defence against the last formidable invasion, with they were summoned to the fort, and directly conout any assistance from the mother country, gave veyed on board an English cutter, chartered to them confidence in their strength and resources.

transport them to the Canaries. The royal audienza Shortly after the news of the seizure of the royal was at the same time dismissed, for contempt of family reached the Brazils, manifests were publish- ibe junta; and the cabildo, chiefly composed of er by tho Lifant Don Pedro, and by the princess Europeans, having, in a secret meeting, sworn C ploite, the sister of Ferdinand the seventh, and allegiance to the regency of Spain, the members the consort of the present king of Portugal, setting were banisbed, and it was declared by law, that do forib their right to the Spanish dominions in Ame. European should hold any public office under the rica. They were accompanied by letters addressed government of Buenos Ayres. to the vice roys, and governors of provinces, and The count de Liniers, who had retired !o Cordova, were circulated from Mexico to Buenos Ayres.--'assembled a small force, and determined to oppose

the progress of the revolution in the interior. Be of those violent charges, which have so frequently fore he had time to strengthen himself, his party retarded the progress of the revolution. The was altar ked and totally defeated by he troops of leaders of the army of Perkt, which was now Buenos Ayres; and he, with the bishop, the governor encamped on the frontiers of the vice royalty of of Cordova, and four of the principal officers, fell Lima, declared against the revolution of 5th April, into the hands of the victors.

and threatened to turn their arms against its Either from the personal enmity of his judges, or authors. It was thought a necessary measure of from fear of his popularity and ex'ens:veir fluence, precaution on the part of the junta, to introduce which made it equally dangerous at that early stage discord among the chiefs; and their dissentions of their revolution, to banish or to inprison him, finally occasioned the entire deteat of that army, it was resolved in the junta, that Liniers and his at the battle of Hualqni, when the royalists and accomplices should be put to death, except the patriots mutually accused each other of breaking bishop, whose sacred character protected him. an armistice. The news of this disaster, which They were met on the road to the capital by a well nigh proved the ruin of their cause, was remilitary commission, and were shot, after being ceived with joy by the reigning party in Buenos Confessed by the bishop, who was forced to witness Ayres, who only saw in ii the destruction of a the execution of his friends.

formidable rival. The expedition to Upper Peru was conducted The junta of Buenos Ayres had neglected to by a commission; Castelle was the member selected occupy the important place of Montevideo, at the for this important command; he was one of the commencement of the revolution, and the Spanish earliest and most distinguished leaders of the re.marine, which, with equal oversight, had been per. volution from the junta of Buenos Ayres.

mitted to leave Buenos Ayres, rendezvoused there, The Indians were emancipated from the most and commenced bostilities against the junta; they oppressive services; the auxilliary army, hailed by harassed the commerce on the rivers, and blockad. these unfortunate people, and by the Creoles, as ed the ports of Buenos Ayres. their deliverers, soon occupied the whole territory On the arrival of general Elio, with the appointof the vice royalty; and the towns were invited to ment of captain general and vice roy of these proelect deputies to represent them in the congress, vinces, he withdrew the blockade, and made an about to be held at the capital.

attempt to get possession of the command, either In the mean time, the dissentions natural to a go- as vice roy, or as president of the junta. vernment composed of one numerous body, broke His proposals were treated with co:tempt by out and produced those factions which have since the government of Buenos Ayres; and he, shortly divided their councils, and distracted the state. after, despatched a small squadron to the Parana, 'They originated in the personal animosities of the in order to destroy some vessels belonging to president of the junta, and of the secretary of Ruellos Ayres, which were stationed there for the state;t a man of violent temper, ardent in his love of protection of the trade. This was effected, and liberty, and too conscious of his superior abilities the blockade renewed. The British admiral did too brook controul. As the secretaries had a right not consider the authority of the vice ray sufficient to deliberate and vote in the junta, he was enabled to establish a legal blockade; and came down in to oppose the president in all his views, and person, from Rio de Janeiro, to insist upon the obtained a decree depriving him of all distinction, inviolability of the British flag. Afier some negociaexcept that of his presidency when sitting in junta. tions with general Elio, he gave orders to the coma the arrival of the deputies from the provinces, mander on this station, to protect the entrance of they were adınitted unto the provincial govern- British vessels into all the ports of the river of ment, and the spirit of party was aligmented by La Plata. The blockade became, therefore, of no this accession of numbers. As they had been re effect; and the squadron was employed in ravaging ceived contrary to the opinion of the secretary, who the coast; but returned, from time to time, to contended that it defe&ied the intention of the bombard the city. election, which had been to form a deliberative During these attacks, the Europeans in Buenos body, the president found no difficulty to procure Ayres were harassed and mortified. The unthe secretary's banishm«nt; he was sent on 'mission married were banished; and those wlio remained to England, and died on his passage.

