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It is worthy of remark, that almost the half of tially assisted, in most cases. Assuming this as a these noticed, (and we put down the particulars of fact, it appears that a full pauper, in 1789, cost 37 all that we saw reported, to form the preceding dollars, yearly; in 1797, 64 dollars; in 1807, 65 summary) have reached the United States, via Nova dollars; in 1817, 90 dollars; in 1818, 96 dollais. Scotia and New-Brunswick--there is also a great! But there must be a great consumption of money influx of people through the Canadas.
in supporting the establishment--the paupers tbem. The above is certainly short of the real number selves, could not have required such an amount, that arrived in the absence of the whole facts, it Still, the facts go strongly to corroborate our calcumay serve foran estimate, It probably contains about llations, which give for the cost of maintaining each three-fourths or four.fifths of the actual amount. individual in the U. States, the sum of seventy-sit
The editor of an eastern paper, noticing a remark (dollars, per annum. See present volume, page 386. made by us, says Mr. Niles gives it as his opinion that the emigrations to the United States are not Anecdote of Gen. Jackson. less than 400 persons a day-or, 146,000 yearly.” 1 . It is well koown that a great part of those who!
A gentleman of undoubted veracity, has commucome to us from Europe arrive here in May, June
nicated the following anecdotes to the editor of the
REGISTER: and July. The editor observed that, at a certain period, the present rate of emigration might be
When Hillisajo, the fainous Indian chief, with his
companion, came on board our gun-boat supposing one that “146,000 arrived yearly." He hardly believes
it to be British, and was detained, a kind of stocks that 20,000 ever arrived in any one year; and the
were put upon his feet to prevent his escape, his
daring and adventurous spirit being well known to average is much less. The Canadian editors have seized upon an arti
the officer. He looked mournfully upon them, and cle in the REGISTER, headed "want of employment":
then putting his hands upon his shoulders, addresssee page 356, to keep the settlers” who arrive,
s ing the officer, said, “The prince regent put epaufrom passing into the United States. We frankly is
lets here--you put stocks there," pointing to his confess, that if the present policy of government
It will be recollected, that gen. Jackson ordered continues, we do not want an accession of populathege Indians to be executed; when it was reported 35 ton to our large cities and well peopled districts.
to him that they were dead, it was asked, swhat
into the river?” “No”-said the general indig.
nantly, they have ceased to be our enemies; let We have taken much pains, at different times, to them be buried as decently as our means will admit
iscertain the cost of feeding and clothing indivi.of. See that it is done!” stesinde 'duals, with a view to the establishment of certain
data of great importance in the study of political economy. A writer in the Aurora-but for pur
Mitigation of Slavery-No. 8. poses different from those to which we wish to ap.
PROPOSITION TIE FOURTH. ply it, gives the following table respecting the paul. That the present emancipation of slaves in the pers maintained in the city and county of Philadel southern states should not be extensively support phia, for 22 years:
ed, unless efficient provision is made for separating
the free negroes from those who are not--the Paupers
miriure is fatal to the progress of improvement in Paupers in pensioned
both, and at open war with the safety of the perDATES, Alms House in the city. Poor Tax.
sons and property of the white population; and
must remain so, until the practiccs recommended
in the second proposition have had operatiun."
same. 21,333 33 tion T:
It does not appear necessary to say much on this 1791 549
proposition, for the facts that belong to it are self1797 417
evident to every person who has resided in those 1800
districts of our country in which many freed blacks 1801 610
are mixed with numerous slaves. In Baltimore, esa 1802
(pecially, we see the mischevious effects of such 544
mixtures at almost every step that we take. The 1804) 606
free negroes, in no respect, as to their standing 1805 653
in the opinion of the white people, having pre-emi18061
90,000 1807 927
nence over the slaves, are necessarily without the 1808
moral force we bave spoken of, to elevate their con. 1078
dition. Slaves are their associates, and the state of 1809 133)
debasement continues in its fullest strength and 1810 1294
vigor. To this is added numerous petty thefts and 1811 1294
other crimes to which either party would be less 1812 837
liable, it it were separated from the other. In his 750
hours of relaxation, the slave seeks the house of the 1814 736
100,938 1815) 729
freed negro as an asylum, and in return for it, too 1816 778
frequently brings with bim the property of his mas. 18171
terto contribute his share to the feast and frolick.
