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1658

Gilling on wood .

1660

Sugar first mentioned by Paul Eginetta, a phy.
Glass first used in private houses in England 1189 sician, 625; originally it came from China; produced
Bottles first mude in England

1557 in Sicily in 1148; in Madeira 1419; carried to the
Looking glasses in England, Lambeth 1675 West Indies by the Spaniards and Portuguese 1510;
Gunpowder invented by Swaartz, a monk, in refining discovered at Vienna 1503.
Germany

1330

Shoes in the reign of Henry the 8th, became of Hackney coaches first used (20 in number) in

) such a length that it was necessary to support the London

1625 toes by chains to the leg. An act of parliament Huir powder first used by ballad singers to make wils passed against them, and nonconformists were themselves look hideous

1590 exposed to the penalties of the civil law, and also Hemp and flur first planted in England 1533 to be cursed by the clergy. (Before thiat time they wore woolen shirts.) Straw used in the king's bed

1234 Lons, when first introduced, parliament was Swearing, the vice of introduced

1072 petitioned against it as a wicked weed 1428 Tea first brought into Europe by the Dutch 1591 Insurance polices used in Florence

1523 Telescopes inven'ed at Middlebury, by Jansen,
in London

1560
a spectacle maker.

1590 Interest substituted for the word usury 1624 Thermometers invented in Holland

1620 Ironwir, English. Before 1568 all made and Tapestry invented by sir F. Crane

1619 drawn by manual labor alone, when mills Turnpikes first legally erected in England 1663 were established by the Germans.

T'ime measures-King Alfred's were wax tapers; the Journals of the English house of peers first ancie: its had three sorts; hour glasses, sun-dials taken

1550 and a vessel of water with a hole in the bottoin. Jewels first worn in England by Agnes Sorrel 1434 Violins invented

1477 Knitting stockingsinvented in Spain 1550| votes of the house of commans first printed 1681 Knives first made in England 1563 Voyage round the world, the first

1525 Linen staining first known in England 1579 Watches, or rather clocks, invented at Nurem. Logarith ins invented by Napier 1614 burg

1477 Lottery first in England

1569 Spring pocket watches by Hooke France

1657 Wine sold by the apothecaries as a cordial 1898 Alagnets (artificial) invented 1751 Wine from raisins first made in England

1633 Magnifying glasses by Rog. Bacon

1260 of which 30,000 barrels have been made in Magic lanterns by

do

1252

one year, Microscopes, double, invented

1624

London, in 1192, being all built with wood and Military uniforms first used in France by Louis thatched with straw, ordered to be built with stone the 14th.

and brick and covered with slate to prevent fire, Muslins from India first worn in England 1670 but the order was disregarded; in 1224 the houses Needles made in England

1681 still thatched with straw and the streets not paved, Orbits of the planets first determined 1618 and Cheapside lay out of town. In 1666, the greatPadlocks invented at Nuremburg

1540 er part of the city (being of wood) was burni, Painting in oil invented by John Van Eyck, since which the houses have been built of stone

the father of the Flemish school, and the and brick first picture an Ecce Homo

1415 Paper made of cotton

1000 Pendulums for clocks invented.

1656

Province of Texas. Pins used

1543 Pistols first used by horsemen

1544 New York, Aug. 3d, 1819.-The existing state of Plays first performed in England by parish of our relations with Spain; the revolutionary state clerks

1378 of the Spanish colonies in both the Americas; the Posts established in England

1635 part which many of our citizens have taken in that Potatoes first carried to England from America 1586 struggle; and, finally, the policy which our govern.

(For a time thought unhealthy---prohibited ment has and may continue to pursue, all lend 10 at a time in France by a royal edict.)

render interesting every subject connected with Printing invented in Germany by Jacob Faust 1441 the Spanish colonies, particularly tbose in North Pumps invented

14:25 America. Reprisals at sea first granted

1295 The enclosed brief history of an expedition in Rice first cultivated in South Carolina

1702 1812, and 1813, from Louisiana into the Texas, wie iffron first brought to England

1389 written by me at Opelousas, in the latter country, Saltpetre first made in England

1625 about one month after tbe battle of St. Antonio Scarlet dye first used in England

1643 The manuscript has remained unpublished amongst Scenes first introduced into theatres

1533 my papers ever since. Recent moverents in Tes: Sertant invented by Tycho Brahe

1550 as may give this sketch some interest, and if you Sheep sent to Spain from England

1467 consider its contents of sufficient value, you can Speaking trumpets invented

1652 publish them in your paper. Spectacles invented by a monk

1299 I beg leave, bowever, to preface its publication Spinning wheel invented at Brunswick 1530 by a condensed view of what does in fuct constie Siantes of England first printed .