were subjected to the most vexatious and humiliat. The members.of ihe opposition, unable to resist ing regulations. the president': party in the junta, determined to In the midst of these transactions, the inhabitants es'ablish a club in the city; and by uniting the most of the eastern shore of the river La Plata, bad been factions of the military and citizens, controul the excited to revolt against the European anthorities measures of government.. Aware of the probable in Montevideo, and as general Elio was particularly effects of this combination against bim, the predisliked by them, this was easily effected; they rose sident had recourse to the most violent and un. en mass, defeated the royalists at Pudras, and drove justifiable measures to destroy it. On the morn. them within the walls of the own. ing of the 5.11 of April, 1811, three regiments, A small regirlar force was immedialey despatchdevoted to his interest, were drawn up in the prined to aid their operations, and that town was cipal square of ibe city. The corporations were blockaded by land. assembled, and the petition was presented to thern The expedition against Paraguay had failed of from two or three hundred peasants, who, in the its object, and had served only to irritate the name of the people, demanded the banishment of inhabitants of that province; and although they the members and fficers most inimical to the pre. shortly afterwards expelled their European magis. sident. The corporation, awed by the military, trates, and established a provisional junta, they reluctantly complicd; the obnoxious perso: s were have constan!ly refused all connexion with Buenos banished, the club abolished, and a number of the Ayres. General Elio, alarmed at the spirit mani. citizens thrown in prison.

fested by the people of the eastern shore, and This impolitic nomure was the commencement pressed by a besieging army, sent deputies to

Buenos Ayres to solicit peace; offering to re-urn to *Don Cornelio Savedra. Moreno.

Spain, and stipulating that the town of Montevid 90


should send a deputy to the congress of Buens with bat government, in consequence of which, Ayres, provided it was suffered to remain inde their troo is evacuated the territory of La Plata. pendent of the junta. The news of the revolution The people of the eastern shore, who dreaded 20 Paraguay, woich was received at the same time, the vengeance of the royalists, lo which they had prevented the government of Buenos Ayres from been shamefully abandoned, deserted their humes, acceding to this proposal. Ignorant of the inten- drove off their cattle, and followed Arigas, leik tion of the chiefs of that province, and presuming favorile leader, 'o the other side of the Uruguay. that they would unite in the common cause, they Shortly after the return of the army from Monte. insisted upon the unconditional surrender of Mon- video, an unsuccessful atierapt was made by the tevideo. General Elio then applied tor assista'ce regiment of patricians, to effect a revolution, and to the court of Brazils; that cabine!, in hopes to to re-establish their former colonei, the first prerealize their favorite project, and to obtain possessident of the junia. Alihough abandoned in the sion of Montevideo, immediately granted his re. moment of executior, by the officers who had quest, and 2,500 men were ordered to pass the excited the revoli, they were not reduced, until frontiers. In consequence of this measure, the situa. after a bloody conflict. tion of Buenos Ayres became alarmningi from the As soon as it was known in Spain, that general btüte of their discipline, the defeat at lualqui Elio bad concluded a treaty with Buenos Ayres, be proved a total dispersion of that arroy; and the was recalled; and his successor, general Vegolet, forces of Lima successively occupied La Paz, who arrived with reinforcements, recommenced Potosi, wnd Cochabamba.

hostilities against the revolutionary government. The Portuguese troops advanced rapidly to the The command of the army of Buenos Aires, was relief of Montevideo, and great disconient reigned entrusted to a member, Don Manuel Sarratea, of in the capital. In this slale of affairs it was thought the executive, who crossed the river at Santa l'e, advisable, that the president should proceed to and again invested Montevideo. Peru, in order to collect their scattered forces, A government so constituted as that of Buenos and by his presence restore the confisience of the Ayres, without restrictions, and without responsi. inhabitants of the provinces, not yet occupied by bility, could not long command the confidence of the enemy. le consented to this arrangement, and the people, or exist in harmony. appointed to the command of the garrison, during The citizens were oppressed, and the rulers his absence, those men who had served under him were entirely taken up with their own private in the revolution of the fifth of April, and of whose animosities and disputes. These dissentions, a attachment and fidelity he felt