This intercourse leads to many other vicious habits, 18181 934
and whatever of virtuous principles that belonged The paupers pensioned out of the alms-house, ! to either class, are banished by sensualities indulgede uiongh said to be in amount "nearly the same” as ! Such, indeed, in the present benighted state of his those maintained in it, we have reason to believe Imind, are the chief things which the negro can en. 49 bot cost more fluen half as much, being but par-joy and most of his actions lead to the gratification
of his passions he knows of little else worth seek-, the heart will appreciate the motives that influence ing after.
ed it. We should thus evade the difficulties im. With the facts before us, that the free negroes posed by local laws against emancipation --we of Baltimore (and we believe it is so every where should disperse the sources of population and strike have less virtue than the slaves, and in no other efficiently at its increase, whiere an increase is to leading quality differ from them except in being be dreaded, and place a barrier to the vil. business more impudent in wrong, and less careful of con- of kidnapping, by scattering the subjects of it cealing their evil propensities,-- we have riot view through the country parts of the non-slave-holding ed the regulations of some of the states for expello states. The chief objection is in the separation of ing the freed blacks with the same horror that children from their parents; but this would cause others have done,-though it is impossible that we only a small degree of affiction, if the blacks were should approve of them; and the spirit and character satisfied as to the purposes for which it took place. they bear are unjust beyond wbat even the laws of It is, we believe, the only way in which the work xe!f-presei ration, as applicable to this case, will ad. can be accomplished, according to the existing mit of. fence it is that the condition of the 5th state of our laws, feelings and prejudices, and the proposition naturally comes before us, as follows: undeniably debased condition of the slaves. **'l'hat the states in which elavery is not allowed, We have thus passed through the series propos
shouid offer every reasonable facility and encou.) ed and given our sentiments freely on the subject ragenient to free people of color wishing to reside of slavery, and the means of mitigating its evils. In therein; and adopt some measures to lessen the some respects, we have, no doubt, differed with prejudices and antipathies of the whites, in qua. the received opinions of some of the friends of lifying the blacks to attain a respectable standing emancipation; but if we have said one word that in society.”
any person can construe into a desire to maintain It is difficult to determine what may be consideri
the system, we shall always regret it. Nothing could ed “reasonable facilities" in this case. No laws ex
have been further from our intention. But the ne
rit of the matter lies in this-slavery does erist, and ist to prevent the emigration of freed blacks to the
the slaves are unfitted to take care of themselves, states in which slavery is not tolerated, and in ge. neral, we believe, they possess common political ad-1
through the policy of their naslers. Freedom to live,
without the means of getting a living, is an empty vantages with the white people. Public opinion, musi, perhaps, do all the rest that it can; and such
gift; and we owe much to ourselves as well as to the persons should be treated like rational beings, that mi
degraded African race. Our safety and their ban.
piness are closely allied. Would it not be cruelly they may be encouraged to arrive at respectability.
to yoke balf a dozen unbroken colis to a waggon, if No manner of inconvenience, that we know of, ex
es we were willing to run the risk of the loss of proper. ists in the states north and east of Delaware on ac
Thy that might follow the proceeding? Let thein first count of these people, who are useful as laborers,
be taught what it is necessary they should do, before and many of them have deserved and obtained the cbaracter of decent and honest persons,—nor is anys
we expect them to do it. The blacks in the United
States are not one jot or tittle more rude or uncul. danger to be apprehended from a considerable in-li
"I tivated than our own immediate ancestors were, Crease of their numbers. Their effect upon the
el boastful as we appear of our accomplishments. Let Common mass of the population cannot be great, in them have light before we require that they should many respect.