1483tute Texas. Steam engines invented for raising water, &c. 1618 Las Texas is a general term for the vast trian. Stivmps used in the 6th century.

gle, included between the Rio Grande del Norte, Silk stockings first worn by Henry VII. of Red River, Louisiana, and the Gulpli of Mexico, France.

1547 containing about 240.000 square miles, and eto Howe}l snys that in 1560 queen Elizabeth was tending from 26 to 38 degrees of N. lat. presented with a pair and never wore cloth ones It is generally, though very erroneously, belier, any more.

ed in the United States, that Texas forma a pers

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FROM THE NEW YORK COLUMBIAN

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tha viceroyalty of Mexico; it belongs, if not to those persons, as to expect themselve at the gates Louisiana, in reality to the captain general of the of Mexico, when at St. Antonio de Behar, though Provincias Internos, or Internal Provinces, over eleven degrees of laiitu le lie between the two which the vice roy of Mexico has no authority. places, and much of the intermediate distance filled The captain general resides at Chihuahu ', west of with a dense population; in the mass of which, ad. Rio Grande, about thirty degreey north latitude. mitting a co-operation, those foreigners woull be Part of the country west of Rio Grande, and nort!: lost like a drop in an ocean. No man, of mode. of the viceroyalty, is tolerably well people i, burate information, can for a moment doubt the final Texas is generally a wilderness, though in many emancipation of the Spanish colonies. Their chains respects one of the finest regions in America. will crumble before increasing instruction, gained Taken as a whole it cannot be called a fertile amidst auid frin their struggle; these men can countr ; but in print of healthy air, I am doubtful only be slowly fitted for the management and enif the earth affords its equal upon so wide an er joyment of a ratio:al system of domestic policy. tent. The value of this trulo fine country is 119 !f Spain was at this moment to acknowlelge their known at ihe court of Hadrid, or the king of Spain independence, it is doubtful whether their own would rejoice to exchange the pine barrens of Fio-chiefs would not assume the place and power of ride, for an unqualified cession of a region of five the Spanish authorities. times the extent, and inore than ten times the va In fine, but one class of men from other nations lue; a region that must ere long be peopled with can do then effective service; prudent, well ineither Spanish Creoles, or Anglo-Americans; and former persons, content, and indeed only accepi.

region which will be the impassable rampırt of ing a subordinate rank, who cautiously wean them whichever country gains its possession. Politi from their prejudices, and who gain their confi. cians, like most other men, are ruled more by the dence by studying their language, aid ado; ting, ia trifles of a moment, than by objects of magnitude costume and manners, what may be found coin. in fiture. The possession of the right bank of mendable, useful, or indifferent, a'nongst the idja Red River, by a Spanish population, milst deprive habitants. Military men of this description, are the United States of one of the greatest points off to them a real and invaluable acquisition; those of security for Louisiana. It must be a subject of an opposite character are to them nuisances. regret, that any river dischar ing its waters into

WILLIAM DARBY. the Mississippi, should be suffered to reinain for reign to the United States. Before the cession of

BRIEF HISTORY, &c. Texas to Spain, we could boast of having the en. The expedition carried on against the govern tire area drained by the largest stream upon the inent of Spain in the province of Texas, wirich globe, included within oue sovereign:y. This was commenced in 1812, by a boly of Americans, aided not an empty vaunt; such a possession give us many by malco.tents in the country, is now at an end. solid and permanent advantages, which cannot be Meeting with partial success on their first ene be easily compensated. Contrary to what is gene trance into the province, the hupos of the Aneri. rally thought, Red River is a large navigable strean, cans were greatly inflated. Nacogdoches, La Bahia, many hundred miles above what would be the Spa- und St. Antonia de Bohir, fell into their bands nish limit by the late treaty. What is called the with but lit. le opposition. The small body of naraft above Nichitoches is passable with twenty oar lives and Europeans, that opposed their advance and forty ton barger; o:ė such passed it at the were defeated and dispersed. -Governor Salcedo, time I was engaged surveying opposite the game General Herrars, and a number of other officers, raft. In fact, where the intended line will inner- fell into their power as prisoners of war. Thus far seci the river, it is as large, if not more so, than the expeditiou succeeded beyond the hopes of the the Ohio at Cincinnati, and little less, if any, navi. undertakers, and contrary to general opinion. Magable, with many confluent streams above, ny of the inhabitants, instigated by discontent, or