He had usual, soon extended their effects to the armies scarcely left the capital before a lown meeting was before Montevideo. The inhabitants of the eastern assembled, which deposed him. They then named shore, separated their forces from those of Buenos an executive of three, and declared the assembly Ayres; and the latter caballed against their com. of deputies a deliberative body. In their eagerness ander in chief, dismissed, and appointed one of to change, they neglected to secure themselves their own choice. The Europeans saw, in these against the abuse of power.

disorders, a favorable opportunity to effect They entrusted to the executive the right of counter revolution. A plan was formed to obtain enacting their own laws, and permitted them to the watchword, by surprising the patroles, to seize frame a constitution for their own government. on the barracks, and favored by a descent from The legislative assembly proved an intolorable the squadron of Montevideo, get possession of the restraint upon an executive furnished with such city. powers, and a pretext was soon found to dissolve This conspiracy was discovered on the eve of its ihat body.

execution, and thirty of the principal conspirators The first act of the new government of Buenos were tried and executed. Ayres, had been to conclude a treaty with general In October, 1812, deputies arrived from the Elio, by which it was agreed on the one part, that interior provinces to form a congress at Buenos the troops should be withdrawn from the siege Ayres; but differences arising between them and of Montevideo; and that that place, including the the executive, the assembly was dissolved on their eastern side of the river of Plata should remain first session. under the Spanish authorities; on the oiher part, The remains of the army of Peru, had retired that the trade of Buenos Ayres should not be before the victorious troops of Lima, until the molested, and that the Portuguese forces should want of means to continue their retreat, forced relire to their own frontier. On the part of Buenos them to make a stand at Tucuman. Ayres, the conditions of this treaty were faithfully September, 1812, un obstinale engagement took executed; and the territory of tlie eastern shore place, which, from the active cooperation of the was immediately evacuated by their troops. Ge-linhabitants of Tucuman, ended in the total defeat neral Elio, who had discovered the intentions of of the royalists. the court of Brazıls, had been induced to conclude Owing to the dissentions of the government, the this treaty from fear of so dangerous an ally. But army of Peru was left without the means of advancthe communder of the Portuguese army, who had ing, and could not profit by their success. The been made a party in the ireaty without being discontent became general, and the party opposed consulted, declared that he could not act until he to the government, siezed the opportunity to effect received instructions from his court; and proceeded a revolution. to fortify himself in Maldonado. Having failed in The military, so often the instrument of faction, this attempt to oblain possession of Montevideo, again lent their aid, and a new execalive was, apo without which it was in possible to retain any pari pointed by a cabildo abiento, or lown meeting of the eastern shore, the Portuguese co urt sent an Succors were at

ngeh sent to the arıny of Peru, ngent to Buenos Ayres, and concluded an arınistice which enabled gen. Belgrano to advance, and attack

the royalists at Salla; in this action, fought in *Chicana, Sarratea, Passos were the members february, 1813, 'he Spaniards were defeated with chosen upon this occasion. The secretaries of this great loss; and Belgrano following up liis victory, junta, were Rivadavia and Peres:

touk Sulta by assuil, in cupluredgerui Tristal,

On the 24th

The them.

with the renains of the royal army. The prt Aware of the importance ::ttached by Gre, Britain Aoners were released on their parole, which they the trade of these colonies, and expecting to immediately violated, and were again incorporated derive great advantages from opposing the com. into the array of Goyeneche. This general had mercial spirit of that nation, to the jealous colonial commanded the royal army in Peru, since the policy of Spain, they sent an agent* to London; memorable invasion of La Piz; but being forced to and even willing, at that time, to secure the faevacurate the terriiory of Buenos Avres, by the vorable medirtion of the English court, by grant. approach of the victorious army of Belgrano, he ing any privileges, they are said to have inséructed was recalled by the vice roy of Lima.

teir agent to derlare, chat Buenos Avres would The vice royalty of La Plata, was again freed rather be governed by a foreign prince, than submit from enemies, and the deputies from the provinces Junconditionally 10 Spain. and towns, once more assembled a Buenos Ayres. The same policy induced them to yield to the They aesumed the liile of the sovereign assembly, solicitations of the English minister at Rin de and conterred that of supreme executive power Janeirn, who was desirous of adjusting the differ. upon the former superior government, which was ences between Buenos Ayres and Monieviden; and composed of three persons.* They declared the hand expressed a wish, that the former should acă sole right of making laws to be vested in the knowledge the regency of Spain, accept the conassembly, and the executive to be responsible to stitution, and send depities to the Criez Com. thein for its acts.