sec, instruct them in the moral and civil virtues beIn the present state of the blacks, we think that a fore we call upon them to exercise their reason regard as well for them as for ourselves, should in- about them. The moral force which alike consti. duce persons disposed to liberate them in the south- tutes the strength of nations and secures the safety crn states, to confine their solicitude chiefly to the of individuals, comes from thinking upon the neces. females, including a provision for the removal of the sity of exerting it. The negroes know little of this. girls to the northern states, where they should be if they reason at all in respect to themselves as bound out in respectable families. The simple ii. slaves, it is natural that the worst passions should beration of the person of the negro does little for only prevail in their minds—it is nearly impossible hiin-in many cases, we seriously believe, that he that they can love the hand that smites them to the is injured by emancipation, and the condition of so-earth, and imposes burthens upon them beyond their ciety is not advantaged the least. Suppose that strength to bear. Vengeance is the master spirit any one holding slaves, were disposed to bear a tes- that operates. And why should it not be 80? Here is timiony against the practice, and to benefit his ne- the question! What would we do, what would we groes thus—the males to be sold to humane masters, think, in the like circumstances. Certainly, we would on reasonable terms, conditioned that they should wrebel," in respect to our own favorite dogma, that not be disposcel of out of the new family they enter-srebuition to tyrants is obedience to God”-a dogma
ed into, &c. The unmarried females of 10 years old whicli, with less than a millioneth part of the provo· and upwards, to be immediately free and all the cation, we have acted upon, and glory in it. But
rest ofthe stock of females then existing to become the wrong of slavery is not doubted. It is agreed so at 10 years of age;--the proceeds of the inales that it ought to be abolished--the how is what has sold being appropriated, under the care of some perplexed us, beset as we are by avarice and prehonest f:erson who should be paid for his trouble, judice. We agree also, that slavery must some day to the remotul, education, &c. of such females, on end, and generally look to its accomplislıment by the plan proposed? We ask, whether the great pur. acts of viwence. Is it not seriously demanded of
poses aimed at, in emancipating the negroes it all, us to guard against that period and, in obedience : would not be better attained and more surely ac- to all that is honorable, all that is just, all that is hu
complished by such a scheme as this, than by the mane, tó endeavor to do away the causes that must hindistinguished l.beration of all the slaves on an and will inevitable produce scenes of havoc and e(state Sorne may think that this would be to solation to our people, such as the locusts of Asia "Coniprow.isc wilis iniquity"- but its merits will linflict on the herbage, as though the country had dat u on the good hoped for, and Hs who judges been burned with fire!
Banks and Banking.
| lation was to be ascribed the high price of provi.
sions, which continued even to this day without di“The book!!"--Something is still said in Philadel. 1:
imunition or abatement. He suggested a restriction phia about the book found in the office of the bank
confining the issue to notes not exceeding the sum of the United States at Baltimore. It is probable,
of fire pounds." that the eminent appellation of this thing will be
The Farmers' and Mechanics' bank of Cincinnati lost, by finding three or four similar books at other
suspended specie payments on the 29th ult. for the places! We have good reason to believe that at.
second time, and probably for the last. The ar. tempts have been made to rival Baltimore in
rangement, by which it received the treasury de. speculation! Glorious conflagration! Bank notes, to the amount posites from the land office in that city, was not able
to save the institution. of 80,000,000 of roubles, were burnt in St. Peters- |
efl Kentucky. The friends of the paper system are burg, on the 26th of May, by tbe commissioners of
this getting up some meetings in that state to encourage the sinking fund.-But ihere is a great deal of this se
w the bank of Kentucky to suspend specie pay. sort of work to do in Russia. The above is as a drop
Pments," as the term is for the bankruptcy of hanks. in a bucket.
U. States' bank stock at London. June 23_23 to Specie. It is triumphantly noticed that several 331. 108. with dividend from January last. They had
ad vessels have lately arrived from foreign places with
wa specie. It will always come to us when, as a renot learned that no dividend would be made. I
hennemittance, it is no more valuable to us than foreign Wilson Cary Nicholar, esq. has resigned the pre
hegoods. sidency of the office of discount and deposit of the
I North Carolina state bank. We learn by way of bank of the United States, at Richmond.