We unreasonably undervalue the Spanish nation; ailured by bopes of gain, and the novelty of the we, in fact, cast upon the people, that odium to scene, joined the 48sailing party; whichie' in the which their ecclesiastical and political government spring of 1313, was augmentel to above twelve are exclusively entiiled, and to which the indig- hundred men, three hundred Americans, sis hun. nant feelings of other nations ought to be direct dred Spanish Creoles, and the reside of Indians, ed. The character I have given lilefondo, though formed the motley band. No Xcis of violence founded upon undeniable picts, will, I know, ra has been esercised, on the persons or properly ther revolt the prejudices of inany persons, who of the native inhabitants, or expressions uttered connect every detestable trait with the naise of that could ound their feelings, and shock their Spanish royal officer. It is morally impossible for prejudices. Those who judged fro:n momentary man to contem! more cordially than I do, that sys events, thought ultimate success scarce a subject tem of fraud, hypocrisy, duplicity, and cruelty, of reasonable doubt; but reflecting men could not under which the Spaniards and several

o her ni il to anticipate the true issue of an undertaking, tions have groaned and continue to suffer, under founded upon such slender basis, and supported by the name of monarchy; but I am conscious that such inadequate means. Without fonds, escape many brave and hunane men have been made, those drawn from depreda ion, without union, aid from various causes, the ininisters of those decep without the aid, or even countenance of the Uni. tions and outrages; but who have, as far as in themi ted States government, the very idea of a complelay, mitigated the horrors of war, oppre.sion, and cion of their object was lemeriiy. violence. Civil war without such men would be Not one of the least obstacles against which the frightful indeed.

republican patriots (as they called themselves) nad l'he opinion I have entertained six years ago, 1 to encounter, was the Want of a leader of expe. have found no reason to change; roving hands of rience and capacity, who united political and inili men, unauthorised by their own government, car cary talents, with commanding conciliating mun do no good and must injure any cause in which gera.

Such a man they had not. Bernardo, they are engaged. In fact,

so ignorant are most of the nominal head, was an unleutered man--with..

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out talent or principle. The other officers were their minds of the Spanish nation.

protector merely on the common level.

unexpectedly appeared to save from destruction 1?utmaugre their weakness, arising from their this despairing remnant, to revive the dropping spidisanjon, and their very small numbers, some of rits of the desponding prisoners, and to restore to these extraordinary events might have occurred them their freedom and their homes. It was the which often decided the fate of empires, and by Spanish general-displaying in the field the skill of crowning the enterprize with success, give it a an experienced captain, and in victory, the qualities $a"ction in the view of mankind. The Spanish co. of the most amiable humanity towards men that, Jonisis, since the abdication of one of their mo without provocation or legitimate object, had nårchs. and the captivity of another, has been in an invaded his country. Despising the narrow unsettled state. The vast fragments of the once maxims of policy that lead to severity, the sus mighty monarchy of Spain, seemed to have lost pended sword was sheathed, and be presented th'ir cohesion, and approaching to rapid dissolution. himself to his captured enemies, as a friend to so. Many instances have occured where armies, labor- lace them in their misfortunes, and to relieve their ing under similar or more insuflerable difficulties wants. The wounded were healed, and the hungry than the Anrrican Spanish had to resist, and fed, whilst the angry passions excited by war and though opposed to a greater disparity of force, revenge subsided. The sympathies of nature fel bulve, by prudence and good fortune, succeeded. the most disinterested hospitality exercised in de There is, Bowever, happily a limit beyond which spite of the prejudices of nation and religion, milan can never advance with impunity; there are It was now a scene upon which the mind coula principles lie cannot violate without deserving, and dwell with pleasure. It was a display of the best in most instances, meeting condign punishment.-- emotions of the human heart; a noble performance Governor Salcedo and general Herrara, with their of all the duties inspired by the most elevated senti. companions, who subinitted themselves prisoners ments of honor, or taught by the purest precepts of war, and were thenceforth, consequently, under of christianity. In a word, their invasion was the most solemn of all protections, which the most forgiven by the injured party, their mistaken mosacred compact could afford, had a right to claim, tives pitied, and the prisoners supplied with food, and no doubt expected to receive, the treatment and sent to their native country in peace. due to their rank and situation. The general cus Such an exhibi:ion of talents, bravery, greatness tom of modern nalions, in their mild, generous and of mind and generosity of sentiment, if made upon bumane conduct towards prisoners of war, is the a theatre more within the view of mankind, would mout brilliant and useful remaining trait of the secure to Illefondo the meed of an inmortal names ages of chivalry, and does lionor to modern improve. but if the remoteness of the scenes, and the small ment of manners. War is stript of its worst hor. interest the human mind will take in the event, rors, and when the tumult of battle is over, the must consign to oblivion one of the noblest actions victor and vanqnished resume the warm inter. that ever did honor to human nature, there is one course of mulual philanthropy. Contrary however reward the world can neftlier enhance or diminish, to all the rights of hospitality and justice, and in it is the heartfelt consciousness of having performcontempt of every principle that ought to guide ed an act, that kings and conquerors have seldom human conduct, Salcedo and Herrara, with several equalled, and an act that affords reflections beyond (eleven or twelve) of their unfortunate fellow prio all human praise! The name of this generous und soners, were massacred in cold blood near St An: magnanimous soldier will be dear to every feeling tonia de Behar by, it is said, the orders of Bernardo! beart as long as his memory will be preserved. He This inhuman and impolitic act sealed the fate bas redeemed the character of man from the foul of the enterprize. The buman bosom shudders stigma thrown upon it by another nation, whose at the recital of such atrocious barbarity. Most, claims to more than a share of virtue and benevoif not all of the Americans belonging to the expe. lence have been loud and incessant. But when s dition, disclaim any co-operation in the deed. contrast is drawn between the scenes of the river Bernardo was removed, and the command given to Rairin and at Hampton, with those at St. Antonia another Spaniard, but a mortal wound was inflicted de Behar, we no looger hesitate to bestow the palm on the reputation and views of the party, that no of real generosity upon this beneficent Spaniard, skill could cure-confidence was at an end-dis- who became tlie protector of men that the laws of cipline disregarded_aud on the 18th of August, nations bad doomed to destruction. 1813, this ill assorted mass, encountered about 20 It is not unworthy of remark, that this pettywarbas miles west of St Antonio, a regular force under been rendered memorable by the greatest extreine brave and experienced leaders, and was in a mo. our nature is capable of; crimes have been per ment routed.