missioners were sent with proposals to Montevideo: One of the first decrees of the sovereign assem but the vice roy, who now contemplated the apbly, manumitted the offspring of slaves born after proaching fall of Buenos Ayres, and considered February, 1813, and emancipated all slaves that this measure as a proof of their weakness, refused might be brught into the territory of La Plata, to receive or treat with them. This result had after that period.

heen foreseen by the government, and great exerThe slave holders were called upon för every tions had been made in fi: ot a squadron, which third slave, whicü were enrolled in the army of the might give them the command of he river; some republic; on this occasion many of the inhabitants stout merchant vessels had been purchased, which voluntarily manumitted their slaves, upon condi were armed from the batteries of Buenos Ayres tions of their serving during the war; and two regi and Ensenada, and manned by foreigners; and This ments, called liberty, were formed of them: they neet, inmediately on the return of the commis. are officered by whiies.

sioners, apnearer off Montevideo. This measure Commissioners were sent by the assembly into did not excite much alarm in that place; it was Upper Peru, to examine into, and report on, the supposed that armed merchantmen would prove state of tbose provinces and of the army. an easy conquest to national ships; and a squadron

Towards the close of the year 1813, the arms was immediately despatched to attack and destroy of Buenos Ayres met with serious reverses. general of their forces in Upper Peru was induced, The event dit not jus!jfv tliis opinion of theis by false intelligence, to attack the army of Lima, superiority. To their astonishment and dismay of although advantageously posted at Vilcapugio, and the garrison of Montevideo, who witnessed the was detested with the loss of ail his artillery. Being action, the national sqnadron was entirely defeated, parsued by the enemy, and eager to repair t 18 two only escaped into port, and the remainder fell losses, he risked a second engagement at Ayuma, into the hands of the patriots. T'he vice roy find. under the most unfavorable circuinstances, in which ing himself pressed by superior forces, ho by he was again defeated, and forced to retire below land and water, now condescended to solicit a Salta, with the remnant of his army.

peace, which he had but a few dive before rejected The garrison of Montevideo, had received sup with contempt; but the government of Buenos plies and reinforcements from Spain; and although Avres retaliated his conduct towards them, and they had been defeated in a sortie against the refused to receive his commissioners or to open his besieging army, it was apprehened that a junction despatches. Ile was soon after reduced to the nemiglai be effected at Santa Fe, of the victorious cessity of treating with the general* of the besieg. army of Lima, with the disposable force in Mon. ing army. tevideo. The royal squadron having the command It was agreed that the government of Buenos of the river of La Plata, rendered this movement Ayres should acknowledge the regency, and send very practicable.

depujes to Snain; the town of Montevideo was to The party in power seized this opportunity to be given un, the garrison to be sent to Spain; two strengthen the government. They represented to thousand men to march out with their arms, field the assembly, that an executive of three persons nieces, and ammunition: and to be encamped until could not exert the energy and despatch called for he conditions were carried into execution. by the present perilous situation of the state; anc Whilst this treaty was pen:ling, disputes arose proposed to vest the authority in one person. rewaen the troops of the garrison, and the armed

This proposal was warmly discussed in the as. citizens, who were violently opposed to the capitulasembly; but the military declaring in favor of the ion change, a supreme director was appointed. The The rice rhy findling it imrossible to suppress assembly was prorogued during the pleasure of 'hese commotions, a!ics threatened the destructhe director; and a council of seven, called the 'ion of all parties, nrdered the gates to be thrown permanent council of the sovereign assembly, were open, and almitted the army of Buenos Ayres. cbosen to assist him.

The two thousand men were permitted to march The general who had commanded in Peru, was out with the horors of war; and it was at first siip. superceded, and orders given to his successor, to posed that the articles of the capitulation would collect the scattered remains of that army, and to be adhered to. They were soon indeceived, the fortify himself in Tucuman; whilst they determined general of the besieging army published a pro10 direct their whole force against Montevide.

M112 Sarratea, Pena, Perez, and Alverez, jonte.

•Don Carlos Alvear.

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