Petersburg, that this bank has resolved upon an City Bank of Baltimore. -The board of directors
entire suspension of specie payments. There is a elected since the “blow up" of this bank, have, at
very large amount of its notes in circulation. length, appointed a day for laying a statement of
The Nilton bank, of Pennsylvania, has stopped the affairs of the institution before the stockholders -viz.The 20th of October next. This distant date, after
payment. Its notes in circulation are said to be 55,000
dollars, and the debts due to the institution to so long a delay, has excited no little surprise; but
amount to 190,000. we are told by those we have a right to believe,
Bad TimES! Honesty has fled from the world, and · that the books and accounts of this bank were in
Sincerity is fallen asleep-Piety has hidden herself, such a state of confusion, that an earlier period
and Justice cannot find the way-the Helper is not could not be fixed upon, though the new cashier
at home, and Charity lies sick; Benevolence is under and clerks, (well skilled in accounts) had la
arrest, and Faith is nearly extinguished; the Virtues bored and were yet laboring excessively, to ascertain the true state of the bank !!!
go a begging, and T uth has long since been burierl;
Credit is turned crazy, and Conscience is nailed on The stock of this bank is quoted by the brokers
the wall.--Freeman's Journal. at $7 for 15 paid.
A question for lawyers.--[A communication in the Farmers' bank of Virginia. A number of the
Aurora.)-Suppose a bank, which refuses to pay its stockholders in the farmers bank of Virginia, have
notes in the lawful currency of the United States, had a meeting in Winchester, at which they passed
holds the promissory note of an individual, who resolutions censuring the mother board of directors
stops payment-suppose the bank brings an action for not publishing the reasons for a failure of the
against the individual for the recovery of tlie last dividend, requiring a reduction of the salaries
amount of his note, and when the cause comes on of the bank officers, and expressing their sense that
before a court, the defendant slıould produce, (no no one individual or firm ought to have an accom
matter where he got it) a promissory note drawn modation in bank exceeding 20,000 dollars.
a by the bank for the same amount, accompanied by Jacob Banker has published a pamphlet of fifty
u regular protest for non payment. Could the arpages about his banking matters, &c. We under-1 |
bitrators or judges refuse to allow the sel 017? Could stand, by an extract from it, that he has reinstated the credit of the Washington and Warren bank, but
they compel the parties to cancel or exchange the
notes on the spot? Could they oblige the defendant that he cannot yet fix a time when he will pay the
to place any mark upon the bank note by which its notes of his «Exchange bank,” though he says that
subsequent negociability should be destrored? Or he will pay them. In this pamphlet he announces
would the bank be obliged to advertise and caution himself as a candidate for the slate senate!
the public against receiving it, as their only remedy The Silver Lake bank has stopped payment. The against being obliged to pay it to a third person directors say that they will pay its debts promptly. into whose hands it should afterwards fall? The editor of a Philadelphia paper offers to take its A case of this kind would make a good deal of bonotes for debts due to him at 50 per cent, discount. theration in the wigwam.
The bank of Washington, Pa.is preparing to close from the National Intelligencer.-We understand its concerns. A meeting of the stockholders for that the directors of the bank of Washington, of this this purpose is called for the 20th of next month. place, influenced by the unpleasant incidents which
Bank of St. Louis. The stockholders of this insti. I have recently occurred in some of the banks of a tution are invited to meet on the 15th of Sept. neighboring city, as well as by general principles, next, to take into consideration the propriety of|have adopted the following rule: continuing, or closing the concerns of the institution. “No officer, other than the president, shall deal, May the latter be resolved upon!
either for himself or for any other, excepting this Paper money. We accidently met with the follow- bank, in money, bills of exchange, merchandise, ing extract from the proceedings of the British stock of the United States, or stock of any company, house of lords, on the 1st of June 1801- The incorporated or unincorporated; providel, that this earl of Suffolk called the attention of the house to resolution shall not prevent such officer from selthe subject of paper currency, which, he said, was ling any such articles as he may now possess, or so immense through every part of the nation, as to prohibit any purchase thereof, which the board sill it with the most serious apprehensions for the may sanction by express authority, given and enter state of the public credit. 'To this immense circu-ed on the journals."
A rule similar to that above recited, and, in some Adjt, and insp. general's department respects, even more rigorous, has been adopted by Pay - - - - - 14,028 the bank of the United States, for the government
Subsistence · · · 6,354 of the institution and its branches. It is presumed Forage . . . . 4,704 the rule will become general, as to all banking in Clothing, (25 servants) · 931 stitutions.