petrated, the very mention of which shocks the soul; The situation of the Americans was to the last and virtues have been exercised that exhilirates degree bopeless and disastrous; four hundred miles the heart to recite. This war, otherwise of little from the borders of the United States; a victorious consequence in human affairs, deserves deep attenad jusly exasperated enemy on their rear, death, tion, as being the first instance where the two masses in all its accumulated terrors presented iíself to of civilized inen, which inhabit North America, their terrified imagination, or what was still more bave come in coniact. In the ordinary routine of dreadful in their apprehension, a lingering captivi. buman history, the fate of the Anglo-Americans, ty in Spanish dungeons, seemed to be the only al. and Spanish population on this continent, must be ter ative; some by exertions almost superbuman, greatly influenced by the sentiments entertained traversed the wide expanse between St. Antonia of each other. The expanse that separates them, de Behar and the Shine river, and escaped into is daily contracting, and, in do very distant period Luisiana. But many fell into tbe bancis of their there must be only a simple frontier line between pursuers. The situation of tbose captives was in them. A century past, France and Russir, which deed deplorable; all hope of revisiting their native are now shaking the world by their gigantic con. country was banished from their expectations by test, were perhaps less known to each other, and the frightful pictures that had been presented to less connected than are now the Vaited States and

Mesico

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our own.

Mexico. England and France are conspicuous exam- Provinces) our government has naver been involvples of the lasting hatred and mutual distress that ed. 'Tbe idea of one nation having, either the right national rivalry can engender.-The ambitious in. to attempt or the power to effect, by force, any cursions and absurd claims of the English monarchs beneficial change in the condition of another, defor ages pasl, enkindled the flames of that un serves contempt. The established opinions and extinguishable rage, that, at this moment, burns customs of narions, are too stubborn to yield an with such fury in both these great and powerful instant submission to reason, clad in its most pations No liuman foresight can predict the fatal seductive attire-much less to fall prostrate be. consequences to unborn millions from the casual fore a foreign armed force. incursions we now perinit to be made into the Spa The relative position of the two great bodies of nish territories, Man is too prone to proudly civilized men on this continent is peculiar, wbilst contemn the distant danger, and to undervalue their manners, habils, religion, and civil govern. others; it has becoine cant to speak contumeliously ment present an interesting contrast. In the Unit. of the Spaniards, though hourly experience deed States, from the ancient establishments, coeval monsirates the falsity of the calumny. In after with the settlement of the country, there is diffused times, when our species has multiplied upon this into the body of the society, an extensive political continent, sufficient to fill every regioo with knowledge, a strong sense of right, and a wakeful inhabitants, if a spirit of national animosity is attention to the conduct of men in office. Religion,