Tlf a recent failure of the president of a cer Quarter master general's department tain bank had been known at the time the preced Pay - • - - • 9,708 ing resolution was passed, the president might also Subsistence - - - - 4,015 have been restrained, and real property been added Forage - - - - 2,400 to the list of things prohibited. A man may get as Clothing, (14 servants). · 522 mad in buying lands as in buying stocks.)
Paymaster generals department
Pay . - - - - 12,000
Subsistence. . . 7,15 Army of the United States.
Forage - - - - 1,824 Abstract of the returns laid before congress at its last
Clothing, (34 servants) 1,264 8ssion, shewing the force and distribution of the Commissaru general of purchases' dep!,army of the United States, &*c. January, 1819:
Pay . . . . . 25,600 Major generals 2Colonels
Subsistence. ' . . . 5,840
61 Brigavier generals 4 Lieut. colonels
74 Aids de camp
Clothing, (20 servants).
19 Commissary general of subsistence's depi... Quarter master general 1 Quarter masters
Pay . . .
. . 14,9
Subsistence . . . . 584 Inspector generals 2 Surgeons
Forage . . . . 192
Clothing, (2 servants) - 74
0. Ordnance department-
Pay. . . . . 115,469
Subsistence. . . . 13,551 Assistant do. 4 Sergeant majors 81
Forage . . . . 499 Paymaster general 12. Master sergeants? 211
Clothing, (18 servants) · 2,78 Judge advocates
2 Master mechanics 2 92
l'ay . . . 40 Corporals
. . 42,980 Post surgeous
. . 17,44 Apothecary general 1 Musicians
Forage . . . 7,105
Clothing, (75 servants) · 2,799
Corps of engineers
Pay . . . . . 74,693
Subsistence . . . . 47,523
Forage - - - -
Clothing, (41 servants) - 1,525
Pay . . . . . 70,740 posts and places, along the maritime and inland Subsistence . . . 14,527 frontiers, &c.
Clothing, (24 servants) : 892
debots of the United States, from returris received Corps of artillery-
- 313,824 Mounted.Dismounted Subsistence - .
.. . 43,503
Eight regiments of infantry-
Pay . . . . . 515,700
Subsistence . . . . 69,204 32's, 24's, and 18's, • .
Forage . . . . . 3,072
Regiment of riflemen-
Pay . . . . . 04
Subsistence . . . . 8, Clothing, (40 private servants) 1,488
39,574 Clothing, (14 servants) The subsistence in the particular corps or depart-Miscellaneous ments, does not include that of the privates, which Netained bounty, travelling also con is noticed separately, below,
lowances, &c. . 92,503
opis) .. 2,976
On account of double rations, 32,000
professional characters, in my humble estimation, Pensions to widows & orphans 200,000
not from the most meritorious class of the commu
- 324,500 nity, but too much like the class through whose Subsistence of the non-commissioned offi. hands we are continually cursed with a wickedly cers and privates -
728,280 depreciated paper currency." Our laws, our me. Clothing of do. . . . 572,937
dicines, our literary and religious instructions are Camp equipage • .
likely to be managed, if not already so, too much 590,057 | by men not duly acquainted with and tender of
the rights and feelings of the middling and lower
classes of the people. I mean the middling Literary studies of Youth.
and lower classes of the people, not in the qualities BR. NILES.