fostered by mutual injuries, the Anglo American bowever it may conduce to amend the heart, or - and Spanish Mexican people will exhaust their preserve the moral principles, rather tends to finances in desiructive inroads upon each other; weaken than enforce a spirit of independence; but and the future history of these nations, like that in the British colonies, by a single diversity from of Rome and Carthage, Rome and Persia, and that common occurrince, even religion inspired a strong of France and England, will be a tissue of folly opposition to the encroachments of power. The and crimes. The apparent indifference with which liberty of the press, though often tending to licen. the government and people of the United States ciousness, by continually reviving reflection on bave beheld the changes in Spanish America, is public affairs, excites universal attention to passing really a subject of wonder. We seem to regard events. No measure of government can remain with apathy, the incipient movements of a nation secret or free from scrutiny, consequently the peowhich, in future times, must have the closest in. ple and their officers stand continually in awe of terest in common, or the most violent rivalry, with each other. The trial by jury, by constantly calling

into courts of justice, the common individuals of When it is reflected, that the effect that nations society, instil amongst them a knowledge of the bave upon each other, really depends but little complications of property, and the subtleties of upon their respective forms of government, it may legal disquisitions. This so much and in many be a subject of minor importance to us, whether respects justly boasted mode of trial, possesses Mesico and the internal provinces should become ao one advantage, however, so unequivocal over a republic, or a monarchy. Mer, under all forms other forms of distributive justice, as the informa. of civil society, are prone to war, rapine and vio- tion it superinduces in societies of its dulies and lence. Noise, tumult and revenge are congenial rights. to the human heart; and it demands all the re. The estensive commerce always enjoyed by the straints of power, the allurements of society, and United States, bas enhanced the value of landed the accustomed sweets of repose, to preserve the and created a vast accession of personal proworld from eternal strife. The best koowledge perty; -and has given the whole community hopes philosophy can instil, and the best duty that legisla- of wealth and aggrandizement. Agriculture, the tion can impose, or man can practice, is the princi- best. pursuit of man, from its great profi:s, has ple of universal benevolence towards, not his own carried the fondness for show, luxury, and accountrymen alone, but also the whole human race. cumulation, into the remotest region of our empire It is nf primary importance, that in America man - In fine, no people perhaps ever possessed so should profit from the sanguinary lessons that the extensively, the benefiis arising from independence tragic histories of the east have afforded. Those of sentiment, unceasing enquiry and possession of know but little of human nature, or its interests, wealth, as do the inhabitants of the United States who teach the necessi'y of distrust. The dissimula---whilst they have, and must continue to suffer tion, hatred and envy natural to human beings, the evils, and enjoy the benefi s of unlicensed ex. wül always produce ample instances to put us on pression of opinion, which controls and overawes our guard against each other. Nations, like in public men; but, also, frequently, distracts public diviiluals, have a tendency to maligrily. The most councils; we musi, also, feel the demoralizing condesolating wars have been undertaken as much if sequences of sud::en accumulation of wealth. aot more from revenge than ambition.

l'he people of New Spain, are as different from If to engender confidence, friendship, and reci. those of the United Siates as the circumstances procal forbearance, he an indispensable duty, in of their history are variant. At the æra of the those who regulate the conduct, or who form the discovery of America, the power of Spain had morals of private persons, how much more in- greatly augmented; the different kingdoms that cumbent is the obligation on the rulers of nations, had formerly exisied on the Spanish Peninsula, to preserve and foster a spirit of amity, probity, had been united by marriage, conquest, and other and urbanity, between contiguous states. The casualties, into two states; Portugal, and the one unlicensed plunderer, or marauder, that roams, at whom, fiom iis superior pouver and extent of ter. this moment, from the United States into Texas, ritory, had at that time assumeil, and ever since prevents or retards the peaceable approach to prescrved the prominent appellation of Spuin. But wards a general intercourse. Against Spain, the spirit of enquiry in the sciences, an enlightened, Uniied States may have complaints that would liberal system of government and commerce, had warrant decisive measures, but with the natives never been introduced among the Spaniards. Slavis! of Mexico, or the Provincial Internos, (Internal submission 10 the power of their monarchs ar.d

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