of good citizens, but in property and shew. Ilong to Observing that some writer in the Albany Re- see other men than these wholly from rich families, gister was sorry to find in your Register, the piece enabled by their priviliges to have a due influence you lately published, which proposed "a salutary in the affairs of this country. The farmers, mereformation in the system of classical education," chanics and manufacturers of moderate estates are who also had the boldness to denounce the senti- often required to patronize our colleges by their ments of the excellent Dr. Rush, as "inconclusive bounty, bestowed through legislative acts, whilst a reasonings and erroneous opinions," I hope you system is pursued to carry the primary benefits of will grant me the favor to insert this reply. these colleges entirely beyond the reach of their
This writer expresses his surprise and regret sons. What, I again ask, are the benign cirects that a gentleman from the land of scholars, should of the study of Latin and Greek classics? Where endeavor to check this taste for elegant letters, are the men produced in these times more distin. when the study of the Latin and Greek classics is guished as benefactor's, or indeed more truly learn. so deservedly popularin all our literary institutions,
ed, than were our Washington, Franklin, Ritten. and its benign effects are daily becoming more and house, Sullivan, Fulton and a host of others who more visible in every section of the United States.” never experienced the "benign effects” of Latin and The proposal was expected to meet powerful oppo-Greek classics: or than our Rush, who sliscards sition from those who live by the employment of these classics; or than our Dickinson, Jefferson, the teaching Greek and Latin, or who, perhaps, may | Adamses, llenry, Hamilton, Madison, Munroe, and acquire the reputation of scholar's by merely ad numerous others, who obtained collegiate honors vocating the study of these languages, for, indeed, when much less knowledge of the Latin and Greek pretensions to these have a sort of magical influence. Classics was required, than is now required?
There is, at this moment, a great number of gentle . The writer in the Albany Register tells us, “there men in the United States, as well as in other coun- is no exercise which brings into play so many facul. tries, supported as professors and teachers of these ties of the mind as the study of language." I sup). Languages. In them these gentlemen naturally feel pose he means the Latin or Greek language. “The a lively interest, “yirs, ye know that by this craft, attention, judgment, reasoning, memory, imagi. yė have your wealth.”
nation and taste, are simultaneously exercised and But sthat the study of Latin and Greek is de improved." I would ask if there are not studies in servedly popular, and its benign effects are daily our own language to exercise all these powers of becoming more and more visible in every section the mind, even to greater advantage than any La. of the United States," are assertions, in my view, tin or Greek author? If thereis no sip rior aptuess wholly indefensible. What are the proofs of in the Latin or Greek language to perfect the poir. these benign effects? Within twenty or thirtylers of the mind, then I ask why we should study years colleges and universities have nearly or quite Demosthenes, Cicero, Livy, or Plato as superior to doubled their demands upon our youth, requiring the rest of mankind? I know of no evidence that them both for admission to a college-standing and they owed their superiority as writers or orators to for a degree twice as much study of Latin and the study of any other than their own language: Greek as was formerly requisite, or rather twice as Admitting there are important ideas contained in much time and labor to be sacrificed at the shrines the writings of Demosthenes or Cicero, which can. of heathen gods and goddesses, with which these not be expressed by our translations, I would ask elegant letters," except the Greek testament, whether we can have any practical use for a
uch greatly abound. With boldness i repeat that the ideas? Ifall practical benefit can be derived from the Latin and Greek classics abound with fictious, friv. translations of these authors, then the study of the olous and obscene stories, and with extravagant translations must save great expense of time, labor rhapsodies, and I am ready to adduce proofs of this and money. Dryden, Pope and others, have furassertion. ..Alas! that our instructors, physicians, nished excellent translations of a number of the lawyers, judges, statesmen and divines should waste Latin and Greek classics, the reading of which so much precious time upou such studies, to the ne- would give the scholar much more knowledge of glect of weightier matters. Such requisitions of the authors than he can acquire by reading the ori. Latin and Greek made upon our youth must tend ginal. After all, the best translations of the Latin to exclude those belonging to families of moderate and Greek classics lie upon the shelves of our librio fortune from the benefits of college education, and to ries as useless luinber Strange that works of suci, create a combined literary and monicd aristocracy. superior merit have no communicable excellence to Young men of talents without fortunes, can scarce- attract the attention of more readers! ly hope to obtain by their own exertions, college That, “in all countries and in all ages, these and benefits, as were many of our most valuable pru. cient authors have been admired and imitated, its fessional men who were graduated forty or fifty furnishing the finest specimens of elevated seiti. years since, and who were the wornaments" of the ments, elegance of style, and refinement of taste,"
Lis but a poor argument in their favor. It inay This management operates to cause a great de- be said of idolatry and of monarchical and tyrana ficiency of professional men throughout this ra- nical governments, that in all countries and in pidly growing republic. This operates to furnishi all ages, these have been admired and imitated,